Page:A biographical dictionary of modern rationalists.djvu/51

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on his science. He has also written on education, in which he takes a deep and critical interest. In an article entitled Let Us Help Ourselves," in the Humanist, February, 1918, he makes a strong profession of his purely humanitarian faith. Glory to Man in the highest," he concludes, in Swinburne's well-known words. See also his article on "The Outlook for Reason" in the R. P. A. Annual for 1919.

Arnold, Sir Edwin, K.C.I.E., M.A., poet. B. June 10, 1832. Ed. Rochester, King's College (London), and Oxford University (University College). He won the Newdigate Prize in 1852, and in the following year published his Poems, Narrative and Lyrical. For a time he taught at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and in 1856 he was appointed Principal of the Deccan College, Poona, where he made his sympathetic studies of Indian literature. In 1861 he returned to England and joined the staff of the Daily Telegraph; and he edited that journal from 1873 to 1889. In 1879 he published the epic poem, The Light of Asia, which, by its beautiful presentation of Buddha, contributed materially to the Rationalist education of England. It was vehemently attacked in the religious press. For this and some of his later works Sir Edwin received the decorations of the White Elephant of Siam, the Lion and the Sun of Persia, the Rising Sun of Japan, the Medjidieh and Osmanieh of Turkey, and various other countries. He was created Knight Commander of the Indian Empire in 1888. His personal heterodoxy is most clearly expressed in his little work, Death and Afterwards (1887). He thinks that those are " enviable " who find, or affect to find, in the authority or the arguments of any extant religion, sufficing demonstration of a future existence " (p. 10). The Christian doctrine he emphatically rejects, and he is content to make various speculations about what he regards as a mere possibility. D Mar 24 1904.

Arnold, Matthew, poet and critic. B. Dec. 24, 1822. Ed. Winchester, Rugby, and Oxford (Balliol). Arnold was the eldest son of the famous master of Rugby. He won the Newdigate Prize in 1843, and became a fellow of Oriel in 1845. After teaching for a time at Rugby, he went as secretary to the Marquis of Lansdowne, who in 1851 obtained for him an inspectorship of schools. In the following year he published, under the initial "A," the poem Empedocles on Etna, which he was compelled by the hostility of the orthodox to withdraw after the sale of fifty copies. As the name of the Greek hero suggests, it was a poetic presentation of a Pantheistic philosophy. In 1853 he published Poems by Matthew Arnold, and other volumes of verse were issued later. From 1857 to 1867 he was professor of poetry at Oxford. His fame as a critic began with the publication of his Essays in Criticism in 1865, including a brilliant chapter on Heine, who serves as a mouthpiece for much caustic Rationalism. His Rationalist views are fully developed in Culture and Anarchy (1869), Saint Paul and Protestantism (1870), Literature and Dogma (1873), and Last Essays on Church and Religion (1877). He became the general and genial critic of his age, and the scourge of " Philistines " (a word he introduced from the slang of German students). Throughout life he rejected not only the Christian doctrines, but the belief in a personal God or personal immortality. From his early cosmic Pantheism he passed to a belief in an impersonal "Power, not ourselves, which makes for righteousness." Religion he defined as "morality touched with emotion." He was, however, more effective in Biblical and doctrinal criticism than in philosophic reconstruction. D. April 15, 1888.

Arnoldson, Klas Pontus, Swedish Nobel Prize winner. B. Oct. 27, 1844. Arnoldson was almost entirely a self-educated man. He was employed on the Swedish State Railways from 1871 to 1881,