Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/363

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323

ALLERSTEIN 323 ALLIES and continued their work as before, Allen being soon afterwards elected canon of the Cathedral Chapter. In isyi) he paid his third visit to Hoiiic, bciii);; siiin- nioiicd thither in order that he might >iso his uni(iue per>onal influence to adjust the disputes between the Engli.sli and Welsh students at the new college there. It was during this isit that he was appointed a ineinbcr of the I'ontifical Coniinission for the revision of the Vulgate. Up to this point the career of .llen had won the universal admiration and gratitude of English Catholics, for what he himself termed his "scholastical attempts" to convert England. Such was not, however, tlie case with liis political labours to secure the same end, which may be said to have begun about this tiiuc, and were far less successful. The famous Bull " Kcgnans in excelsis" was issued l)y Pius V in l.'iTO, d(-i)osing (Jueen Elizabeth, and releasing her subjects from their allegiance, but it did not take practical shape till seventeen years later, when preparations were made for the invasion of England bv the King of Spain. Allen was then once more in l{otiio, whither he hud been summoned by the Pope after a dangerous illness two years before. He never loft the Eternal City again, but he kept in constant communication with his country- men in England. It had been due to his influence that the Society of Jesus, to which he was greatly attached, undertook to join in the work of the English mission; and now Allen and Father I'arsons became joint leaders of the "Spanish Party" among the English Catholics. The exhortation to take up arms in coimection with the Spanish invasion, printed in Antwerp, was issued in Allen's name, though be- lieved to have been composed under the direction of Kather Parsons. At the request of King Philip, .Allen was created cardinal in 15S7, and held himself in readiness to go to luigland immediately, should the invasion prove successful. In estimating the number of those who would be adherents to the scheme, however, Allen and Parsons were both at fault. The large majority of English Catholics, generously forgetting the past, sided with their own nation against the Spanish, and the defeat of the Armada (1.5S8) was a subject of rejoicing to them no less than to their Protestant fellow countrymen. Allen survived the defeat of the Armada six years. To the end of his life he remained firmly convinced that the time was not far distant when England would be Catholic again. During his last years there was an estrangement between him and the Jesuits, though his personal relations with Father Parsons remained unimpaired. In 1589 he co-operated with him in establishing a new English college at Valla- dolid, in Spain. The same year he was nominated by Philip II Archbishop of Mechlin; but, for some reason which has never been satisfactorily explained, the nomination, although publicly allowed to stand sev- eral years, was never confirmed. He continued to reside at the English College, Rome, until his death, Hi October, 1.594. He was buried in the chapel of the Holy Trinity adjoining the college. The follow- ing is a list of his printed works; "Certain Brief Heiusons concerning the Catholick Faith" (Douay, l.i(J4); "A Defense and Declaration of the Catholike Churches Doctrine touching Purgatorj-, and Prayers of the Soules Departed" (Antwerp, 1.56.')), re-edited by Father Bridgett in 1886; "A Treatise made in defen.se of the Lawful Power and Authoritie of the Precsthoode to remitte sinnes &c." (1.567); " De .Sacramentis" (. twerp, 1565; Douay, 1603); "An Apologj' for the ICiiglish Seminaries" (1581); "Apolo- gia Martyrum" (15H.'}); "Martyrium R. P. Edmundi Cainpiani, S.J." (1583); "An Answer to the Libel of English Jvistice" (Mons, 1584); "The Copie of a Letter written by M. Doctor Allen concerning the Yeelding up of the Citie of Daventrie, unto his Catholike .Majestie, by Sir William Stanley Knight" I.— ;il (Antwerp, 1.5S7), reprinted by the Chetham Society, 1851; "An Admonition to the Nobility and People of I'^ngland and Ireland, concerning the present W'arres made for the Execution of his Holincs Sentence, by the highe and mightio Kinge Catholike of Spain, by the Cardinal of Englande" (1588); "A Declara- tion of the sentence and deposition of Elizabeth, the usurper and pretended Queene of England" (15SS; reprinted London, 1842). Among the known ancient portraits of Cardinal Allen are the following: Painting formerly in refectory of the English College, Douay, found after the Revolution in the upper sacristy of the parish church of St. Jacques, now at Douai Al)bey, Woolhamirton; copy of same at St. I'Mnumd's College. Old Hall; painting formerly the property of Charles Brown Mostyn, Esc)., now at I shaw College, Durham; painting in archiepiscopal palace, Uheims; and a later one, representing him as an old man, at English College, Rome. Also a Belgian print, reproduced in " History of St. Edmund's College", and various reproductions of the above paintings. DoDi). Ch. /list, of Eng.; Linoard, Hist, of End.; Knox, l/isl. Introd. to liouuy Diarirs (1878); Idem, Inlrod. to Lcllrri ami Memoriiila of Card. Alien (1882); I'lTTS, De Anglia iicri/t- L.ribus (lfil9): Memoir in Calh. Direet.. 1807; Khtler, Hist. Mem. of Eno. Calh. (1819); GiLl.ow, IHbl. Dirt, of Eng. Caths.; Diet, of Nat. liiotj.; Majuh Marti.s Hume, Treason and Plot (1901). Beknard Waud. Alleratein (or IIallerstein), August, Jesuit mis- sionary in China, b. in (iermany; d. in China, probably about 1777, and consequently after the suj)- pression of tlie Society. His mathematical and as- tronomical acquirements recommended him to the imperial court at Pekin, where he won the esteem of the Emperor Kiang-long, ulio made him a mandarin and Chief of the l)c])artmeiit of .Mathematics, a post he held for many years. He has given the world a cen- sus of China for the 25th and 2()th years of the reign of Kiang-long. His list and the Chinese translation reached Europe in 1779. The work is precious for the reason that the Tatar conquerors objected to census-taking, or at least to censu.s-publication, lest the Chinese might recognize their strength and grow restless. Another element of its value is that it con- firms all the calculations of one of his predecessors, Father Amiot (q. v.), and affords a proof of the progressive increase of the Chinese population. In the 25th year he found 196.837,977 souls, and in the following year 198,214,624. Allerstein's census is to be found in "D&cription G6n6rale de la Chine", p. 283. MiCHAUU, Biogr. unir.. a. v. T. J. CAMPBELL. Alliance, Eva.gelical. See Evangelical Al- liance. Alliance, Holy. See Holy Alliance. Allies, Thomas William, an English writer b. 12 February, 1S13; d. 17 June, 1903. He was one in whom the poetical vein was tenderly blended with the philosopher's wisdom. His musings as a boy were uttered in poetry; ronahar scribcrc ct versus erat. From a very early age he loved books more than men, or rather he preferred to read of men rather than to deal with them. Circumstances, which fashion lives, but do not make them, played into his hands. For a long time he was an only child; at fourteen he went to Eton, and at sixteen was the first to win the Newcastle Scholarship. His lonely l)oyhood, his retired home at a country |)arson- age. and the lack of early companions tended to iiuikc him .serious. He was born at Midsonier Norton, Somersetshire, England. His father, the Rev. Tlinmas .llics, was at that time curate of Henburj', in Worcestershire, later Rector of Worniington. some twelve miles from Cheltenham. His mother, who died a week after bis birth, was Frances Elizabeth