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Bulletin of the Cooper Ornithological Club.

It appears that the bird life of the islands is somewhat restricted and there is a noticeable lack of the species occurring on the adjacent main-land coast. This Mr. Nelson attributes to the scarcity of water and the prolonged dry season of the Tres Marius. In the list which is given, numerous North American species are noticeable. From the Tres Marias group was described Forrer's Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis forreri) mentioned in the July-August Bulletin. The paper is but another of the admirable series constituting the North American Fauna, reflecting at the same time much individual credit upon Mr. Nelson. It will

prove of interest to Coast workers and especially to any intending to undertake tropical work in ornithology.

C. B.

A Review of the Ornithology of the Galapagos Islands. With Notes on the Webster-Harris Expedition. By the Hon. Walter Rothschild Ph. D., and Ernst Hartert, Plates V. and VI. Reprint from Novitates Zoologicæ, Vol. VI. August, 1899, pp. 86-205.

From the fact that some of our members have made collections in the islands, and several others, members of the Anthony party, made an attempt last spring to reach the archipelago, a short notice of the present paper seems desirable. The paper consists of six parts. I. Introductory Notes. II. Diary of Charles Mille Harris. III. Notes from the Diary of Mr. F. P. Drowne. IV. General Remarks about the Fauna of the Galapagos Islands. V. The Birds of the Galapagos Islands. VI. List of the Birds Known to Occur on the Galapagos Islands.

Certhidea olivacea ridgwayi, Geospiza darwini, G. dubia simillima, G. fuliginosa minor, G. scandens septentrionalis, Nesopelia galapagoensis exsul and Creciscus sharpei are described as new. Four species of Pyrocephali are reduced to synonomy, P. nanus and P. arubius alone being recoguized. "Only two forms can be distinguished from the Galapagos Arehipelago the forms separated by Ridgway on account of certain alleged differences in colour, not being recognizable." The differences in color assigned by Ridgway to Certhidea salvini and C. albemarlei are said to be due to different ages of the specimens. These two names are, therefore, discarded.

Perhaps the most radical change in nomenclature is the use of trinomials for the local forms of Passeres, which proceeding seems quite reasonable however. "If trinomials are used everywhere else, there is no reason why the birds of the Galapagos Islands should be deprived of this most useful form of nomenclature. In eases where certain individuals of representative forms are hardly, if at all, distinguishable, but where a series is easily separable, the recognition of subspecies is inevitable. Our material has generally left very little doubt to us, whether we should treat a form as species or subspecies."

In the list of birds known to occur on the islands, 108 species and subspecies are given, representing fifty genera. Of these seventy-nine are peculiar to the ornis. Plate V is poor. It illustrates Diomedea irrorata, Phaethon æthereus on its nest, Anous stolidus galapagensis, and Amblyrhynchus cristatus, all from Hood Island. Plate VI is interesting and useful. It illustrates Bills of the Genus Geospiza. Seven pages are devoted to general remarks about the origin of the islands and their fauna. "There are two theories: viz., that of Darwin Wallace and most other naturalists, that the islands were uplifted from the ocean and never were in connection with the continent of America, or with each other; and that of Dr. Baur, who said that the islands were once connected with America and with each other, and were submerged in or after the Eocene period. Both these views must be taken into earnest consideration."

Having considered all the evidence in the case and having made a careful study of their ample material in the bird line, consisting of 3075 skins from the Harris expedition, the Baur collection of about 11OO skins, and constant access to Gould's and Salvin's types in the British Museum, Dr. Rothschild and Mr. Hartert make the following conservative statements: "I. The entire fauna of the Galapagos Islands derived originally from America. II. It is uncertain whether there has ever

been a land-connection between the various islands and between the islands and the continent or not".

A Club Crest.


The accompanying design has been adopted by the Cooper Ornithological Club as its official crest and will be used as an imprint in connection with the issuance of special publications and monographs by the Club. It has also been arranged to have the crest imprinted upon stationery for the especial use of members of the Club. a majority of whom have already adopted the idea.

The design was drawn by Mr. W. Otto Emerson, a prominent artist and Club member who has in process a striking cover, for "The Condor," when the present Bulletin enters upon its second volume under its title.