wounded : D.S.O. for his services in Burma : retired 1892 : died Jan. 25, 1903.
CUNINGHAM, SIR WILLIAM JOHN (1848- )
I.C.S. : born Nov. 20, 1848 : son of Alexander Cuningham : educated at Edinburgh Academy and privately : went out to Bombay, 1870 : served as Assistant to the Chief Commissioner of Mysore : Under Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department, 1885 : Secretary in the Foreign Department, 1894- 1901 : C.S.I. , 1894 : K.C.S.I., 1897.
CUNNINGHAM, SIR ALEXANDER FREDERICK DOUGLAS (1862- )
I.C.S. : son of Sir Alexander Cunningham, K.C.I.E., C.S.I, (q.v.) : educated at Kensington Grammar School and King's College, London : went to the Panjab in 1872 : Political officer in the Khyber, 1879 : Under Secretary to the Panjab Government, 1884 : Commissioner and Superintendent of the Peshawar Division, 1892, and from 1894 : K.C.I.E., 1901 : retired.
CUNNINGHAM, SIR ALEXANDER (1814-1893)
Son of Allan Cunningham : born Jan. 23, 1814 : educated at Christ's Hospital and Addiscombe : obtained an Indian cadetship, through Sir Walter Scott : reached India in June, 1833 : A.D.C. to Lord Auckland, 1836 : Executive Engineer to the King of Oudh, 1840 : engaged in suppressing the rebellion in Bundelkund : was at Punniar, Dec. 19, 1843 : Executive Engineer at Gwalior, 1844-5 : was in the first Sikh war, 1846, as field engineer : occupied Kangra and Kulu : demarcated boundaries : was at Chilianwala and Gujarat in the second Sikh war, 1848-9 : Chief Engineer in Burma, 1856-8 : and in the N.W.P., 1858-61 : retired from the Army as Maj-General in 1861 : he was then made the first Archseological Surveyor to the Government of India, 1861-5 : the department was abolished in 1865, but revived in 1870, with Cunningham as Director : he held the post until he retired in 1885 : C.S.I. : C.I.E. : and K.C.I.E. in 1887. Apart from his official reports of his annual tours and his occasional contributions to the Asiatic Society of Bengal's journals, he wrote, inter alia, on Ladak, The Bhilsa Topes, The Ancient Geography of India, The Buddhist Period, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, The Stupa of Bharhat, The Book of Indian Eras, Mahahodhi. After retirement, he paid much attention to numismatics, on which he was an eminent authority : parted with his coins at cost price to the British Museum : died Nov. 28, 1893.
CUNNINGHAM, FRANCIS (1820-1875)
Son of Allan Cunningham, and brother of Sir Alexander (q.v.) : born 1820 : educated at Addiscombe : joined the Madras Army, 1838 : was distinguished as an engineer in the defence of Jalalabad, 1842 : served in the Civil Commission in Mysore under Sir Mark Cubbon, and retired in 1861. He edited Marlowe, Massinger and Ben Jonson, by which he is best known : also wrote for the Saturday Review : he died Dec. 3, 1875.
CUNNINGHAM, SIR HENRY STEWART (1832- )
Born 1832 : son of Rev. J. W. Cunningham, Vicar of Harrow : educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Oxford : called to the bar, 1859 : Advocate-General in Madras, 1872 : Judge of the Calcutta High Court, 1877-87 : Member of the Indian Famine Commission, 1878-9 : author of The Chronicles of Dustypore, The Heriots, The Caruleans, Sybilla, and other novels : also Earl Canning ("Rulers of India" series). He married in 1877 a daughter of Lord Lawrence : K.C.I.E. in 1889.
CUNNINGHAM, JAMES MACNABB (1829-1905)
Educated at Edinburgh University : M.D. : entered the Bengal Medical Ser- vice, 1851 : Secretary to the Sanitary Commissioner, 1866 : Professor of Hygiene, Calcutta Medical College, 1866 : Sanitary Commissioner, Bengal, 1869 : Sanitary Commissioner with the Government of India, 1875-85, and Surgeon-General, 1880-5 : retired, 1885 : Member of the Army Sanitary Committee, 1891-96 : author of Cholera—what can the State do to Prevent it ? represented the Government of India at the Paris International Sanitary Congress, 1894 : C.S.I.,