general Burgoyne, 1877; I. N. Arnold's Life of Benedict Arnold, 1880; Adams's Works, Boston, 1856; Wilkinson's Memoirs, Philadelphia, 1816; Fonblanque's Life and Correspondence of Burgoyne, 1876; Lowell's Hessians in the Revolution, 1884; G. L. Schuyler's Correspondence and Remarks on Bancroft's Hist. of the Northern Campaign of 1777, New York, 1867; Sparks's Correspondence of the Revolution, Boston, 1853, vols. i. ii. iii.; Mag. of American Hist. vol. v. passim, vii. 286, 377, viii. 496; Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. iii. 103; Cornwallis Correspondence, ed. Ross, 1859, i. 53–7, 506–9; Kapp's Life of John Kalb, 1884 (translation); Johnson's Life and Corresp. of Greene, Charleston, 1822, vol. i.; Burgoyne's State of the Expedition from Canada, 1780; Letters and Journals of Mrs. General Riedesel, 1867; Trumbull's Reminiscences, 1841, pp. 25–38; Lee Papers in Collections of New York Hist. Soc. 1871–5; Murdoch's Hist. of Nova Scotia, 1866, ii. 190, 411; Williams's Hist. of Vermont, Burlington, 1869, vol. ii.; Jones's Hist. of the Campaign for the Conquest of Canada, Philadelphia, 1882; Mrs. Walworth's Battles of Saratoga, 1891; Stone's Visits to the Saratoga Battle Grounds, 1895.]
GAU, JOHN (1493?–1553?), author of the earliest protestant work in Scottish prose, is conjectured to have been born at St. Johnstown (Perth) about 1493. He matriculated at St. Andrews in 1509, graduated B.A. in 1510, and M.A. in the following year. Before 1533, possibly as chaplain to the Scots merchants, he moved to Malmo in Sweden, then in the Danish king's possession. Malmö had been one of the earliest towns in northern Europe to adopt the Reformation, and here in 1533 John Hochstraten, the well-known protestant, printed Gau's 'Richt Vay to the Kingdome of Heuine,' of which only one copy is known to be extant. Chalmers and Laing thought Gau's work original, but M. Sonnenstein Wendt pointed out in 1860 that it was a close, though not a literal, translation of Christiern Pedersen's 'Den rette vey till Hiemmeriges Rige,' a Danish book originally printed at Antwerp in 1531. Extracts from the only known copy of Gau's book were printed in the 'Bannatyne Club Miscellany,' vol. iii. (1827, 4to) ; this copy is now at Britwell, and in 1888 the whole work was edited for the Scottish Text Society by Professor Alexander Ferrier Mitchell [q. v. Suppl.] ; the transcription was done by Mr. R. E. Graves, and a glossary was supplied by Mr. T. G. Law.
In 1536 Gau married Birgitta, the daughter of a citizen of Malmo, and about the same time he moved to Copenhagen, where he became prebendary of the church of Our Lady, and where Erasmus was one of his fellow-chaplains. He died at Copenhagen about 1553, his wife having predeceased him in 1551, leaving a daughter aged seven and infant twins. The funeral sermon, preached by Bishop Peter Palladius, was published at Kjobenhavn in 1857, and is reprinted in Mitchell's edition of the 'Richt Vay' (pp. xxv-vi).
[Prefaces to reprints in Bannatyne Club Miscell. vol. iii. and ed. Mitchell, 1888; Lorimer's Patrick Hamilton, p. 240 ; Rordam's Ny Kirkehistoriske Samlinger, vol. ii. (1860). There is no allusion to Gau in the works of Knox, Calderwood, or Spottiswood.]
GAY, JOHN (1699–1745), philosophical writer, born in 1699, was the second son of James Gay (d. 1 June 1720), rector of Upton Pyne in Devonshire, by his wife Elizabeth (d. October 1732), daughter of Nicholas Hooper of Fulbrook, Braunton, in the same county. The poet John Gay [q.v.] was his cousin. He was educated at Tiverton grammar school, and entered at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, on 10 Jan. 1717-8. He was elected Blundell scholar on 12 Jan., and graduated B.A. in 1721 and M.A. in 1725. On 24 Jan. 1723-4 he was elected a fellow. While in residence he held the offices of Hebrew lecturer. Greek lecturer, and ecclesiastical history lecturer.
Gay is remembered on account of the 'Preliminary Dissertation' by him, prefixed to the translation by Edmund Law [q.v.] of the archbishop of Dublin's 'Essay on the Origin of Evil,' which appeared in 1731 [see King, William, 1650-1729]. This short treatise is one of the most interesting and important contributions to the utilitarian principle, which was frequently expressed at a later time by the formula, 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number,' an expression, however, which is not used by Gay. David Hartley (1705-1757) [q. v.] states that Gay's dissertation first suggested the theory of the possibility of deducing intellectual emotions from association, which he afterwards elaborated in 1749 in his 'Observations on Man.' Of more importance is the fact that Abraham Tucker [q.v.] and William Paley [q.v.] afterwards adopted a position almost exactly similar to Gay's. The views of Richard Cumberland (1631-1718) [q.v.] bear most analogy to those of Gay among his predecessors.
In 1732 Gay resigned his fellowship and was presented to the vicarage of Wilshampstead in Bedfordshire. He died on 18 July 1745, and was buried at Wilshampstead on 22 July. By his wife Elizabeth he had