certain Roman Ruins discovered at Inveresk.' When Captain Grose visited Scotland, Cardonnel, who then resided at Edinburgh, did all he could to assist his brother antiquary with notes from his extensive collections, besides accompanying him on various archæological expeditions, attentions which Grose gratefully acknowledged in the introduction to his 'Antiquities of Scotland' (p. xx). Some time in the autumn of 1789 Burns addressed a letter to Grose, and not being certain of the captain's address, he enclosed the letter under cover to Cardonnel at Edinburgh. While in the act of folding it up the quaint old song of 'Sir John Malcolm' ran through his mind, and he inscribed within the wrapper his well-known impromptu, 'Ken ye ought o' Captain Grose?' (Burns, Poetical Works, Kilmarnock edit., by W. S. Douglas, i. 360, ii. 149). Soon after this Cardonnel quitted Scotland, having by the failure of fourteen families, on whom, it is said, the property had been entailed, succeeded to the estates of his second cousin, Mr. Hilton Lawson, at Chirton and Cramlington in Northumberland. He served as sheriff for the county in 1796 (Gent. Mag. lxvi. i. 164), and assumed the surname of Lawson in addition to and after that of Cardonnel. In 1811 he began to pull down Chirton House, where he had hitherto resided, and went to live in a small farmhouse at Cramlington (Mackenzie, Northumberland, 2nd edit. ii. 411, 456). His latter days were chiefly spent at Bath. Dying in June 1820, aged 73, he was buried at Cramlington on the 14th (Cramlington Burial Register). By the death of his eldest son of the same names on 21 Nov. 1838 at Acton House, Acklington, Northumberland, without issue, the family became extinct in the male line (Latimer, Local Records, p. 100).
Cardonnel was the author of:
- 'Numismata Scotiæ; or a Series of the Scottish Coinage, from the Reign of William the Lion to the Union. By Adam de Cardonnel,' &c., with twenty plates drawn by the author, 4to, Edinburgh, 1786. This work, although taken in a great measure from Snelling's 'View,' which had been published in 1774, contains some curious historical matter, and the appropriations are generally correct.
- 'Picturesque Antiquities of Scotland, etched by Adam de Cardonnel,' four parts, 8vo and 4to, London, 1788-93, which forms a useful supplement to Pennant's 'Tour.'
[Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. ix. 24, 187, x. 239, 456, xi. 335-6, 378; Gent. Mag. lxxii. ii. 684, lxxxiii. ii. 394, (1837) viii. 325, 416; Bath Directory for 1812 and 1819; Cochran-Patrick's Records of the Coinage of Scotland, Introd. p. viii.]
CARDROSS, Lords. [See Erskine.]
CARDWELL, EDWARD, D.D. (1787–1861), church historian, son of Richard Cardwell of Blackburn, Lancashire, was born in 1787. He entered in 1806 as a commoner at Brasenose College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1809. He took his M.A. in 1812. The degree of B.D. was conferred on him in 1819 and that of D.D. in 1831. For several years he acted as tutor and lecturer, and from 1814 to 1821 was one of the university examiners, and during part of the time had John Keble as a colleague. In 1818 he was appointed Whitehall preacher by Bishop Howley, and in 1823 select preacher to the university of Oxford. He was elected Camden professor of ancient history in 1826, and succeeded Archbishop Whately in 1831 as principal of St. Alban Hall, Oxford. Soon after this appointment he resigned the living of Stoke-Bruern, Northamptonshire, to which he had been presented by Brasenose College in 1828. He subsequently declined the offer of the rectory of Withyham, and in 1844 refused the deanery of Carlisle offered to him by Sir Robert Peel. He was delegate of estates, delegate of the press, and curator of university galleries. He was considered one of the best men of business in the university, and for many years had a leading share in its government. The management of the bible department of the university press was left mainly in his hands, and by his advice the paper mill at Wolvercot was established. This was done in order that the authorities might be certain as to the materials used in making the paper supplied to the university press. Lord Grenville, the Duke of Wellington, and Lord Derby, as they successively became chancellors of the university, appointed him to act as their private secretary. He was a personal friend of Sir Robert Peel and Mr. Gladstone, and was a member of the Society of Antiquaries and other learned bodies.
His literary works were:
- An edition of Aristotle's 'Ethica,' Oxford, 1828-30, 8vo, 2 vols.
- 'A Sermon preached at Northampton,' Oxford, 1832, 8vo.
- 'Lectures on the Coinage of the Greeks and Romans,' 1833, 8vo (delivered by him as Camden professor).
- An 'Enchiridion Theologicum Anti-Romanum,' in 3 vols., 8vo, being reprints of tracts on points at issue between the churches of England and Rome, 1836-7.
- A useful student's edition of the 'New Testament in Greek and English,' with notes, 1837.
- 'Josephus de Bello Judaico,' in Greek and Latin, 1837, 8vo, 2 vols., a corrected text with various readings and notes.