Period of the small kingdoms, unions, separations and reunions ; the sons of Alphonso III. having rebelled, and forced a division of the kingdom near the close of the king's reign : â€”
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Ordono II. .
Sancho I., " The Fat."
Bermudo II., " The Gouty "
Fernando I., or Ferdinand.
Took Leon, which then included Bardulia, or Castile, as the eldest son.
Second son; became king in Gallicia which included north- ern Portugal and acquired Leon on the death of his brother Garcia.
Third brother; held Asturias, and was king of all north-west for a short time after death of Ordono.
Son of Ordono ; became a monk at Sahagun, and was succeeded by his brother Ramiro.
In his reign Castile broke away from Leon, under the count Fernan Gonzales.
Son of Ramiro.
Half brother of Ordono III. and son of Ramiro II. by his second marriage with a daughter of Sancho Abarca of Navarre. Was driven out by his nobles, in alliance with Fernan Gon- zales, count of Castile, and restored by the caliph. The rebels put Ordono, son of Alphonso IV., on the throne for a time.
Son of Sancho. Succeeded as a boy. His reign was a period of anarchy.
Son of Ordono III., was supported against his cousin Ramiro III. by the nobles, and was placed on the throne by the Hajib Mansur.
Son of Bermudo. Began the restoration of the kingdom after the period of anarchy, and subjection to the caliphate. Killed at siege of Viseu.
Son of Alphonso V. ; was killed in battle at Tamaron with his brother-in-law Ferdinand, count and then first king of Castile.
Son of Sancho el Mayor of Navarre, king of Castile by right of his mother, and of Leon and Gallicia by the sword.
Counts of Castile
The counts of Castile began, as a body, and not as a line of chiefs in the reign of Alphonso the Chaste (789-842). They strove for independence from the first, and when one count had replaced several they achieved it.
Garcia Fernandez Sancho Garcia Garcia .
968-1006 1006-1028 1028
Made himself independent of Leon. One of his daughters married Ordono III. of Leon. By a second marriage with a daughter of Sancho Abarca of Navarre he had a son and successor.
Murdered. Castile then passed to Garcia's sister, trie wife of Sancho el Mayor of Navarre.
Early Kings of Navarre
The early history of Navarre has been overlaid with fable, and with pure falsification, largely the work of the Benedictines of San Juan de la Pefia near Huesca. Their object was to prove the foundation of their house by a king of Navarre, Aragon and Sobrarbe, in the 9th century. They were helped by the patriotism of the Aragonese, who wished to give their kingdom an antiquity equal to that of Leon. Hence much pure invention, bolstered up by forgery of charters, falsification of genuine ones, and construction of imaginary pedigrees!
Sancho Abarca, i.e. Brogues
Garcia Sanchez . Sancho Garcia Garcia Sanchez "TheTrembler"
Sancho el Mayor
Garcia III. Sancho IV.
926-966 966-993 993-1000
Made himself independent king at Pamplona. He fought with the Carolingian counts of the marches, and in alliance with the Spanish Mahommedan Beni Casi of Saragossa.
Very obscure. The most un- doubted personality of the time is Tota (Theuda), widow of Sancho Abarca, who gov- erned for her son and whose daughters were married to the kings of Leon and counts of Castile.
Son of "The Trembler." He married a daughter of Sancho Garcia, count of Castile. On the murder of Garcia, the last count, he took Castile by right of his wife. He inherited, or acquired, superiority over the central Pyrenean regions of Aragon and Sobrarbe. He di- vided his various dominions â€” Navarre to Garcia, Castile to Fernando, Sobrarbe to Gonzalo, and Aragon to Ramiro San- chez, a natural son.
Killed in battle with his brother Fernando of Castile and Leon at Atapuerca.
Son. Murdered by his natural brother Ramon at Pefialen. The Navarrese then chose Sancho Ramirez of Aragon as king. The kingdoms remained united till 1 134.
Historic kingdom of Aragon : â€”
Pedro I. . . .
Alphonso I."The Battler."
I 094- 1 102 1102-1134
Natural son of Sancho el Mayor of Navarre, who on the death of his legitimate brother Gon- zalo, annexed Sobrarbe. The kingdom of Sobrarbe lasted only during the life of Gonzalo.
Son of Ramiro. Was killed while besieging Huesca.
Son of Sancho.
Second son of Sancho. He took Saragossa from the Moors, and was married to Urraca, queen of Castile and Leon.
Third son of Sancho. A monk, who was exclaustrated alter the death of Alphonso, but re- turned to the cloister on the birth of his daughter Petronilla.
Married to Ramon Berenguer, count of Barcelona, who be- came king by right of his wife.
The Early Counts of Barcelona
In the last years of the 8th and beginning of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east ot Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713. By 811 the Franks had conquered as far as Tortosa and Tarragona. The territory gained was called the Marca Hispanica, and was governed by counts of Roussillon, Ampurias, Besaltu, Barcelona, Cerdena, Pallars and Urgell. They became independent during the decadence of the Carolingians. The supremacy was acquired gradually by the