Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/133

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 [33f3. The suffixes of the 2nd person (־ְךָ, &c.) are all formed with a k-sound, not, like the separate pronouns of the 2nd person, with a t-sound.

So in all the Semitic languages, in Ethiopic even in the verbal form (qatalka, thou hast killed=Hebr. קָטַ֫לְתָּ).

 [33g4. The suffix of the verb (the accusative) and the suffix of the noun (the genitive) coincide in most forms, but some differ, e.g. ־נִי me, ־ִי my.

Paradigm A at the end of the Grammar gives a table of all the forms of the separate pronoun and the suffixes; a fuller treatment of the verbal suffix and the mode of attaching it to the verb will be found in §58ff., of the noun-suffix in §91, of the prepositions with suffixes in §103, of adverbs with suffixes §100o.

§34. The Demonstrative Pronoun.

 [34a

Sing. this m. זֶה[1] Plur. com. these אֵ֫לֶּה (rarely אֵל)
f. זֹאת (זֹה, זוֹ)[2]

 [34b]  Rem. 1. The feminine form זֹאת has undoubtedly arisen from זָאת, by obscuring of an original â to ô (for זָא = זֶה cf. the Arab. hâ-ḏâ, this, masc.; for ת as the feminine ending, § 80), and the forms זֹה, זוֹ, both of which are rare,[3] are shortened from זֹאת. In ψ 13212 זוֹ is used as a relative, cf. זוּ below. In Jer 266, Kethîbh, הַזּאֹתָה (with the article and the demonstrative termination ־ָה) is found for זֹאת. The forms אֵלֶּה and אֵל are the plurals of זֶה and זֹאת by usage, though not etymologically. The form אֵל occurs only in the Pentateuch (but not in the Samaritan text), Gn 198,25, 263,4, &c. (8 times), always with the article, הָאֵל [as well as אֵלֶּה, הָאֵלֶּה frequently], and in 1 Ch 208 without the article [cf. Driver on Dt 442].[4] Both the singular and the plural may refer to things as well as persons.

 [34c]  2. In combination with prepositions to denote the oblique case we find לָזֶה to this (cf. for לָ, §102g), לְזֹאת, לָזֹאת to this (fem.), לְאֵ֫לֶּה, לָאֵ֫לֶּה to these; אֶת־זֶה hunc, אֶת־זֹאת hanc, אֶת־אֵ֫לֶּה hos, also without אֶת־, even before the verb ψ 758, &c. Note also מְחִיר זֶה pretium huius (1 K 212), &c.

  1. In many languages the demonstratives begin with a d-sound (hence called the demonstrative sound) which, however, sometimes interchanges with a sibilant. Cf. Aram. דֵּן, דֵּךְ masc., דָּא, דָּךְ fem. (this); Sansk. sa, sā, tat; Gothic sa, sô, thata; Germ. da, der, die, das; and Eng. the, this, that, &c. Cf. J. Barth, ‘Zum semit. Demonstr. ,’ in ZDMG. 59, 159 ff., and 633 ff.; Sprachwiss. Untersuchungen zum Semit., Lpz. 1907, p. 30 ff. [See the Lexicon, s. v. זֶה, and Aram. דא, די.]
  2. That זֶה may stand for the feminine, cannot be proved either from Ju 1628 or from the certainly corrupt passage in Jos 217.
  3. זֹה 2 K 619, and in seven other places; זוֹ only in Hos 716, ψ 13212.
  4. According to Kuenen (cf. above, §2n) and Driver, on Lev 1827 in Haupt’s Bible, this אֵל is due to an error of the punctuators. It goes back to a time when the vowel of the second syllable was not yet indicated by a vowel letter, and later copyists wrongly omitted the addition of the ה. In Phoenician also it was written אל, but pronounced ily according to Plautus, Poen, v, 1, 9.