Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/163

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 [51l]  Elision of the ה after prepositions is required by the Masora in בִּכָּֽשְׁלוֹ Pr 2417 (for בְּהִכָּ׳), בֵּֽהָרֵג Ez 2615 and בֵּֽעָטֵף La 211; also in verbs ל״ה Ex 103 (לֵֽעָנוֹת); 3424, Dt 3111, Is 112 (לֵֽרָאוֹת); in verbs ע״וּ Jb 3330 (לֵאוֹר). It is, however, extremely doubtful whether the infin. Qal of the Kethîbh is not rather intended in all these examples; it certainly is so in La 211, cf. ψ 613.

 [51m]  2. Instead of the Ṣere in the ultima of the imperfect, Pathaḥ often occurs in pause, e.g. וַיִּגָּמַֽל Gn 218; cf. Ex 3117, 2 S 1215 (with final שׁ); 1723 (with ק); Jon 15 (with מ‍); see §29q. In the 2nd and 3rd plur. fem. Pathaḥ predominates, e.g. תִּזָּכַ֫רְנָה Is 6517; Ṣere occurs only in תֵּֽעָגֵ֫נָה Ru 113, from עגן, and hence, with loss of the doubling, for תֵּֽעָגֵ֫נָּה; cf. even תֵּֽאָמַֽנָה Is 604.—With Nûn paragogicum (see §47m) in the 2nd and 3rd plur. masc. are found, יִלָּֽכְדוּן, תִּלָּֽחֲמוּן, &c., in pause יִבָּֽהֵלוּן, תִּשָּֽׁמֵדוּן, &c.; but Jb 1924 (cf. 2424) יֵחָֽצְבֽוּן.

 [51n]  3. When the imperfect, the infinitive (in ē), or the imperative is followed in close connexion by a monosyllable, or by a word with the gone on the first syllable, the tone is, as a rule (but cf. וַיֵּאָֽבֵק אִישׁ Gn 3225), shifted back from the ultima to the penultima, while the ultima, which thus loses the tone, takes Seghôl instead of Ṣere; e.g. יִכָּ֫שֶׁל בָּהּ Ez 3312; וַיֵּעָ֫תֶר לוֹ Gn 2521; in the imperative, 139.—So always הִשָּׁ֫מֶר לְךָ (since לְךָ counts as one syllable) Gn 246, &c., cf. 1 S 192; and even with Pathaḥ in the ultima, תֵּעָ֫זַב אָ֑רֶץ Jb 184 (but cf. וַיֵּעָֽתֵ֫ר אֱלֹהִים 2 S 2114). Although in isolated cases (e.g. Gn 3225, Ezr 823) the tone is not thrown back, in spite of a tone-syllable following, the retraction has become usual in certain forms, even when the next word begins with a toneless syllable; especially after ו consec., e.g. וַיִּשָּׁ֫אֶר Gn 723; וַיִּלָּ֫חֶם Nu 211 and frequently, וַיִּצָּ֫מֶד 253; and always so in the imperative הִשָּׁ֫מֶר Ex 2321, Jb 3621, and (before Metheg of the counter-tone) Dt 248, 2 K 69. On the avoidance of pausal-forms in the imperative (Am 212 with Silluq, Zc 211 with Athnaḥ), and imperfect (Pr 244, &c.), see §29o, and note; on the other hand, always הִמָּלֵט, יִמָּלֵט, &c.

 [51o]  In the imperative, נִקְבְּצוּ, for הִקָּֽבְצוּ, with the rejection of the initial ה, occurs in Is 439, and in Joel 411 in pause נִקְבָּ֑צוּ (cf. נִלְווּ Jer 505); but in these examples either the reading or the explanation is doubtful. The 2nd sing. imperat. of נִשְׁבַּע is always (with ־ָה paragogicum) הִשָּׁ֫בְעָה לִּי swear to me, Gn 2123, &c. (also הִשָּֽׁבְעָה לִי Gn 4731, 1 S 3015).

 [51p]  4. For the 1st sing. of the imperfect, the form אִקָּטֵל is as frequent as אֶקָּטֵל, e.g. אִדָּרֵשׁ I shall be inquired of, Ez 143; אִשָּׁבֵעַ I will swear, Gn 2124; cf. 162, Nu 2315, Ez 2036, and so always in the cohortative, e.g. אִנָּֽקְמָה I will avenge me, Is 124; cf. 1 S 127, Ez 262, and in the impf. Niph. of פ״ו (§69t). The Babylonian punctuation admits only ĭ under the preformative of the 1st person.

§52. Piʿēl and Puʿal.

 [52a1. The characteristic of this conjugation consists in the strengthening of the middle radical. From the simple stem qaṭal (cf. §43b) the form קַטַּל (cf. the Arabic conj. ii. qăttălă) would naturally follow as