Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/169

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however, only one of these two conjugations is in use, or else they differ from one another in meaning, e.g. כָּבֵד gravem esse, Piʿēl to honour, Hiphʿîl to bring to honour, also to make heavy. Verbs which are intransitive in Qal simply become transitive in Hiphʿîl, e.g. נָטָה to bow oneself, Hiph. to bow, to bend.

 [53d]  Among the ideas expressed by the causative and transitive are included, moreover, according to the Hebrew point of view (and that of the Semitic languages in general, especially Arabic), a series of actions and ideas, which we have to express by periphrasis, in order to understand their being represented by the Hiphʿîl-form. To these inwardly transitive or intensive Hiphʿîls belong: (a) Hiphʿîl stems which express the obtaining or receiving of a concrete or abstract quality. (In the following examples the Qal stems are given, for the sake of brevity, with the addition of the meaning which—often together with other meanings—belongs to the Hiphʿîl.) Thus אהל, זהר, יפע, צוץ to be bright, to shine (to give forth brightness); opposed to חשׁךְ to become dark; אמץ, גבר, חזק to be strong (to develop strength), עטף to be weak; ארךְ to be long (to acquire length); גבהּ to be high; הום to be in tumult, זעק to cry out, רוע, רנן to make a noise, to exult; חלף to sprout (to put forth shoots), cf. פרח to bloom, עדף, שׁוק to overflow; חרשׁ, חשׁה, סכת, צמת to be silent (silentium facere, Pliny); מתק to be sweet; צלח to have success; שׁפל to be low; אדם to become red, לבן to become white.

 [53e]  (b) Stems which express in Hiphʿîl the entering into a certain condition and, further, the being in the same: אמן to become firm, to trust in; באשׁ to become stinking; זוד to become boiling, to boil over; חלה to become ill; הסר to come to want; חרה to become hot; יבשׁ to become dry, to become ashamed; יתר to attain superiority; סכן to become familiar; עור, קוץ to become awake; קשׁה to become hard; רגע, שׁקט to become quiet (to keep quiet); שׁמם to be astonished. The Hiphʿîl forms of some verbs of motion constitute a variety of this class: נגשׁ to draw near; קרב to come near; רחק to withdraw far off (all these three are besides used as causatives); קדם to come before.

 [53f]  (c) Stems which express action in some particular direction: חטא to err; חלק to flatter (to act smoothly); יטב to act well, to do good; סכל to act foolishly, שׂכל to act wisely; ערם to act craftily; צנע to act submissively; רעע, רשׁע to act wickedly, godlessly; שׁחת, תעב to act corruptly, abominably; שׁלם to act peacefully, to be at peace, to be submissive.

 [53g]  Further, there are in Hiphʿîl a considerable number of denominatives which express the bringing out, the producing of a thing, and so are properly regarded as causatives,[1] e.g. אצר to set over the treasury, Neh 1313 (unless וָאְַֽצַוֶּה is to be read, as in Neh 72); בכר to bring forth a firstborn; גשׁם to cause to rain; זרע to produce seed; ימן (Hiphʿîl הֵימִין) to go to the right, cf. הִשְׂמְאִיל to go to the left; פרס to get or to have hoofs; קרן to get or to have horns; שׁכל to produce abortion; שׁלג to become snow-white; שׁמן to grow fat; שׁרשׁ to put forth roots, &c.; so also according to the ordinary acceptation הֶֽאֶזְנִ֫יחוּ Is 196, they have become stinking, from אֶזְנָח stinking or stench, with retention of the א prosthetic, §19m (but see below, p).

  1. The same ideas are also paraphrased by the verb עָשָׂה (to make), e.g. to make fat, for, to produce fat upon his body, Jb 1527; to make fruit, to make branches, for, to put forth, to yield, Jb 149, Ho 87, cf. the Lat. corpus, robur, sobolem, divitias facere, and the Ital. far corpo, far forze, far frutto.