Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/168

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§53. Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal.

 [a 1. The characteristic of the active (Hiphʿîl) is a prefixed הַ (on its origin see § 55 i) in the perfect הִ (with the ă attenuated to ĭ, as in Piʿēl), which forms a closed syllable with the first consonant of the stem. The second syllable of the perfect had also originally an ă; cf. the Arabic conj. iv. ’aqtălă, and in Hebrew the return of the Pathaḥ in the 2nd and 1st pers. הִקְטַ֫לְתָּ, &c. After the attenuation of this ă to ĭ, it ought by rule to have been lengthened to ē in the tone-syllable, as in Aramaic אַקְטֵל, beside הַקְטִל in Biblical Aramaic. Instead of this, however, it is always replaced in the strong verb by î,[1]־ִי, but sometimes written defectively ־ִ; cf. § 9 g. Similarly in the infinitive construct הַקְטִיל, and in the imperfect and participle יַקְטִיל and טַקְטִיל, which are syncopated from יְהַקְטִיל and מְהַקְטִיל; § 23 k. The corresponding Arabic forms (juqtĭl and muqtĭl) point to an original ĭ in the second syllable of these forms. In Hebrew the regular lengthening of this ĭ to ē appears in the strong verb at least in the jussive and in the imperfect consecutive (see n), as also in the imperative of the 2nd sing. masc. (see m); on הַקְטֵ֫לְנָה, תַּקְטֵ֫לְנָה cf. § 26 p. On the return of the original ă in the second syllable of the Imperat., Jussive, &c, under the influence of a guttural, cf. § 65 f.

 [b In the passive (Hophʿal) the preformative is pronounced with an obscure vowel, whilst the second syllable has ă (in pause ā), as its characteristic, thus:—Perf. הָקְטַל or הֻקְטַל, Imperf. יָקְטַל (syncopated from יְהָקְטַל) or יֻקְטַל, Part. מָקְטָל or מֻקְטָל (from מְהָקְטָל); but the infinitive absolute has the form הָקְטֵל.

Thus the characteristics of both conjugations are the ה preformative in the perfect, imperative, and infinitive; in the imperfect and participle Hiphʿîl, Pathaḥ under the preformatives, in the Hophʿal ŏ or ŭ.

 [c 2. The meaning of Hiphʿîl is primarily, and even more frequently than in Piʿēl (§ 52 g), causative of Qal, e.g. יָצָא to go forth, Hiph. to bring forth, to lead forth, to draw forth; קָדַשׁ to be holy, Hiph. to sanctify. Under the causative is also included (as in Piʿēl) the declarative sense, e.g. הִצְדִּיק to pronounce just; הִרְשִׁיעַ to make one an evil doer (to pronounce guilty); cf. עקשׁ, in Hiphʿîl, Jb 9, to represent as perverse. If Qal has already a transitive meaning, Hiphʿîl then takes two accusatives (see § 117 cc). In some verbs, Piʿēl and Hiphʿîl occur side by side in the same sense, e.g. אָבַד periit, Piʿēl and Hiphʿîl, perdidit; as a rule,

  1. This î may have been transferred originally from the imperfects of verbs ע״וּ, as a convenient means of distinction between the indicative and jussive, to the imperfect of the strong verb and afterwards to the whole of Hiphʿîl; so Stade, Philippi, Praetorius, ZAW. 1883, p. 52 f.