Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/93

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 [19c]  (a) most frequently with נ‍, e.g. מִשָּׁם (for min-šām) from there, מִזֶּה (for min-zè) from this, יִתֵּן (for yintēn) he gives. נ‍ is not assimilated after the prefix לְ, e.g. לִנְגֹּף, nor as a rule before gutturals (except sometimes before ח), nor when it is the third consonant of the stem, e.g. שָׁכַ֫נְתָּ (cf. however נָתַ֫תָּ for nāthántā) except when another Nun follows, cf. §44o; nor in some isolated cases, as Dt 339, Is 291, 583, all in the principal pause; on הִנְדֹּף and תִּנְדֹּף ψ 683, see §51k, and §66f.

 [19d]  (b) Less frequently and only in special cases with ל, ת, ד, e.g. יִקָּח (for yilqaḥ) he takes; מִדַּבֵּר for mithdabbēr; יִטַּמָּא for yithṭammā; תִּכּוֹנֵן for tithkônēn; תִּנַּשֵּׂא for תִּתְנַשֵּׂא; אַחַ֫ת for ʾaḥadt; but in 1 S 419 for לָלַת read probably לָלֶ֫דֶת.

 [19e]  (c) In isolated cases with ה, ו, י, e.g. אָֽנָּא prithee! if from אָהּ נָא; ו and י mostly before sibilants in the verbal forms enumerated in §71.

 [19f]  In all these cases, instead of the assimilated letter, a Dageš forte appears in the following consonant. Dageš, however, is omitted when the strengthened consonant would stand at the end of a word, since the strengthening would then be less audible (§20l), e.g. אַף nose (from ʾanp), תֵּת to give (from tint).

The cases are less frequent where a weak letter is lost in pronunciation,[1] and in place of it the preceding stronger sound is sharpened, i.e. takes Dageš, e.g. קְטָלַ֫תּוּ from קְטָלַ֫תְהוּ (§59g). אֶסַּק for אֶסְלַק (§66e) is an Aramaism.

 [19g3. Complete rejection takes place only in the case of weaker consonants, especially the sonants נ and ל, the gutturals א and ה, and the two half vowels ו and י. Such rejection takes place,

 [19h]  (a) at the beginning of a word (aphaeresis), when these weak consonants (א, י, ל, נ‍) are not supported by a full vowel, but have only Šewâ, e.g. נַ֫חְנוּ we, also אֲנַ֫חְנוּ; דַּע for וְדַע; קַח for לְקַח; גַּשׁ for נְגַשׁ, הִי for נְהִי Ez 210.

 [19i]  Aphaeresis of a weak consonant with a full vowel is supposed to occur in רַד Ju 1911 for יָרַד; in תַּ֫תָּה 2 S 2241 for נָתַ֫תָּה; in שׁוֹב for יָשׁוֹב Je 4210; on קָח Ez 175 for לָקַח, and on קָחָם Ho 113 for לְקָחָם, see §66g, end. In reality, however, all these forms are to be regarded merely as old textual errors.

 [19k]  (b) In the middle of a word (syncope), when Šewâ precedes the weak consonant[2]; thus in the case of א (see further §23b–f, and

  1. Such a suppression of a letter is sometimes inaccurately called ‘backward assimilation’.
  2. Syncope of a strong consonant (ע) occurs in בִּי prithee! if this stands for בְּעִי (see Lexicon), also in ונשׁקה Am 88, Kethîbh for וְנִשְׁקְעָה (cf. וְשָֽׁקְעָה 95), and in בָּלָה Jos 193 for בָּֽעֲלָה (as in 1529). Probably, however, ונשׁקה and בלה are only clerical errors, as is undoubtedly כָאֹר Am 88 for כַיְאֹר (95).