Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/299

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§94. Formation of Feminine Nouns.

 [94a1. The feminine ending ־ָה, when appended to the masculine forms treated in §93, effects in almost all cases the same changes as are produced in the masculine forms by the addition of a light suffix, since in both cases the tone is moved one place farther forward (see §92b). The following scheme is based on the same division into four classes, with their subdivisions, as in §93; a few special forms will be treated in §95 in connexion with the paradigms of feminine nouns.

 [94b]  Paradigm I: segholate forms, with the feminine ending always added to the ground-form, (a) מַלְכָּה queen, כַּבְשָׂ֫ה, and with attenuation of ă to ĭ כִּבְשָׂ֫ה lamb, רִצְפָּה hot stone, Is 66 (from another root רִֽצְפָה; see Baer on Ez 4017), חֶזְקָה strength (unless belonging to Paradigm b); (b) סִתְרָה covering (masc. סֵ֫תֶר); עֶדְנָה pleasure (עֵ֫דֶן), not to be confounded with the unchangeable forms with a prefixed מ‍, derived from ל״ה stems, as מִצְוָה command, plur. מִצְו‌ֹת; (c) חֻלְדָּה, proper name (חֹ֫לֶד mole), אָכְלָה food (אֹ֫כֶל); (d) נַֽעֲרָה girl (נַ֫עַר); (f) בָּאְשָׁה weed, טָֽהֳרָה purity (טֹ֫הַר); (g) עַוְלָה wrong (also עוֹלָה, Paradigm i); (i) צֵידָה victuals (masc. צַ֫יִד, cf. Paradigm h); from qiṭl and quṭl-forms, בִּינָה understanding, סוּפָה tempest; (k) אַלְיָה fat tail (as if from אֲלִי), שִׁבְיָה (ă attenuated to ĭ) captivity (שְׁבִי), לִוְיָה wreath (probably an original qiṭl-form); (l) חַיָּה life, מִדָּה measure (attenuated from מַדָּה). Adjectives derived from ע״ע stems also belong in flexion to this class, as רַבָּה multa, with middle guttural רָעָה mala; (m) זִמָּה plan; (n) חֻקָּה statute (חֹק).

 [94c]  Paradigm II: ground-form qăṭălăt, &c., (a) נְקָמָה vengeance (נָקָם); (b) אֲדָמָה earth; (c) נְבֵלָה corpse; (d) עֲיֵפָה languida; (f) יָפָה beautiful, קָצָה end (from יָפֶה, קָצֶה). From stems ע״וּ arise such forms as עֵדָה (masc. עֵד, properly part. Qal from עוּד) female witness. From the ground-form qătŭl, עֲמֻקָּה profunda (masc. עָמֹק), עֲבֻדָּה servitude, &c.

 [94d]  Paradigm III: unchangeable vowel in the first, changeable in the second syllable, (a) יֽׄלֵדָה a woman with child (cf. the examples in §84as, and the retention of the ē in the part. Piʿēl, Ex 2217, 2326; in the Hithpaʿēl 1 K 145 f.), but also with the change of the ē (originally ĭ) into Še, יֽשְׁבָה dwelling, Na 38. However, in these participial forms the feminine is mostly indicated by ־ֶת (see below, h); (c) גּוֹלָה those of the captivity (masc. גּוֹלֶה), but also with a return of the final Yôdh, הֹֽמִיָּה clamorous, Pr 711, and the examples in §75v. On the â of the participles of verbs ע״וּ, which also belong to this class, such as זָרָה peregrina, cf. §72g.