Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/298

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מִקְנֶ֫יךָ thy cattle, Is 3023 (probably also שָׂדֶ֫יךָ 1 K 226), מַרְאַ֫יִךְ Ct 214, and מַרְאָיו the sight of him, Jb 411 (with the י here retained orthographically), מַֽעֲלָיו Ez 4031, &c., are still to be explained as singulars.—On a few other examples which may perhaps be thus explained, see §124k. Before the plural ending the original termination ay reappears in מְמֻֽחָיִם Is 256 (part. Pu. from מָחָה).

 [93tt]  4. Paradigm IV comprises the forms with a changeable vowel (a, b), or a vowel which has already become Še (c), in the first syllable, and an unchangeable vowel in the second. With Paradigm c (which, however, for the most part consists merely of forms based on analogy, without biblical parallels) are also connected all the forms which have unchangeable vowels in both syllables, and therefore (like כְּתָב) cannot undergo any vowel changes.

 [93uu]  Rem. 1. Analogous to פָּקִיד (ground-form păqîd) are §84ak, גָּדוֹל, &c. (with ô, not changeable ô for ŭ); in substantives like שָׁלוֹם, this ̂ is demonstrably obscured from â (Arab. sălâm); ibid. k, m, אָסוּר, אָסִיר, &c.; §85u, זִכָּרוֹן, constr. זִכְרוֹן; חִזָּיוֹן, constr. חֶזְיוֹן; כִּלָּיוֹן, constr. כִּלְיוֹן (cf., however, the forms in the constr. st. עִצְּבוֹן, קִנְּמוֹן, and with the plural suffix עִזְּבוֹנַ֫יִךְ Ez 2712 ff.); §85w, חַלָּמִישׁ, constr. חַלְמִישׁ; §85l, מָקוֹם, &c.

 [93uu]  2. עָנִי (ground-form ʿănîy, stem עָנָה) represents forms in which a final Yôdh has been resolved into î; before formative additions the original Yôdh under the protection of a Dageš forte again becomes audible as a firm consonant, whilst the (originally short) vowel of the first Syllable becomes Še; cf. §84al, נָקִי, plur. נְקִיִּים, and §87a.

 [93ww]  3. כְּתָב with unchangeable â in the second syllable, whilst the Še is weakened from a short vowel (Arab. kĭtâb); constr. st. כְּתָֽב־ Est 48 (readings like כְּתַב 2 Ch 354 are incorrect, although יְקַר Est 14 and כְּתַב־ 48 are supported by fairly good authority; however, these qeṭâl-forms in Hebrew are probably all loan-words from the Aramaic). The only plural form found in the O.T. is עֲבָֽדֵיהֶם their deeds, Ec 91. In a narrower sense the forms enumerated in §84anp belong to this class; in a wider sense all those which have unchangeable vowels throughout, thus §84au, §84be (קַטָּל, cf., however, the anomalous forms mentioned there), ibid. fi, m (No. 34 f.), n (No. 39), p (No. 44), also partly §85bw (especially l and r).

 [93xx]  In opposition to the anomalous shortening of the form קַטָּל (see above), cases are also found where pretonic vowels are retained even in the antepenultima (with the secondary tone); cf. above, ii and pp, also of the form קָטִיל (properly qăṭîl) the examples סָֽרִיסִים, פָּֽרִיצִים, שָֽׁלִישִׁים, whilst the constr. st. sing. according to the rule, changes the ā into Se (סְרִיס, פְּרִיץ). (These are not to be confounded with forms like עָרִיץ tyrant, which is for עַרִּיץ, and consequently has an unchangeable Qameṣ.) Of the form קָטוּל (qăṭûl) in this class are שָׁבוּעַ week, plur. שָֽׁבֻעִים and שָֽׁבֻעוֹת, constr. שְׁבֻעוֹת, but with Metheg of the secondary tone in the fifth syllable from the end, שָֽׁבֻעֹֽתֵיבֶם.—On מָעוֹז, מָֽעֻזִּי, &c., cf. §85k.