Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/84b. Formation of Nouns from the Intensive Stem

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Wilhelm Gesenius593201Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar — Formation of Nouns from the Intensive Stem1909Arthur Ernest Cowley

§84bFormation of Nouns from the Intensive Stem.

a This includes all forms which have arisen, either through the doubling of the middle radical, or the repetition of one or of two consonants of the simple stem.

VI. Nouns with the Middle Consonant sharpened.

As in the corresponding verbal stems (cf. § 52 f), so also in some noun-formations of this class, the Dageš in the second radical expresses an intensification of the idea of the stem, either emphasizing the energy of the action or relation, or else indicating a longer continuance of the relation or state. Other nouns of this character are evidently only by-forms of the nouns derived from the simple stem, which were treated in the last section: cf. the instances adduced under f and g, and Barth, Nominalbildung, Introd., p. x.

b 17. The ground-form qăṭṭăl is mostly lengthened in Hebrew to קַטָּל; cf. אַיָּל a stag, fem. אַיָּלָה, constr. st. אַיֶּ֫לֶת (from ʾăyyălt); cf. also the fem. (originating from Qal) לֶֽהָבָה a flame (according to § 27 q for lăhhābhā), חָֽרָבָה dry land (for ḥarrābhā), דַּלֶּ֫קֶת and קַדַּ֫חַת a burning fever, יַבָּשָׁה and יַבֶּ֫שֶׁת dry land, טַבַּ֫עַת a seal-ring, שַׁחֶ֫פֶת consumption. Adjectives of this class (‘intensified participles of the active verb’, Barth, ibid., § 33) are חַטָּא sinful, נַגָּח wont to gore, קַנָּא jealous, כֶּחָשׁ (for kaḥḥâš, by § 22 c) lying. Nomina opificum also, curiously enough, are so treated in Hebrew (at least in the constr. state of the sing.), although the corresponding Arabic form qăttâl points to an original (unchangeable) â in the second syllable; cf. גַּנָּב a thief, דַּיָּן a judge (constr. st. דַּיַּן ψ 686), טַבָּח a cook, חָרָשׁ (for ḥarrâš) artificer (constr. st. חָרַשׁ, but plur. constr. חָֽרָשֵׁי); פָּרָשׁ horseman (for parrâš), const. st. פָּרַשׁ Ez 2610.

c 18. The ground-form qĭṭṭăl appears in צִחֶה dry, גֵּאֶה haughty (the ĭ being lengthened to ē according to § 22 c), if these forms go back to original ṣĭḥḥăy, gĭʾʾăy. On the analogy, however, of the adjectives denoting defects (see d below), we should rather expect a ground-form qĭṭṭĭl; moreover, ʾiwwalt, ground-form of the fem. אִוֶּ֫לֶת foolishness, goes back to an original iwwilt, see § 69 c.

19. The ground-form qŭṭṭăl and qŭṭṭŭl; cf. the fem. כֻּסֶּ֫מֶת spelt, כֻּתֹּ֫נֶת coat.

d 20. The ground-form qăṭṭĭl; from the intensive stem, the infinitives Piʿēl of the form קַטֵּל.

21. The ground-form qĭṭṭĭl, in Hebrew lengthened to קִטֵּל. Of this form are a considerable number of adjectives which denote a bodily or mental fault or defect. Cf. אִטֵּר disabled, אִלֵּם dumb, גִּבֵּן hump-backed, עִוֵּר blind, חֵרֵשׁ deaf (for ḥirrēš), פִּסֵּחַ lame, קֵרֵחַ bald, עִקֵּשׁ perverse; פִּקֵּחַ open-eyed follows the same analogy.

e 22. The ground-form qăṭṭâl, cf. the remarks in b above, on the nomina opificum; moreover, to this class belong infinitives Piʿēl of the Aramaic form בַּקָּרָה a searching out; בַּקָּשָׁה a request; with middle guttural (see § 22 c) נֶֽאָצָה contumely; but cf. also נָאָֽצוֹתֶ֫יךָ Ez 3512, with full lengthening of the original ă before א; נֶֽחָמָה comfort. From the attenuation of the ă of this form to ĭ, arises undoubtedly:

23. The ground-form qĭṭṭâl, e.g. אִכָּר husbandman (Arab. ʾăkkâr).

24. The ground-form qĭṭṭôl, most probably only a variety of the form qăṭṭâl with the ă attenuated to ĭ (as in No. 23), and the â obscured to ô (as in n and r); cf. גִּבּוֹר hero (Arab. găbbâr), יִסּוֹר caviller, צִפּוֹר (piper or chirper) a bird, שִׁכּוֹר drunkard. On the other hand, יִלּוֹד born probably arises from yullôd, an old participle passive of Qal, the ŭ being dissimilated in the sharpened syllable before ô: so Barth, ibid., p. 41 f.

f 25. The ground-form qăṭṭîl, קַטִּיל, almost exclusively of persons, who possess some quality in an intensive manner, e.g. אַבִּיר strong, צַדִּיק righteous, בָּרִיחַ fugitive (for barrîa), עָרִיץ violent (for ʿărrîṣ).

That some of these are only by-forms of the qăṭîl-class (see above, remark on a), appears from the constr. st. פְּרִיץ ravenous, Is 359 (but פָּֽרִיצִים, פָּֽרִיצֵי always), and according to Barth (ibid., 35 a) also from the constr. st. אֲבִיר (but also אַבִּיר 1 S 218) of אַבִּיר. However, the form אֲבִיר, as a name of God, may be intentionally differentiated from אַבִּיר, a poetic term for the bull.

In the same way אַסִּיר prisoner, סָרִיס eunuch (constr. st. always סְרִיס, plur. סָֽרִיסִים, constr. st. סְרִיסֵי Gn 407, but in the book of Esther always סָֽרִיסֵי, with suffix סָֽרִיסָיו, &c.), and עַתִּיק weaned, may be regarded as by-forms of the qăṭîl-class with passive meaning, see § 84a l.

g 26. The ground-form qăṭṭûl, קַטּוּל, e.g. חַנּוּן gracious, רַחוּם compassionate (with virtual strengthening of the ח), חָרוּץ diligent (for ḥarrûṣ), probably, again, to a large extent by-forms of the qăṭûl-class, § 84a m. The same applies to substantives like אַשֻּׁר a step (in אַשֻּׁרִי, as well as אֲשֻׁרוֹ, &c.), עַמּוּד pillar; fem. חַבּוּרָה a stripe (also חֲבֻֽרָתוֹ), בַּטֻּחוֹת security: cf. Barth, ibid., § 84.

h 27. The ground-form qăṭṭôl; besides the infinitives absolute Piʿēl of the form קַטֹּל, also קַנּוֹא jealous (as well as קַנָּא, an obscured form of qăṭṭâl, see e).

i 28. The ground-form qĭṭṭûl, קִטּוּל, e.g. צִפּוּי a coating of metal, שִׁלּוּם requital, שִׁקּוּי drink, שִׁקּוּץ detestable thing; with concrete meaning לִמּוּד a disciple, עִזּוּז strong; frequently in the plural in an abstract sense, as גִּדּוּפִים reproach, מִלֻּאִים filling (the induction of a priest), נִֽחֻמִים consolations, compassion, שִׁכֻּלִים bereavement, שִׁלֻּחִים dismissal, שִׁמֻּרִים observance.

VII. Nouns with the Third Consonant repeated.

k 29. The ground-form qăṭḷăl, e.g. שַֽׁאֲנָן quiet, fem. שַֽׁאֲנַנָּה (with sharpening of the second Nûn, in order to keep the preceding vowel short); רַֽעֲנָן green, plur. רַעֲנַנִּים.

l 30. The ground-form qăṭlĭl, in Hebrew קַטְלֵל; of this form are e.g. the infinitives Pi‛lēl (prop. Pa‛lēl), cf. § 55 d.

m 31. The ground-form qăṭlŭl; so the plur. גַּבְנֻנִּים ridges (with sharpening of the Nûn, as in No. 29).

32. The ground-form qĭṭlăl, in פִּרְחָח a brood.

33. The ground-form qŭṭlăl, in אֻמְלָל faint.

34. The ground-form qăṭlîl, e.g. עַבְטִיט plunder, סַגְרִיר rain-storm, שַׁפְרִיר glittering tapestry, Jer 4310 Qe; with attenuation of the ă to i כִּמְרִירִים all that maketh black, Jb 35 (but the better reading is כַּמְרִירֵי).

35. The ground-form qăṭlûl, e.g. שַׁפְרוּר Jer 4310 Keth.; נַֽאֲפוּפִים adulteries.

VIII. Nouns with the Second and Third Consonants repeated.

n 36–39. Qeṭălṭăl, qeṭălṭĭl, qeṭălṭŭl; qeṭălṭûl, qeṭălṭôl (in fem. and plur. often with the last consonant sharpened for the reason given in a above); cf. הֲפַכְפַּךְ crooked, חֲלַקְלַקּוֹת slippery places, עֲקַלְקַלּוֹת crooked (ways); פְּתַלְתֹּל tortuous; also words denoting colours, אֲדַמְדָּם (Lv 1342.49 in pause) reddish, fem. אֲדַמְדֶּ֫מֶת, plur. אֲדַמְדַּמֹּת; יְרַקְרַק greenish, plur. fem. יְרַקְרַקֹּת; qeṭalṭĭl, יְפֵיפִיָּה very fair (to be read in Jer 4620 for יפהפיה); qeṭalṭŭl, שְׁחַרְחֹ֫רֶת (fem.) blackish; אֲסַפְסֻף a rabble (augmented from אָסוּף collected). From a verb פ״י with aphaeresis of the initial syllable צֶֽאֱצָאִים offspring. Moreover, of the same form, probably, is חֲצֽוֹצְרָה a trumpet (for חֲצַרְצְרָה, cf. § 55 e). Also in Is 220 לַֽחֲפַרְפָּרוֹת is to be read instead of לַחְפֹּר פֵּרוֹת (from the sing. חֲפַרְפָּרָה a digging or burrowing animal, perhaps the mole). But פְּקַחְקוֹחַ opening, Is 611 (ed. Mant., Baer, Ginsb. פְּקַח־קוֹחַ), is an evident mistake due to dittography; read פְּקֹחַ as in 427.

IX. Nouns in which the Whole (Biliteral) Stem is repeated.

o Naturally this class includes only isolated forms of the stems ע״וּ and ע״ע (on פִּֽיפִיּוֹת see § 96 under פֶּה). Thus:—

40. גַּלְגַּל a wheel, and, with attenuation of the first ă to ĭ, גִּלְגָּל (from גלל); fem. חַלְחָלָה anguish (from חוּל or חִיל); כִּכָּר (for kirkar) a talent; cf. also כּוֹכָב a star (from kăwkăb, Arabic kaukăb, for כַּבְכַּב), טֽוֹטָפֹת bands, for טַפְטָפֹת; צְלָצַל probably a whirring locust.

p 41. כַּלְכֵּל infin. Pilpēl (prop. Palpĭl) from כּוּל; fem. טַלְטֵלָה a hurling (from טוּל).

42. כַּדְכֹּד perhaps a ruby (for kădkŭd), from כדד.

43. קָדְקֹד the crown of the head (for qŭdqŭd), from קדד; fem. גֻּלְגֹּ֫לֶת a skull (for gŭlgŭlt), from גלל.

44. זַרְזִיר girded, from זרר; בַּקְבּוּק a bottle, from בקק; בַּרְבֻּרִים fattened birds(?).