training. Mr. Turner, indeed,' began his married life as an artist, but by the advice of his father's friend, Leigh Hunt, he relinquished a vocation to which he had no decided call, and entered on newspaper work with determination, and ulti- mate success. His first engage- ment was, in conjunction with Mr. Thornton Hunt, on the Spectator. At the same time he wrote for the Morning Chronicle and the Leader ; afterwards, from being fine art critic of the John Bull, he accepted a more onerous position in the conduct of that paper ; whence he transferred his services to the Daily News, during the editorship of Mr. Thomas Walker. In Dec. 1860, he joined the staff of the Daily Telegraph, and has continued to serve that journal down to the present time, in various literary capacities, but chiefly as a special correspondent in many parts of the world. On the outbreak in Jamaica, he was despatched with the Royal Commission to that is- land. He has been an industrious contributor to the magazines and periodicals, and he is the author of " Jest and Earnest." *' Homely Scenes from Great Painters," " Art Studies,*' and other books.
TURNER, The Right Rev. Jahes Francis, Bishop of Grafton and Armidale, in Australia, is a son of the late Sir George James Turner, for many years one of the Lords Justices of Appeal. He received his academical education at the Charter- house and Durham, was for some time chaplain of Bishop Cosin's HaU, in that University, and held the rectory of North Tedworth, Wilts, from 1859 till 1868, when he was appointed Bishop of Grafton and Armidale. His consecration was solemnized in Westminster Abbey, Feb. 24, 1869.
TURR, Gen. Stephen, born at Baja, in Himgary, in 1825, became a heutenant in the Austrian army in 1848. His regiment was stationed in Italy, and his rooted dislike of the House of Hapsburg inspired
him with a strong sympathy for the Italian cause. The Revolutionary Govei^iment of Hungary having called upon all Hungarians serving under the Austrian flag in Italy to desert to the Piedmontese, he went over to the latter from Buffalora, in Jan. 1849, and was appointed Colonel of the Hungarian legion in the Sardinian service. After the disaster of Novara, the greater part of the Himgarian Legion followed their colonel into Baden, where a revolutionary movement had taken place, and throughout the struggle Colonel Tiirr commanded not only the remnant of his legion, but also three Baden battalions. After the insurrection had been put down, the Himgarians took refuge in Switzer- land, and the Federal Government aided many of them to start for the United States, but Colonel Turr being too iU to go, lived for four years on a small pension granted to him by the Sardinian Government. On the outbreak of the Russian war, he vainly endeavoured to serve under Omar Pasha, but succeeded in taking part as a volunteer in several of the battles in the Crimea, especially in that of the Tchemaya, and received a commission from Colonel McMurdo, the officer in command of the British transport service. While cng^ed in the performance of his duty, and in connection with this employment in the autumn of 1855, he was arrested at Bucharest by the Aus- trians as a deserter, and sent under escort to Cronstadt to be tried there. His illegal arrest caused great ex- citement throughout Europe, and was protested against by the British and French Governments. After a long incarceration he was tried by coiirt-martial, and sentenced to death ; which sentence was, how- ever (owing to the urgent remon- strance of the British Government) , commuted to perpetual banishment. In the Italian war in 1859, he was appointed a member of Garibaldi's staff, with the rank of colonel^ and