a large church in the Gothic style. He was appointed Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District, and con- secrated Bishop of Hetalona, in partibus, June 21, 1840 ; was trans- ferred to the Central District July 28, 1848 ; and translated to the see of Birmingham, Sept. 29, 1850, on the restoration of the Roman Catho- lic hierarchy, in obtaining which he bore a prominent part. Among his published works are a "Reply to Judge Burton," 183G ; '* Horrors of Transportation," and ** The Aus- tralian Mission," 1838 ; ** Pilgrimage to La Salette," 1854 j "The Im- maculate Conception," 1854 ; " Pil- grimage to the Monastery of Subiaco and the Grotto of St. Benedict," 185G ; " Letters on the Association for promoting the Union of Christen- dom," 1865; ** Lectures on the Con- ventual Life," 1868 ; ** Letters on the Council and Papal Infallibility," 1870 ; *' Mr. Gladstone's Expostula- tion Unravelled," 1875 ; ** History of the Restoration of the Catholic Hierarchy," 1875; "The Endow- ments of Man considered in their relations with his Final End," a course of lectures, 1880 ; and " The Groundwork of the Christian Vir- tues," another course of lectures, 1882.
VAMBISRY, Arminius, born in Hungary, in 1832, was at an early age expelled by the Austrian autho- rities from Pesth, where he was en- gaged in teaching languages. He took up his residence at Constanti- nople, visited many parts of the East, and travelled in the disguise of a dervish, by routes unknown to Europeans, through the deserts of the Oxus to Khiva, and thence by Bokhara to Samarcand, in 1861-4. His "Travels and Adventures in Central Asia " appeared in London in 1864. He has been appointed Professor of Oriental Languages at the University of Pesth. His more
recent works are an account of his " Wanderings and Adventures in Persia," 1867 j " Sketches of Cen- tral Asia," 1868 ; " History of Bok- hara from the Earliest Period down to the Present," 1873; "Central Asia and the Anglo-Russian Fron- tier Question," 1874 ; " Mahom- medanism in the Nineteenth Cen- tury," 1875 ; " Sketches of Manners and Costumes in Oriental Coim- tries," 1876 ; " Etymological Dic- tionary of the Turco-Tartar Lan- guages," 1878 ; and " Primitive Civilisation of the Turco-Tartar Peoples," 1879. An interesting ac- count of his " Life and Adventures," written by himself, was published in English, at London, in 1883.
VAPEREAU, Louis Gustave, author, born at Orleans, April 4, 1819, studied at the seminary and college of his native city, and, in 1838, carried off, at a competition between all the colleges of France, the prize for Philosophv, established by M. de Salvandy. Admitted into the Normal School, he applied him- self to various studies, with a special view to teaching philosophy. On quitting this establishment he re- mained a year in Paris, and in 1842 became Private Secretary to M. Victor Cousin, whom he assisted in his " Pensees de Pascal." He pre- sided over a class on Philosophy at the College of Tours in 1843, and defended philosophy, violently at- tacked in a treatise entitled " Du Caractere Liberal, Morale, et Reli- gieux de la Philosophic Moderne," published in 1844. Though his course of lectures was frequently denounced, he retained his profes- sional chair for ten years, and, in addition, presided over the German course at the same college for five years, and commenced the study of law. In consequence of the restric- tions with which the teaching of philosophy was fettered, in 1852, M. Vapereau repaired to Paris, completed his law studies, and be- came avocat in 1854. About this time Messrs. Hachette intrusted to