and the Sutlej campaign of 1845–6. He became lieutenant-colonel in 1853, was promoted to colonel in 1854, and served in the Crimea in command of the above regiment. His subsequent promotions were:—major-general 1868, lieutenant-general 1875, colonel of the 1st West Indian Regiment 1876, and general 1878. He was nominated a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) in 1854, and was promoted to a Knight Commandership of the same Order in 1877. He was appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the island of Malta in 1878. Sir Arthur Borton married, in 1850, Caroline, daughter of the Rev. John Forbes Close, rector of Morne, County Down.
BOSWELL, John Thomas Irvine Boswell (formerly Syme), LL.D., F.L.S., born at Edinburgh, in Dec. 1822, and educated at the Dollar Institution and Edinburgh University; was Curator of the Botanical Society of London, 1851–56; Lecturer on Botany at the Charing Cross Hospital, 1856–63; and Lecturer on Botany at the Westminster Hospital, 1856–67. He is the author of the scientific portion of the third edition of "English Botany," which comprises a new British Flora, 1863–71. In 1875 he took the surname of Boswell instead of Syme on succeeding to the estate of Balmuto in Fifeshire.
BOTTALLA, The Rev. Paul, S.J., born Aug. 15, 1823, in Palermo, the capital of Sicily, and educated at the Jesuit Colleges of Palermo and Rome. After being admitted to holy orders he was successively appointed Sunday preacher in the Gesù of Naples; Professor of Universal History in the Collegio Massimo of Palermo; of Ecclesiastical History in the Roman College; of Dogmatic Theology in St. Beuno's College, North Wales; and of Theology at Poitiers. Father Bottalla is one of the writers of the Civiltà Cattolica of Rome. He has published at Palermo and Genoa a course of History of the Middle Ages, in two volumes ("Corso di Storia e di Geografia universale—Medio Evo"), which has been translated into French; "Studii storici sulla Chiesa e l'Imperio" (in the Civiltà Cattolica); at Brussels, "Histoire de la Révolution de 1860 en Sicile: de ses Causes et de ses Effets dans la Révolution générale de l'Italie" (2 vols. 1861); in London, "The Pope and the Church considered in their Mutual Relations with reference to the Errors of the High Church Party in England" (vols. i. and ii. 1868 and 1870),—the third volume has not yet appeared; "Pope Honorius before the Tribunal of Reason and History," 1868, being a reply to the pamphlet of P. Le Page Renouf, entitled "The Condemnation of Pope Honorius;" "The Papacy and Schism: Strictures on Ffoulkes's Letter to Archbishop Manning," 1869; a reply in the Dublin Review, 1871–73, to Mr. Renouf's second pamphlet on Pope Honorius; "De la Souveraine et Infaillible Antorité du Pape dans l'Église, et dans les rapports avec l'État" (2 vols. Poitiers et Paris, 1877). The two last-named volumes sum up what Father Bottalla wrote while resident in England, and also furnish a further and more perfect execution of his plan.
BOUCHARDAT, Apollinaire, pharmaceutist, member of the Academy of Medicine, was born at l'Isle-sur-le-Serein (Yonne) about 1810, studied medicine in Paris whilst very young, and was named a Fellow of that faculty in 1832. He was pharmaceutist-in-chief at the hospital of Saint-Antoine, and in 1834 was appointed to the same functions at the Hôtel Dieu, which he fulfilled until 1855, when he resigned, in order to devote himself to scientific works. In 1838 he disputed with much talent the chair of pharmacy and organic chemistry in the faculty of Medicine with M.