Dumas. In 1845 he was appointed a member of the Council of Health, and created a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He became a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1850, and, after competition, obtained the chair of Hygiène in 1852. In addition to numerous botanical and medical "memoirs," which have been published collectively under the titles of "Recherches sur la Végétation," M. Bouchardat has written a "Cours de Chimie Élémentaire, avec ses principales Applications à la Médecine et aux Arts," published in 1834–5; "Cours des Sciences Physiques," in 1841–4; "Éléments de Matière Médicale et de Pharmacie," in 1838; "L'Annuaire de Thérapeutique," since 1841; "Nouveau Formulaire Magistral," in 1840; "Formulaire Vétérinaire," in 1849; "Opuscules d'Économie Rurale," in 1851; "Archives de Physiologie," in 1854; and "Répertoire de Pharmacie," published monthly since 1847. He has written a series of interesting works upon vines and wines, "L'Influence des Eaux Potables sur la Production du Goître et du Crétinisme;" in his "Opuscules d'Économie Rurale;" a work upon "Diabetes," and numerous "Memoirs," presented to the Academy of Medicine.
BOUCICAULT, Dion, born in Dublin, Dec. 26, 1822. He was educated under his guardian, Dr. Lardner, at the London University, and commenced his career as dramatic author and actor with the production, in March, 1841, of "London Assurance," at Covent Garden Theatre. He went to the United States in 1853, and did not return to London till 1860, when he produced the "Colleen Bawn" at the Adelphi Theatre. This was followed by the "Octoroon" in 1861. Having been associated with Mr. Webster in the management of the Adelphi Theatre, Mr. Boucicault became lessee of Astley's Theatre, the name of which he altered to that of the Westminster; but the speculation proved a failure. He is the author of more than fifty original pieces, besides adaptations from the French; the best known, in addition to the above-mentioned, being "Old Heads and Young Hearts," "Love in a Maze," "Used Up," "The Willow Copse," "Janet Pride," "Louis XI.," "The Corsican Brothers," "Faust and Marguerite," "The Long Strike," and "Flying Scud," produced at the Holborn Theatre in 1866. Among his more recent pieces are "How She Loves Him" (1867); "After Dark" (1868); "Paul Lafarge" (1870); "A Dark Night's Work" (1870); "The Rapparee; or, the Treaty of Limerick" (1870); and "The Dead Secret" (1878). With occasional visits to England, he has, since 1876, resided in New York, where he has brought out a number of new pieces, in which he plays the leading parts.
BOUGHTON, George Henry, A.R.A., born in Norfolk, England, in 1833. His family went to America about 1836, and he passed his youth in Albany, New York, where he early developed an artistic taste. In 1853 he came to London, and passed several months in the study of art. Returning to America, he settled in New York, and soon became known as a landscape painter. In 1859 he went to Paris, where he devoted two years to study, and in 1861 he opened a studio in London, where he has since mostly resided. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, June 19,1879. Among his best works are: "Winter Twilight," "The Lake of the Dismal Swamp," "Passing into the Shade," "Coming into Church," "Morning Prayer," "The Scarlet Letter," "The Idyl of the Birds," and "The Return of the Mayflower." Mr. Boughton has frequently exhibited at the National Academy of New York, and was made a member of that Academy in 1871.