subfieqiiently the successor of his father. For eighteen years he was director of the Botanic Garden, and during the same period he gave lec- tures in the Academy of G^eneva. M. de Candolle was elected a cor- respondent of the French Institute in 1851, and the following year was decorated with the Legfion of Honour. In June, 1874, he was elected a foreign member of the French Institute in the place of the late Professor Agassiz. His works are: Monographic des Campa- nulas," 1830; "Introduction k r^tude de la Botaniaue," 2 vols., 1834-85; "Surle Musee Botanique de M. B. Delessert," 1845; "Note sur une Pomme de Terre du Merique," 1852; "Geographic Bo- tanique raisonn^e," 2 vols., 1855; "Lois de la Nomenclature Bo- tanique," 1867; "Constitution dans le B^gne V^g^tal de Groupes Phy- siologiques applicables k la Geogra- phic Biotanique, Ancienne et Mo- deme," 1874. He also broujpfht out a new edition of his father's "Th^orie El^mentaire de la Bo- tanique," and continued his "Po- dromus Systematis NaturaUs Begni Vegetabilis."
CANNING, Sib Samttbl, C. E., upon whom the responsibility of laying the Atlantic Cables of 1865, 1866, and 1869 devolved, is the son of the late Bobert Canning, Esq., of Ogboume St. Andrew, Wilt- shire. He commenced his career as assistant to the late Mr. Joseph Locke, C.E., F.E.S., from 1844 to 1849, and was resident engineer during tiie formation of the Liver- pool,Ormskirk,andPre8ton Railway. Since then he has been engaged m the manufacture and submersion of the most important lines of Sub- marine Telegraph Cables, almost from their initiation in 1850. He was among the pioneers of Atlantic Cables, and achieved the submerg- ence of the first line of 1858, and that of other Atlantic lines. To his skill and energy the success of the Atlantic Expedition of 1866 is
undoubtedly due ; he perfected the paying out, and the recovering and grappling machinery for that cable, which so materially aided its sub- mersion, and the recovery of the cable lost in the preceding year. He has also connected England with Gibraltcur, Malta, and Alexan- dria, and laid other important lines of cable connecting various coun- tries in the Mediterranean, North Sea, &c. He received the honour of knighthood in 1866, a Gold Medal from the Chamber of Com- merce of Liverpool, March 14,
1867, and the insignia of the Order of St. Jago d'Espada from the King of Portugal.
CANOVAS DEL CASTILLO, Antonio, a Spanish statesman, born in 1830. He made his d^but in 1851, under the patronage of Sefiors Bios, Bosas and Pacheco, as chief editor of the Patria, in which he defended Conservative ideas. In 1854 he was named deputy for Malaga, and since that year has never ceased to occupy a seat in the Cortes. In 1856 he was Charge d' Affaires at Bome, and drew up the historical memorandum on the relations of Spain with the Holy See, which served as a basis for the Concordat. He was then named successively Governor of Cadiz in 1855, Director-General of the Ad- ministration from 1858 to 1861, and lastly, in that same year, Under- Secretary of State for the Interior. In 1864 the Queen called him to the Ministry, together with Mon; O'Donnell chose him in 1865 as Minister of Finance and the Colo- nies; and he had the honoiir of drawing up the law for the abolition of the traffic in black slaves. Lastly, a little before the Revolution of
1868, he was the last to defend with energy in the Cortes the Liberal principle when all the parties which had supported his doctrine had deserted the Parliament. His greatest title to fame is that of having been the first — supported by Sehors Elduayem, BugaUaJ, and