two others — ^to hoist the standard of legitimate and constitutional monarchy, in the full Constituent As- sembly of 1868, and in face of the triumphant Revolution. His fide- lity and capacity definitely obtained for him the supreme direction of the Alfonsist party, and on the pro- clamation of Alfonso XII. as King in Dec.j 1874, Sefior C^novas del Castillo became President of the Council and Chief of the New Cabi- net, and he continued to hold the Premiership, with the exception of an interval of a few months, down to 1879, when on the return of Mar- shal Martinez Campos from Cuba, Seftor C&novas del Castillo retired from the Premiership and Marshal Campos became Pnme Minister, accepting as his coUeagnies the prin- cipal associates of SeAor C4novas. The skilful resistance of the latter delayed and defeated the Marshal's free trade and emancipation pro- jects, so that on the reassembling of the Cortes (Dec. 1879) he was compelled to resign. Sefior Cinovas del Castillo then returned to power early in the year 1881; however, his Conservative Cabinet was over- ihrown, and a coalition between Seuor Sagasta and Marshal Martinez Campos came into office. Sefior C^novas del Castillo is the author of nunierous works in moral and political sciences, and a History of the House of Austria, which is in
great repute. These publications ave long since gained him admis- sion into the Academy of Madrid. In 1875 SeAor Cdnovas del Castillo received the insignia of the Order of the Red Eagle from the Emperor of Germany, the Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword from the King of Portugal, and the Golden Fleece from the King of Spain.
C ANROBERT, PBAN901S - Cer- tain, Marshal of France and a Senator, was born June 7, 1809, of a good family, not in Brittany, as has frequently been stated, but at St. C^re, in the department of the . Lot. He entered the military
school at St. Cyr in 1826, and having distinguished himself Uiere, joined the army as a private soldier, and was soon made sub-lieutenant of the 47th regiment of the line. He became lieutenant in 1832, and in 1835 embarked for Africa, and took part in the expedition to Mascara. His services in the provinces of Oran were rewarded with a captaincy. He was in the breach at the attack on Constantine, and was wounded in the leg. He received the decora- tion of the Legion of Honour about this time. In 1846 he became Lieutenant-Colonel,and commanded, the 64th regfiment of the line, which was charged to act against the for- midable Bou Maza. In 1847 he was made Colonel of the 3rd regi- ment of light infantry, and in 1848 was intrusted with the command of the expedition against Ahmed- Sghir, who had rallied the tribes of the Bouaounin insurrection. Colonel Canrobert pushed forward as far as the pass of Djerma, defeated the Arabs there, took two sheiks pri- soners, and then returned to Bathna. He left the 3rd regiment to com- mand a regiment of Zouaves, with whom he marched against the Kabyles, was again victorious, being- promoted to the rank of General of Brigade, and at the commencement of 1850 led an expedition against Narah. The Arabs here, eagle-like, had their nests among the rocks. Canrobert advanced three columns to attack the enemy in his retreat, and so skilfully combined their fire^ that in seven hours the Arab strong- hold was destroyed. Louis Napo- leon, when President, appointed Canrobert one of his aides-de-camp ; and, shortly after the wholesale proscriptions and imprisonments which followed the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, gave him a commission, and very extensive powers, to visit the prisons, and select objects of his clemency. Upon the formation of the Army of Uie East in 1854, he was appointed to the command of the first division in the Crimea.