Though a member of the Peelite party, Mr. Cardwell accepted the post of Chief Secretary for Ireland under Lord Palmerston, on his re- turn to office in 1859, and held the Chancellorship of the duchy of Lancaster from Jidy, 1861, till 1864, when he succeeded the Duke of Newcastle as Secretary of State for the Colonies. He held the same appointment under Earl Eussell's administration, and resigned with his colleagues in 1866. In Dec. 1868, on the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet, he became Secretary of State for War, and a member of the Committee of of Council on Education. When the Liberal party went out of office he was raised to the peerage by the title of Viscount Cardwell (Feb. 1874). He was for some time an Ecclesiastical Commissioner for England, which office he resigned in Nov. 1882. While he was at the War Office, he proposed and carried through Parliament a series of measures, having for their object the entire reorganization of the British Army, by means of the Abolition of Purchase, the intro- duction of the "short service" system of enlistment, the localiza- tion of regiments, the transfer of certain powers over the militia from the Lords-Lieutenant to the Crown, and the placing the militia and volunteer forces directly under the Generals commanding districts. His lordship was one of iSie literary executors of the will of the late Sir Eobert Peel, whofie " Memoirs " he edited conjointly with the late Earl Stanhope (2 vols., 1856^. He married, in 1838, Miss Anne irarker, youngest child of the late Mr. Charles Stewart Parker of Pairlie, Ayrshire.
CAEL^N, Madams Emilla Fltooabb, novelist, was born m Stockholm, in 1810. Her maiden name was Schmidt, and her first marriage te a musician named Flyggare was an unfortunate one. After ite dissolution she was mar-
ried to M. J. G. Carlen, a lawyer of Stockholm, known as a poet and romancist. He died July 6, 1875. Madame Carl^n's first novel, " Wal- demar Klein," appeared in 1838, and by 1851, an interval of only thirteen years, she had published her twenty- second work. Amongst the pub- lications best known in this ooirn- try are, "Eose of Thistleton," "Woman's Life," "The Birth- right," "The Magic Goblet," "Ivar, or the Skjut's Boy," "The Lover's Stratagem," " Mary Louise," "Evente of the Year," "The Maiden's Tower," and "John." This by no means exhausts the catalogue of this lady's produc- tions, for she is a most prolific writer.
CAELINGFOED (Lord) Thb Eight Hon. Chiohbsteb Sakuel Pabkinson Fobtescue, K.P., is the youngest son of the late Lieutenant- Colonel Chichester Fortescue, of Eavensdale Park, co. Louth, some time member for HiUsborough in the Irish Parliament, and brother of Lord Clermont, to whose Irish title Lord CarHn^ord stands as heir pre- sumptive. His mother was Martha, daughter of the late Mr. Samuel Meade Hobson, of the city of Waterford. He was born Jan. 18, 1823, and educated at Eton, and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A. 1844 ; M.A. 1847). He obtained a first class in classical honours, and in 1846 gained the Chancellor's prize for an English essay on the "Effects of the Conquest of Eng- land by the Normans." He en- tered Parliament at the general election of 1847 as one of the mem- bers for the county of Louth, which he represented, in the Liberal in- terest, till Feb. 1874, when he was defeated. Mr. Chichester Fortescue held a Junior Lordship of the Trea- sury under Lord Aberdeen in 1854- 55 ; the XJnder-Secretaryship of State for the Colonies in 1857-58 j and again in 1859-65. He was sworn a member of the Privy Coun- cil in 1864. In 1865 he was made