of his age^ oonsents to be the in- strument of the same men who ex- pelled him from his fatherland with his mother^ overwhelmed with insults and outrages. Notwith- standing, I do not protest. My dignity, and the dignity of my army, permit no other protest than that uttered with irresistible elo- quence by the mouths of our can- non. The proclamation of Prince Alfonso, so far from closing against me the gates of Madrid, opens to me, on the contrary, the way for the regeneration of our beloved country. It is not in vain that a new epoch of pretorianism offends Spani^ pride. It is not in vain that my invincible volunteers have taken up arms. They who knew how to conquer at Epault, at Alpinos, Monte jura, Castelfullit, Sommorostro, Abuerzuzo, Castillon, Cordova, and Umieta, will know how to prevent a new insult to our magnanimous Spain, another scan- dal to civilized Europe. CaUed to crush the revolution in our country, I will crush it whether it shows the savage ferocity of shameless impiety, or whether it shelters and conceals itself beneath the cloak of a pretended piety. Spaniards! By our God, by o\ir Spain, I swear to you that, faithful to my holy mission, I will keep our glorious flag unstained. It symboluses the saving principles which are to-day our hope, and which will be to- morrow our salvation. The con- test was carried on with great stubbornness and gallantry by the Carlists for more than a twelve- month after this ; but in Jan. 1876, Tolosa, their last stron^^hold, fell, and its defenders, flying in disorder, sought refuge on French territory. Bon Carlos went to Paris, and in a manifesto to the Spaniards, dated from the capital, March 3, 1876, he said : — '* Being desirous of putting a stop to bloodshed, I forbear con- tinuing a glorious, but at present fruitless stxug^le. In the face of a great superiority of numbers, and
in view especially of the sufferings of my volunteers, it became neces- sary to return the sword to the scabbard. I will never sign a con^ venio. My flag remains furled un- til the moment which God shall fix as the supreme hour of redemp- tion." On July 18, 1881, Don Carlos was expelled from France on the ground of his having osten- tatiously fdlied himself with the partisans of the Comte de Cham- bord. Don Carlos has five children — the Infanta Blanca, born Sept. 7» 1868 ; the Infante Jaime, Prince of the Asturias, born June 27, 1870; the Infanta Elvira, born July 28, 1871 ; the Infanta Beatrix, born March 21, 1874 ; and the Infanta Alix, born June 29, 1876. . CAELSON, Fbbdbbik Fbbdi- NAND, a Swedish historian, born in the province of Upland, June 13, 1811, was educated in the Univer- sity of Upsala, and after graduat- ing there, made a tour through Denmark, Germany, Italy, and France, staying for a considerable time in Berlin and Eome. On hia return in 1836 he was appointed Professor of History at Upsala, but the next year he was sent for to Stockholm to be tutor to the Prince Eoyal. In 1847, however, he was again elected to the Chair of His- tory at Upsala; he represented that University in the Diet for several years; and in 1863 he re- signed his professorship on being placed at the head of the Ministry of Public Worship at StockhoLm. His great work is a "History of Sweden," the first two volumes <^ which appeared in Swedish and German in 1855-6. He is a member of the Academy of Sweden.
CAENAEVON (Eabl of), Thb Eight Hon. Hbnbt Howabd Molt- NBux Hbbbbbt, eldest son of Heniy John G^rffe, the third earl (who was an acoomplished scholar and poei), by Henrietta Anna, daughter of Lord Henry T. Molyneux Howard, bom June 24, 1831, was educated at Eton and Christ Churchy Oxford.