a Boyal Commissioner to investigate the constitution of the Law Courts. On Mr. Gladstone oomin^ into power in Dec. 1868, Mr. Childers was nominated First Lord of the Admiralty, which office he was com- pelled by ill-health to resign in March, 1871. While at the Admi- ralty Mr. Childers made changes, in 1869, which tended to subordi- nate the members of the Board more effectually to the First Lord, constituting him, in effect. Minister of Marine ; and to render depart- mental officers at once more indi- vidually responsible and more intimate with the controlling mem- bers of the Board. In Jan. 1872, Mr. Childers again accepted the post of Agent-General in this coTintry for the colony of Victoria. He was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in Aug. 1872. His re-election for Ponte- fract on this occasion is memorable as being the first Parliamentary election that took place in England by ballot. He only held the Chan- cellorship of the Duchy of Lan- caster for one year, retiring in Aug. 1873, when Mr. Gladstone's administration was remodelled. On the Liberals returning to power in April, 1880, he was appointed Secretary of State for War ; and on Dec. 16, 1882, he became Chancellor of the Exchequer in succession to Mr. Gladstone, who had held that office jointly with the office of First Lord of the Treasury. Mr. Chil- ders, who was elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society, Jan. 16, 1873, is the author of pamphlets on Free Trade, Railway Policy, and National Education. He is, or has been, the Chairman of the India Peninsula Railway Co., and a Director of the London and County Bank, the Bank of Australia, the Boyal Mail Steam Packet Co., and the Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Co. Mr. Childers married secondly, on April 13, 1879, Katharine Anne, daughter of the late Dr. Gilbert, Bishop of Chichester,
and widow of the Hon. Gilbert Elliot.
CHILDS, Gbobob Washington, bom at Baltimore, Maryland, in 1829, entered the United States Navy at the age of thirteen, and spent fifteen months in the service. He then settled in Philadelphia, where he obtained employment as a shop-boy in a book-store. At the age of eighteen, having saved a few hundred dollars, he set up in business for himself, and before he was twenty-one he became a mem- ber of the publishing firm of Childs and Peterson (1849). On Dec. 6, 1864, he purchaised the Philadelphia Public Ledger^ a daily paper, which, under his management, became a very influential and widely-circu- lated journal. Mr. Childs is noted not only for his success as a jour- nalist and publisher, but also for his hospitality and liberality.
CHINA, MID-, Bishop of. (See
CHINA, NORTH, Bishop of. (See Scott.)
CHITTY, The Hon. Sm Joseph William, is the second and only surviving son of the late Mr, Thomas Chitty, of the Inner Temple, and was born in London in 1828. He was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1851, taldng a first-class in classics. Subsequently he was elected a Fellow of Exeter College, and proceeded M.A. in 1854. He was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1856, and was ap- pointed a Queen's Counsel in 1874. Mr. Chitty for some years enjoyed a very extensive practice in the Bolls Court, of which he was the leader. He was formerly a Major in the Inns of Court Yolunte^^. To the general public, however, Mr. Chitty's name was most fami- liarly known in his capacity as um- pire at the Oxford and Cambridi^ boat-race, which post he filled for some years. He entered Parlia- ment at the general election of 1880 as one of Qie Liberal members