Page:Men of the Time, eleventh edition.djvu/268

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for Oxford. In Sept. 1881, he was appointed a Judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, in place of Sir Qeorge Jessel, the Master of the Bolls, who had been transferred to the Court of Appeal. Shortly afterwards he received the customary honour of knighthood. He married in 1858 Clara Jessie, sixth daughter of the late Right Hon. Sir Frederick Pol- lock.

CHEISTCHURCH, Bishop op. {Bee Habpbb, Ds.)

CHEISTIAN IX., Kino op Den- XABK, fourth son of the late Duke William of Schleswig - Holstein- Sonderburg-OlCicksburg, was born April 8, 1818. Before his accession to the crown, he was Inspector^ General and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Cavalry, and in 1842 married a daughter of the Land- grave William of Hesse-Cassel, by whom he has had several children, and among them the Princess Alex- andra of Wales, and the Princess Di^mar, married to the Czarewitch in 1866. The succession was vested in him by the protocol of London, Kay 8, 1852, and he ascended the throne on the death of Frederic VII., Nov. 15, 1863. On his acces- sion, the position of affairs with respect to Schleswig-Holstein was completely changed. The son of. the duke of Augustenburg imme- diately laid claim to the sovereignty of the duchies, although his father had for a compensation resigned all his rights in 1852. The indepen- dence of Holstein more especially, and of a portion of Schleswig, was warmly espoused by the German Diet, which forthwith ordered the advance of a Federal army to oc- cupy the debatable territory, for the purpose of enforcing its enfran- chisement from Danish rule. Be- fore matters had proceeded far, Austria and Prussia determined to interfere, and by a combined armed occupation of the disputed territory to bring the question to an issue independently of the Diet, and in

opposition to the wishes of that body. They accordingly invaded tiie duchies, which, after a hotly contested campaign, they succeeded in wresting from Denmark, and taking temporary possession of Jut- land. Christian IX., disappointed in not obtaining assistance from some European power, after the failure of tJie conference convened in London in 1864, — which failure was in some measure attributable to the obstinacy of the Danish Go- vernment, — entered into negotia- tions for peace with Prussia and Austria, and a treaty was signed at Vienna, Oct. 30, 1864. The king of Denmark renounced all his rights to Schleswig-Holstein and Lauen- burg, and in 1866 the two German powers quarrelled over the spoil. Since then his Majesty has sought to develop the interior resources and popular institutions of his country. A new constitution was inaugurated in Nov. 1866, when the King opened the first Bigsdag, the members of which were elected in accordance with the new electoral law. The army and navy have also been thoroughly reorganised, agriculture and commerce hiave received a great stimulus, and several railways have been constructed. Christian IX. and Queen Louise visited the Prin- ces^ of Wales at Marlborough House, London, in March, 1867. The mar- riage of the Crown Prince of Den- mark with the Princess Louisa, daughter of the King of Sweden, at Stockholm, on July 28, 1869, was hailed as a pledge of union between the two countries. His Majesty grranted a new constitution to Ice- land, which came into operation in Aiigust, 1874, that being the thou- sandth year of Iceland s existence as a nation. He went to Eeikiajvik on the occasion of the anniversary being celebrated, and on his return paid a flying visit to Leith and Edinburgh (Aug. 18, 1874). CHRISTIAN (Prince), His


Chbistian - Chablss - Augustus,