Pbincb op Schlbswio-Holstein^ known in thia country ae Prince Christian, brother of Duke Frederick Christian Augustus, of Schleswig- Holstein - Sonderburg - Augusten- buig, born Jan. 22, 1831, married at Windsor Castle, July 5, 1866, Helena Augusta Victoria, Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, and Duchess of Saxony, who was born May 25, 1846. Prince Christian, who is a General in the British army, received the title of Boyal Highness by command of Her Ma- jesty, and was made a Knight of the Gurter in July, 1866. He received the Order of St. Catharine from the Emperor of Bussia in May, 1874.
CHRISTIAN, The Eight Hon. Jonathan, son of the late Mr. George Christian, solicitor, of Dub- lin, was born at Carrick-on-Suir, co. Tipperary, in 1811. He received his education at Trinity College, Dublin; was called to the bar in Ireland in 1834 ; was made a Queen's Counsel in 1846 ; Queen's Serjeant in 1851 ; Solicitor-General for Ire- land in 1856 ; fourth Justice of the Court of Common Pleas in Ireland in 1858; and Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal in 1867, on which last occasion he was added to the Privy Council in Ireland. He re- tired from the bench Nov. 11, 1878.
CHRISTIE, William Henbt Mahony, F.E.S., Astronomer Eoyal, was born at Woolwich, Oct. 1, 1845, being a younger son of the late Pro- fessor S. H. Christie, of the Eoyal Military Academy, Woolwich, and formerly Secretaiy to the Eoyal So- ciety. He was educated at King's College School, London, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, which he entered in 1864, having won a minor scholarship ; he subsequently gained a foundation scholarship, and was afterwards elected a Fellow of his college. He took his B.A. degree in 1868 as fourth wrangler, and in 1871 proceeded to the degree of M.A. In 1870 he was appointed Chief Assistant at the Eoyal Ob- servatory, Greenwich. Mr. Christie
contrived and introduced several valuable improvements in the scien- tific apparatus there in use, includ- ing a new form of spectroscope, an instrument for determining the colours and brightness of the stars, a recording micrometer, and a po- larizing solar eye-piece. He directed particiuar attention at the Eoyal Observatory to spectroscopy and to photog^phy as a means of re- cording the observations. He is a Fellow of the Eoyal Society, and was elected Secreta^ of the Eoyal As- tronomical Society in 1880. In Sept. 1881, on the retirement of Sir G. B. Airy, he was chosen to succeed him in the office of Astronomer Eoyal. To the proceedings of the Eoyal So- ciety and of the Eoyal Astronomical Society Mr. Christie has contributed several valuable papers. He is also the founder and editor of The Observatory, a Monthly Review of Astronomy ; and he is the author of the " Manual of Elementary Astro- nomy," published in 1875 by the Society for Promoting Christian Kn owle dge.
CHUECH, Pbbderick Edwin, bom at Hartford, Connecticut, May 14, 1826. He early developed a fondness for art, and became a pupil of Thomas Cole. Among his first notable works were some views in the Catskill Mountains. He visited South America in 1853, and again in 1857, and on his return from his second visit finished his great pic- ture, "The Heart of the Andes." In 1857 he completed a large paint- ing, " View of Niagara Falls from the Canadian Shore," which at once gave him a high rank among land- scape artists ; this was reproduced on a larger scale in 1868, and was exhibited both in England and the United States. He has since painted "Cotopaxi," "Moming," "On the Cordilleras," " Under Niagara," " The Icebergs," " Simset on Mount Desert Island," and "Moonlight under the Tropics." In 1868 he visited Europe and the Holy Land ; among the painting^ inspired by