this visit are " Damascus/' 1869 ; "Jerusalem," 1870; and "The Parthenon," 1871. His "Tropical Scenery," painted from sketches made during a trip in the West Indies, was' exhibited in New York in 1873. He resides at Hudson, New York, but has a studio in New York city. He has been an Academician since 1849.
CHURCH, The Vbbt Rbv. BiCHABD WlUJAM, M.A., D.C.L., I>ean of St. Paul's, was born in 1815. After a distinguished career at the University of Oxford, he took his degree in first-class honours in 1836, and shortly afterwards became a Fellow of Oriel College. He was rector of Whatley, near Prome- Selwood, from 1853 to 1871. In 1854 he published a volume of essays, which stamped him at once as one of the most cultivated scholars, and most graceful writers of the day. Two of the essays in the volume are a review of St. Anselm's life, and have since been expanded into a " Life of St. Anselm," and published as a separate volume. In 1869 "Mx. Church published a volume of Uni- versity Sermons on the relations between Christianity and civiliza- tion, which attracted a good deal of attention. He was appointed Dean of St. Paul's, Sept. 6, 1871. The titles of his works are subjoined : — "The Catechetical Lectures of St. Cyril, translated with notes," in the "Library of the Fathers ;" " Essays and Reviews," 1854 j "The Essays of Montaigne," in "Oxford Essays," 1855; " Civilization and Religion," a sermon, 1860 ; "Sermons preached before the University of Oxford," 1868; "Life of St. Anselm," in MaemiUan's " Sunday Library," 1871 ; " Civilization Before and After Christianiiy," two lectures, 1872 ; " On some Influences of Chris- Uanity upon National Character," three lectures, 1873; "On the Sacred Poetry of Early Religions," two lectures delivei^ in St. Paul's Cathedral, 1874 ; Introductory notice to the " Commentary on the Epistles
and Oospels in the Book of Conmion Prayer," 1874; "The 'Pens^es' of Blaise Pascal," published in the " St. James's Lectures," 1875 ; a lecture on "Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester," published in " Masters in English Theology," 1877 ; "The Beginning of the Middle Ages," 1877, a volume which must be considered as a general intro- duction or preface to the " Epochs of Modem History," rather them as an integral member of the series ; " Human Life and its Conditions," 1878 ; " Dante : an Essay," to which is added a translation of " De Mon- archia," 1878 ; and " Spenser," in " English Men of Letters, edited by John Morley," 1879.
CIALDINI, Enbico, an Italian general, born at Lombardina, a country seat in Modena, Aug. 8, 1811, marched with Gen. Zucchi to aid the Romagna insurrection at Bologna, in 1831, and after the Austrian intervention into Central Italy he was compelled to emigrate. He went to Paris, where he studied chemistry under M. Th^nard, and was preparing to study medicine, when he accepted a proposal made to go to Spain as a soldier, and took part in the war of succession. When the revolution of 1848 broke out, he was a lieutenant-colonel in the Spanish service. Mazzini recom- mended Col. Cialdini to the Pro- vincial Government of Milan, which was in want of officers, and a letter from the secretary of that govern- ment reached him in Aragon. Col. Cialdini obeyed the call; but on arriving at Milan, he found Lom- bardy under the rule of Charles Alb^. It was not the moment for hesitating ; the king had just been beaten, and Italy was about to become a prey to Austria. Col. Cialdini joined the corps of Gen. Durando and marched on Yicenza, where he received three dangerous wounds, which for a year r^uced him to a state of helplessness. Col. Cialdini was sent, in 1855, to the Crimea by the Sardinian Govern*
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