Page:Men of the Time, eleventh edition.djvu/271

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254

CLABfiTIE.

ment with the rank of general, and played a distinguished part in the battle of the Tchemaja. In the war in Italy, in 1859, Col. Cialdini was the first in the allied army who fired a shot at the enemy, executing the passage of the Sesia under the fire of the Austrians, whom he drove from their position. This corps d*aTm4e then went into the moun- tains to act in the Tyrol. The peace of YiUafranca chedced him in his career. In 1860 he defeated the Papal army under Gen. Lamorid^re at the battle of Castelfidardo ; in 1861 he took Gaeta after a bom- bardment of seventeen days, and captured the citadel of Messina a fortnight later. He had been made a major-general after the campaign of the Umbria, and after his capture of Messina the king nominated him general of the army, a rank equiva- lent to that of field-marshal. In 1861 he was appointed Viceroy of Naples, with full power to suppress brigandage, a mission which he dis- charged successfully. 6^. Cialdini, who has received various orders, was made a senator in March, 1864, and took a prominent part in the campaign against Austria in 1866. In Oct. 1867, he was appointed Italian Minister to the Court of Austria, but he never proceeded to Vienna, and in the following Janu* ary he formally resigned ui« ap- pointment. On the resignation of M. Batazzi, in Oct. 1867, the king intrusted General Cialdini with the formation of a cabinet on the basis of the strict maintenance of the S^>- tember Convention with France, in regard to the integrity of the Papal territory. In this undertaking, however, he was unsuccessful. Soon afterwards he was nominated Com- mander-in-Chief of the troops in Central Italy. In 1870 he was en- gaged in the invasion of the State of the Church, and its annexation to the kingdom of Italy. He was sent as ambassador to Paris in July, 1876. CLABETIE, JuLSs Abnaud

Abs&nb, a French writer, born at Limoges, Dec. 8, 1840, was educated in the Bonaparte Lyceum^ at Paris. Adopting literature as a profession, he contributed a very large number of articles to various French and Belgian journals, ii.* eluding the Fatrie, the France, the B«ime FrwiM^iie, the Figaro, and the Independance Beige. In 1866 he followed in Italy the campaign a«kinst Austria, in the capacity of correspondent of the Avenir National, Two series of lectures, delivered by him at Paris in 1865 and 1868, were interdicted by the Imperial authorities. In 1869 he was condemned to pay a fine of 1000 francs for having described, in the Figaro, under the pseudonym of

  • ' Candide," the double execution of

Martin, called Bidaur^, by order of the Prefect Pastoureau, in the department of the Var. The follow- ing year he succeeded M. Francisque Stut^y as dramatic critic of the Opinion ^aiionale, and subsequently he followed the French army to Metz, and sent letters from the seat of war to the Opinion Nationale, the Illustration and the BappeL After the fall of the Empire he was ap- pointed by M. Gambetta to the post of secretary of the Commission <^ the papers of the Tuileries ; but he soon resigned this office, and he was next cha^^ by M. Etienne Arago, Mayor of Paris, with the duty of organising a library and lecture- haSl in each of the twenty anon- dissements of Paris. For a very short time he commanded the second battalion of the volunteers of the National Guard, which was dissolved by General Clement Thomas when those volunteers wer* rei^iaced by the mobilised National Guards. M. Jules Claretie was present at nearly all the engage- ments whidi took place under Uie walls of Paris, and on Jan. 20, 1871, in the capacity of an officer of tiie staff, he negotiated with the aide- de-camp of the Crown Prinee of Prussia the truce which gave an