2 vols., 1866 J " Correspond- e Marguerite d'Autriche avec pe 11./' vol. i. 1867 ; " Jeanne le," 1869, in which he gives a f the question connected with happy mother of Charles V., is opposed to that of Gustave QTotii ; and " La Bibliotheque inces Corsini k Eome," 1869, ch the history of a library is a^ interesting as if it were a lal narrative. He was elected responding Member of the b Academy of Sciences, Dec. 16.
)E, Niels Wilhelm, a Danish ser, born at Copenhagen, Feb. >17, became first violinist in hapel Koyal at Copenhagen. 1 he won the prize offered by openhagen Musical Associa- ►y his first great composition, iklange von Ossian." Sup- l by the king he proceeded, in bo Leipsic, there to complete usical education. Having in aade a tour into Italy, he re- l to Leipsic in order to under- n the absence and in the place adelssohn, the direction of the idhaus concerts. In 1848 he I down in Copenhagen, where icame Organist, Director of , and Master of the Chapel . He was elected one of the Q members of the Berlin my of Arts in 1874 ; in 1876, Danish Folkething voted life ms of 3,000 crowns to two a.1 composers, one of whom is Gade. He was elected a Cor- iding Member of the French ate, Nov. 16, 1878. Besides ize compositions he has also n five symphonies, a quin- md an octette, several pieces le voice with orchestra, as Erl King's Daughter," and iigtide Phantasy," and many ir compositions. BDNEE, James, son of the late Gairdnor, M.D., F.R.C.S.E., om at Edinburgh, March 22, He was educated at Edin- . In 1815, when ho was 17,
his father intended him for a busi- ness life in Glasgow, but it did not suit his taste, and after thi'ee months' trial he returned to Edin- burgh and heard lectures for a year at college. On the formation of Lord J. Eusseirs Ministry in 1846, his father was able to obtain a Government appointment for him. He was appointed Clerk in the Public Record Office in 18 kJ, and Assistant Keeper of Public Records in 1859. Mr. Gairdner has edited "Memorials of Henry VII." (in Bolls Series), 1858; **^ Letters and Papers illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III. and Henry VII." (in the same series), 2 vols., 1861-3 j " Historical Collections of a London Citizen " (for the Camden Society), 1876; and "Three Fifteenth Cen- tury Chronicles," 1880. He has also edited two volumes (vols. v. and vi., 1880-2) of the " Lettei-s and Papers of Henry VIII." (one of the Calendars of State Papers published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls), a work commenced by the late Professor Brewer, and still in progress. He edited in Mr. Arber's Series a new edition of the Paston Letters (3 vols., 1872-5) ; and he is the author of " The Houses of Lancaster and York" (1874) in Messrs. Longman's "Epochs" Series ; " Life and Reign of Richard III." (1878) ; and of the volume " Eng- land " in the Christian Knowledge Society's series, entitled " Early Chronicles of Europe," 1879. He edited also, in 1881, " Studies in
English History," consisting of es- says by himself and tlie late Mr. Spedding, republished from dif- ferent periodicals.
GALDOS, Benito Pebez. See Perez Galdos.
GALE, James, Ph.D., F.G.S., an inventor, born at Crabtree, near Plymouth, Devonshire, in July, 1833, and educated at Tavistock in a select class, formed by the master of the British School. While still a youth he was afflicted with the total loss of sight, but he bore this