of the White Horse," 1858, though dated 1859; "Tom Brown at Ox- ford/* 3 toIb., 1861; "Eeligio Laici/' 1861, being the first of a series of Tracts for Priests and People,*' and afterwards reprinted as "A Layman's Faith," 1868; " The Cause of Freedom : which is its Champion in America, the North or the South?" 1863; Alfred the Great," in the" Sunday Library for Household Beading," 1869; "Memoir of a Brother'^ [Geo. C. Hughes}, (2nd edit., 1873) ; a Pre- fatory Memoir to Charles Kings- ley's " Alton Locke," 1876 ; " The Old Church: what shall we do with It ? " a volume directed against the movement for the dis- establishment of the Church of England 1878 ; and " A Memoir of Daniel Macmillan," 1882. He also contributed a preface to "Whit- more's Poems;" and edited J. E. LoweU's "Biglow Papers," 1859; the Comte de Paris' work on " The Trade Unions of England," 1869 ; and J. F. D. Maurice's treatise on "The Friendship of Books," 1874. Mr. Hughes married, in 1847, Anne Frances, eldest daughter of the Rev. James Ford, Prebendary of Exeter.
HUGO (Vicomtb), Victor Maris, was born at Besan^on, Feb. 26, 1802, his father being a colonel in the French army. From Be- 8an9on he was carried to Elba, to Paris, to Bome, and to Naples, before he was five years of age. In 1809 he returned to France and received classical instruction at a religious house. The first volume of his "Odes and Ballads" ap- peared in 1822, and his tales, "Hans of Iceland," and "Bug- Jargal," were written about tlus time. In 1826 he published a second volume of "Odes and Bal- lads," which exhibited a change in his political and literary opinions, and in 1827 he composed his drama, " CromweU." In 1829 he published his " Last Days of a Condemned Criminal," the terrific interest of
which secured it an immense suc- cess. M. Hugo prepared a further attack on the stiff and unnatural style of French dramatic literature in his "Hemani," first played at the Th^Atre Fran^ais, Feb. 26, 1830, and it caused a scene of riot- ous confusion. The Academy went so far as to lay a complaint against his attempted innovations at the foot of the throne. Charles X. sensibly replied that "in matters of art he was no more than a private person." Shortly after the Revolution of July, 1830, his " Marion de Lorme," which had been suppressed by the censorship under the Restoration, was brought out with success. " Le Roi s'amuse " was performed at the Th^Atre Fran^ais in Jan. 1832, and the day after its production was interdicted by the Government. M. Victor Hugo, who published a number of dramatic pieces of various merit, after many struggles was admitted into the Academy in 1841, and was created a peer of France by Louis- Philippe. In 1849 he was chosen President of the Peace Congress, of which he had been a leading mem- ber. After 1852 M. Victor Hugo resided in exile in Jersey, Guern- sey, and elsewhere, and refused to avisdl himself of the general am- nesty issued Aug. 15, 1859. On the fall of the empire, however, he hastened back to his native country, entered heartily into the RepubH- can movement, and was returned to the National Assembly at Bor- deaux, which he soon quitted in disgust, sending, on Mardi 9, 1871, the following characteristic letter to the President, M. Gr^vy : — "Three weeks ago the Assembly refused to hear Garibaldi ; to-day it refuses to hear me. I resign my seat." M. Hugo then repaired to Brussels, but the Belgian Govern- ment, alarmed by his violent writ- ings, and his avowed sympathy with the Communists, expelled him from the country. He then sought refuge in the seclusion of l^e Httle