town of Vianden, in Luxemburg, where he composed ** L'Ann6e Ter- rible." Betuming to Paris in July,
1871, he pleaded earnestly for the lives of Bossel, Ferr^, and the other Communists, to no effect. He accepted the mandat imp^atif in the following elections, but M. Vautrian defeated him. M. Victor Hugo has given an account of this period of his career in "Actes et Paroles, 1870-71-72," published in
1872. He wrote much after he quitted France in 1852. His satire, " Napoleon le Petit," appeared at Brussels in 1852; "Les ChAti- ments," at the same place, in 1853 ; and ** Contemplations," at Paris, in 1853. His fame rests principally on his "Notre-Dame de Paris," which has been translated into most European languages, and is known in England under the title of the "Hunchback of Notre- Dame." His semi-historical and social romance, "Les Mis^rables," translated into nine languages, was issued at Paris, Brussels, London, New York, Madrid, Berlin, St. Petersburg, and Turin, the same day, April 3, 1862. This was fol- lowed in 1864 by a rhapsodical work on Shakspere — not likely to add to his reputation. His last novel, "L'Homme qui Bit," ap- peared in 1869. M. Victor Hugo has been a prolific writer, and a l&t of his works would exceed our limits. Amongst those best known in England are " Claude Gueux," a tale; "Lucr^ Borgia," "Marie Tudor," "Buy Blas,^' "Les Bur- graves," and " Marion de Lorme," plays ; and " Le Ehin," a book of travels. His most recent works are " La L^ende des Siedes," new series, 6 vols. 1877-83 ; " Histoire d'un Crime," 2 vols. 1877-78, being an account of Louis Napo- leon^ coup d*4tat; "Le Pape," a poem, 1878 ; " La Piti^ Supreme," a poem, 1879 j " Beligions et Beligion," 1880, a poem which, beginning, like the " ChAtiments," in a tone of comedy and irony, re-
views creeds and systems, passes from Catholicism to Nihilism, and concludes by an affirmation of a Theism without "catechisms, kor- ans, and grammars " ; " Les QuaU« Vents de TEsprit," 1881, poems ; and " Torquemada," a dramatic poem (1882).
HULL, Edward, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland, son of the Eev. J. D. Hull, vicar of Wickhambrook, was born in Antrim, May 21, 1829. He was extensively employed upon the geological survey of Great Britain under the late Sir H. T. De la Beche and Sir B. I. Murchi- son. In 1867 he was appointed District Surveyor to the Geological Survey of Scotland, and in 1869 Director of the Survey of Ireland, and Professor of Geology in the Boyal College of Science, Dublin, on the decease of the late Professor Jukes. On the appointment of the Boyal Commission on Coal Be- sources. Professor Hull prepared an estimate of the quantity of coal in the coalfields of Ireland, and also contributed information on those of England, which is published in the Beport. In 1873 he was elected President of the Boyal Geological Society of Ireland, and in 1874 President of the Geological Section of the British Association at its meeting in Belfast. In 1879 he re- ceived the honorary degree of LL.D. from the TTniversity of Glasgow. He is the author of several works, of which the follow- ing are the more important: — "The Physical Geology and Geo- graphy of Ireland," 1878; "The Coal Fields of Great Britain," 4th edit. 1881 ; " On Building and Ornamental Stones of Great Britain and Foreign Countries," 1872; memoirs " On the Triassic and Per- mian Bocks of the Midland Counties of England," 1869; "On the Geology of the Leicestershire Coal Field,^' 1860; "On the Geology of the Country around Oldham and Manchester," 1863 j " On the