show themselves openly till after the Boman Bevolution of 18-1<8. Mamiani endeavoured to stimulate the courage of his compatriots by imbuing them with his own eclectic philosophy — a sort of com- promise between science^ faith, and poetry. At the commencement of 1848 he repaired to Kome^ and took his place among the most active members of the moderate liiberal party, and when the consti- tution was formed, accepted the Presidency of the Cabinet. His attempt to enforce constitutional principles did not satisfy the stem exigencies of the revolution, and he resigned, and repaired to Turin, where, in conjimction with Gioberti and others, he founded the Society of the Union of Italy, of which he became President. After the mur- der of Count Bossi he returned to Bome, and accepted the i>ortfolio of Foreign Affairs in the Galletti Ministry, but soon separated from his colleagues, and supported the French intervention, after which he retired to Genoa, where he lived until the Italian war of 1859, when he appeared in the Parliament of Turin, and, taking an active part in politics, was appointed Minister of Public Instruction in Jan., 1860, Ambassador to Greece in March, 1861, and went to represent the Italian Government at Berne in 1865. He has written several phi- losophical and political works, in addition to some poems very popu- lar amongst his countrymen. In 1870 he became editor of a new quarterly review. La Filosofia delle Scuole Italiane, In 1880 he pub- lished a work called " The Religion of the Future," and, in 1882, " Delle Questioni Sociali e particolarmente dei Proletarj e del Capitale."
MANBY, Chables, C.E., F.R.S., F.G.S., eldest son of the late Mr. Aaron Manby, of the Horsley Iron Works, Staffordshire, was born in 1804, and served an apprenticeship as a practical engineer under his father. At an early age he was in-
trusted with the erection of the first marine engines with oscillat- ing cylinders, patented by his father, and in 1820 he designed and con- structed the Aaron Manby — the first iron steam vessel that ever made a sea voyage — serving as chief engi- neer on board. He superintended the erection of the gas-works at Paris for " Manby, Wilson, et Henry," became one of the mana- gers of the iron works at Charenton, near Paris, and went to the Creusot Iron Works, which he remodelled. He then entered the Government service, and was subsequently ap- pointed chief engineer of the tobacco manufactories for the French Go- vernment. At the end of 1829 he became connected with the Beau- fort Iron Works in South Wales, where he remained until 1836, when he removed to London, and com- menced practice as a civil engineer. In 1839 he became Secretary of the Institute of Civil Engineers, and on resigning that position, in 1856, was presented with a testimonial and a purse of two thousand guineas. He is still the honorary secretary of that society, and the representative of the firm of Robert Stephenson and Co., of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He was a member of the Scientific International Commission appointed by M. de Lesseps to consider the projected Isthmus of Suez Canal, and was joint Secretary with M. Barth^lemy St. Hilaire, both re- signing when the scheme became a commercial speculation. He has been extensively engaged on scien- tific commissions and investigations, is a Knight of the Legion of Honour of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of Italy, of the Danebrog of Denmark, Officer of the Rose of Brazil, and Knight Commander of the Order of Wasa of Sweden and Norway. He is Lieutenant-Colonel of the Engineer and Railway Volun- teer Staff Corps, which he projected in 1860, and which was embodied in 1865, and is constantly consulted by the authorities on questions of trantji.