of the English Language/* 1856; " Life and Times of Aaron Burr," 1858 ; " Life of Andrew Jackson," I860; "General Butler in New Orleans/' 1863; "Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin/' 1864 ; " Life of John Jacob Astor/' 1865 ; " Famous Americans," 1867 ; " The People's Book of Biography," 1868 ; "Smoking and Drinkmg," 1868; "Topics of the Time," 1871; "Tri- umphs of Enterprise," 1871; "Words of Washington," 1872; "Life of Thomas Jefferson/' 1874; " Caricature in all Times and Lands/' 1878; and "Life of Vol- taire/' 2 vols., 1881. In 1856 he married the well-known authoress, " Fanny Fern." He resided in New York until 1876, when he removed to Newburyport, Massa- chusetts.
PASSAGLIA, The Abbe Caelo, D.D., was born in Italy in 1814, received his education at Borne, took orders, joined the Society of Jesus, and became Professor of Theology in the Eoman University. He is the author of several learned treatises on Biblical Interpretation, including " A Commentary on the Prerogatives of St. Peter, the Chief of the Apostles," published at Batisbon in 1850 ; a treatise " On the Eternity of Future Punishment;" another in defence of "The Imma- culate Conception of the Blessed iVirgin;" and has edited, with additional notes, the great work of Petavius on Dogmatic Theology. In 1861 he publirfied a remarkable pamphlet in Latin, in which he counselled the Pope to abandon his temporal state and power, in obedi- ence to the voice of united Italy. It was placed upon the Index Ex- purgatorius by the ecclesiastical authorities, and its author soon | afterwards left Bome. He was ! appointed, at the instance of King i Victor Emmanuel, a Theological ] Professor in the University of Turin, | was elected member of the ItaUan i Parliament in Jan., 1863, and ^k ai^ active part in promoting [
the formation of an independent Liberal Catholic party in Italy. He was made Grand Officer of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus in Jan., 1863. In Nov., 1882, he was completely reconciled with the Holy See, and resumed the eccle- siastical dress.
PASTEUB, Louis, chemist, born at Ddle, Jura, Dec. 27, 1822, entered the University in 1840, became a supernumerary Master of Studies at the College of Besan^on, was received as a pupil in the Ecole Normale in 1843, took the degree of Doctor in 1847, and was appointed Professor of Physic at the Faculty of Sciences, Strasburg, in 1848. At the end of 1854 he was intrusted as Dean with the organization of the newly created Faculty of Sci- ences at Lille, and in 1857 returned to Paris, and imdertook the "scien- tific direction" of the ficole Nor- » male. In Dec, 1863, he was ap- pointed Professor of Geology, Physics, and Chemistry at the £cole des Beaux-Arts, and was elected a member of the Institute. The Eoyal Socie^ of London, in 1856, awarded M. Pasteur the Bum- ford medal for his researches rela- tive to the polarization of light, &c. He was decorated with the Legion of Honour Aug. 12, 1853, was promoted to be an officer of that Order in 1863, and a com- mander in 1868. In 1869 he was elected one of the fifty foreigjn members of the Boyal Society of London. M. Pasteur has written numerous works relating to chemis- try, which have been favourably received, and for which, in 1861, he obtained the Jecker prize. His contributions have appeared in the " Becueil des Savants fitrangers," and the " Annales de Chimie et de Physique," and he published, in 1863, in a separate form, a work entitled " Nouvel Exemple de Fer- mentation determine par des Ani- malcules Infusoires pouvant vivre sans Oxyg^ne Libre.*' In 1874 the NationaJ Assembly accorded to M.