Stuttgart, Tabingen, Halle, and Berlin, and in 1841 travelled as private tutor, in France, Switzer- land, and Italy. From 184^ to 184t he lectured in the University of Berlin on exegesis and church history. In 181-4 he went to America, where he became Profes- sor of Theology in the Lutheran Seminary of Mercersburg, Pennsyl- vania (1841-63). He removed to New York in 1863 ; visited Europe in 1865 ; was secretary of the New York Sabbath Committee, 1864-69 ; and lecturer at the theological seminaries in Andover, Hartford, and New York. In 1871 he became Professor of Church History in the Union Theological Seminary, New York. He is one of the founders of the American branch of the Evan- gelical Alliance, and was sent three times (1869, 1872, 1873) to Europe to arrange for the General Confer- ence which was held in New York in Oct., 1873. He is a member of a number of historical and literary societies, and is President of the American Bible Revision Com- mittee. Among the more impor- tant of his numerous works are: '* History of the Apostolic Church," 1853; "Sketch of the PoUtical, Social, and Religious Character of the United States," 1855 ; " Ger- many, its Universities, Theology, and Religion,'* 1857; "History of the Christian Church," 3 vols., 1858-1867; "German Hymn Book," 1859; "The Christ of the Gospels," 1864; "The Person of Christ," 1866, new edition, 1881 ; "Lectures on the Civil War in America," 1865; "Christ in Song," 1869; " Revision of the English Version of the New Testament, 1874; "The Vatican Council," 1875; "The Creeds of Christendom," 3 vols., 1876 ; " Harmony of the Reformed Confessions," 1877 ; " Through Bible Lands," 1878 ; " Dictionary of the Bible," 1880 j and in conjunction with Arthur Gilman, " Library of Religious Poetry," 1881. He is editor of the Anglo-American
adaptation of Lange*s "Commen- tary on the Bible," begun in 18G4, and of the " International Revision Commentary on the New Testa- ment," begun in 1881.
SCHARP, Gbobge, F.S.A., son of a Bavarian artist of the same name, who had settled in London in 1816. He was born Dec. 16, 1820, is weD known as a writer on subjects con- nected with art, and as a skilfal artist, having studied its principles imder his father, who died in London in Nov., 1860. He was educated at London University School, and having gained medals at the Society of Arts, was admitted a student of the Royal Academy in 1838. His first published work was a series of etchings, entitled " Scenic Effects," illustrating the Shakspe- rean and Classical revivals by Mac- ready, when manager of Covent Garden Theatre in 1S3H-9. He travelled in Italy in 1840, and accompanied Sir C. Fellows in a journey through Lycia and other parts of Asia Minor, whither he proceeded again in 1843, as draughtsman to a government ex- pedition. A large collection of his drawings, both of Lycian views and outlines of sculpture, is deposited in the British Museum. After his return he painted some oil pictures, which were exhibited at the Royal Academy and at the British Insti- tution ; but his time has been chiefly devoted to illustrating books ; among which mav be mentioned Fellows's " Lycia, Murray's " H- lustrated Prayer-Book," Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome," 1847; Milman's " Horace," 1849 ; Kugler's " Handbook of Italian and German Painting," 1851, 2nd edit., 1855, in which he devised a collected series of minute representations of all Raphael's compositions known as the " Holy Family ; " Layard's works on "Nineveh," Dr. Smith's " Classi- cal Dictionaries," Keats's "Poems," Pollock's "Dante," and Bray's
- ' Life of Stothard ." He was elected
F.S.A. in 1852, and Corresponding