is eased on to the material, as is often the case. The method is shown in Illustration 131.
RUNNING STITCHES are shorter than bastings. The spaces and stitches are of equal length. They are used on seams that do not require the firmness of machine or backstitching. (Ill. 132.)
THE BACKSTITCH is made by taking up a short stitch back on the upper side and a longer one forward on the under side of the material, bringing the needle out a space in advance. Insert the needle to meet the last stitch, passing it under the material and out again a space in advance of the last stitch taken. (Ill. 133.)
Fasten by making two or three stitches over the one last made. The backstitch is used on seams requiring strength and firmness.
THE HALF-BACKSTITCH is made in the same manner as the backstitch, except that it is taken halfway back instead of all the way, leaving a small space between each stitch on the upper side. (Ill. 134.)
THE COMBINATION STITCH consists of one backstitch and two or more small running stitches. It is fastened like the backstitch. Illustration 135 shows a combination stitch with one backstitch and two running stitches. It is used on seams requiring less strength than the backstitch.
OVERCASTING is a slanting stitch used to keep raw edges from raveling. (Ill. 136.) In taking the stitch the needle should always point toward the left shoulder. Hold the material loosely in the left hand. Do not use a knot, but turn the end of the thread to the left and take the first two stitches over it. Make the stitches about one-eighth of an inch apart and one-eighth of an inch deep.
Keep the spaces between the stitches even and slant all the stitches in the same direction. Before overcasting be sure that the edges are trimmed off evenly. In overcasting a bias seam, begin at the broad part of the piece and work toward the narrow part, to prevent its raveling while you are working on it.