ington down, Union and Confederate commanders of the civil war, and the chief American authors and inventors. There are also views of ancient buildings, reproductions of ancient maps, and a variety of other illustrations showing objects of historic interest. The growth of the territory of the United States is shown in a number of small maps. Among the materials for reference appended to the volume are the Constitution of the United States, classified tables of the States, lists of books on the history of the several States and on successive epochs, a pronouncing vocabulary, and a note on the calendar. The first chapter of the book is an account of Indian life in America at the time of the discovery.
There are some scientific books that are dry and technical but have attractive titles, and others with technical titles that are eminently readable: this belongs in the latter class. The thirteen lectures and addresses of which it is made up comprise several delivered by Prof. Marshall as President of the Manchester Microscopical Society, others delivered before students' societies in Owens College and other organizations. Among the topics treated are the influence of environment on the structure and habits of animals, the theory of change of function, butterflies, inheritance, the shapes and sizes of animals, animal pedigrees, and death. Taken together they afford a general view of the recent progress of science in the field of biology. In all the addresses the language used can be comprehended readily, and the ideas presented can be grasped easily by every ordinarily well-read person.
Much aid in comprehending the course of events in the civil war, and especially in appreciating the reasons for the various movements on the Confederate side, is afforded by this extended history of Robert E. Lee's military career. But two chapters are given to the first fifty-four years of his life, more than half of which was passed in engineering and cavalry service in the army of the United States. Lee resigned his commission as lieutenant colonel April 20, 1861, and was immediately appointed major general and commander in chief of the State troops of Virginia. His relative and biographer expresses the regret of all students of American history that General Lee never wrote anything concerning his career and campaigns, for an account from his point of view would have settled very many conflicting opinions. He intended to write, not his personal memoirs, but a record of the deeds of his soldiers. He waited for a "convenient season," but as he lived only five years after the close of the war such a time never came. In this volume some of his testimony upon the great events in which he took such a prominent part is furnished by inserting extracts from his private letters, now first published. These letters, also, with others of the period before the war, show what manner of man he was, and nowhere now will it be denied that his character was one to be admired.
Lee was in Richmond hard at work organizing the Confederate forces when the first battle of Bull Run was fought. His own first campaign took place in what is now West Virginia, and was not successful. He was then sent south to apply his engineering skill in improving the defenses of Charleston and Savannah. It was on March 13, 1862, that President Davis appointed him commander of all the forces of the Confederacy. The battles on the Chickahominy in the latter part of June were fought under his orders. From that time to the end of the war most of the hard fighting took place between the northern and the southern capitals, where Lee was actively engaged. Here occurred the battles of Manassas, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville, and then Lee made his masterly advance that was checked at Gettysburg. After this he operated mainly on the defensive until the great surrender at Appomattox. Lee's phrase in his farewell to his soldiers—"The Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources" was no farfetched excuse for defeat. While this volume does not aim to provide data for