Page:Sanskrit Grammar by Whitney p1.djvu/537

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and compounds with derivatives in ana, as suvijñaná of easy discernment, sūpasarpaṇá of easy approach, duçcyavaná hard to shake; and AV. has suphalá and subandhú against RV. suphála and subándhu. Like avī́ra, suvī́ra shows retraction of accent. Only dúrāçir has the tone on the prefix.

e. On the whole, the distinction by accent of possessive from determinative is less clearly shown in the words made with su and dus than in any other body of compounds.

f. The associative prefix sa or (less often) sahá is treated like an adjective element, and itself takes the accent in a possessive compound: thus, sákratu of joint will, sánāman of like name, sárūpa of similar form, sáyoni having a common origin, sávācas of assenting words, sátoka having progeny along, with one's progeny, sábrāhmaṇa together with the Brahmans, sámūla with the root, sā́ntardeça with the intermediate directions; sahágopa with the shepherd, sahávatsa accompanied by one's young, sahápatnī having her husband with her, sahápūruṣa along with our men.

g. In RV. (save in a doubtful case or two), only saha in such compounds gives the meaning of having with one, accompanied by; and, since saha governs the instrumental, the words beginning with it might be of the prepositional class (below, 1310). But in AV. both sa and saha have this value (as illustrated by examples given above); and in the later language, the combinations with sa are much the more numerous.

h. There are a few exceptions, in which the accent is that of the final member: thus, sajóṣa, sajóṣas, sadṛ́ça, sapráthas, sabā́dhas, samanyú and AV. shows the accent on the final syllable in sān̄gá (ÇB. sā́n̄ga) and the substantivized (1312) savidyutá.

i. Possessive compounds with the exclamatory prefixes ka etc. are too few in the older language to furnish ground for any rule as to accent: kábandha is perhaps an example of such.

1305. Possessive compounds in which a verbal prefix is used as prior member with adjective value, qualifying a noun as final member, are found even in the oldest language, and are rather more common later (compare the descriptive compounds, above, 1289; and the prepositional, below, 1310). They usually have the accent of the prefix.

a. Most common are those made with pra, vi, and sam; thus, for example, prámahas having exceeding might, práçravas widely famed; vígrāva of wry neck, vyàn̄ga having limbs away or gone, limbless, víjāni wifeless, víparva and víparus jointless, vyàdhvan of wide ways, vímanas both of wide mind and mindless, vívācas of discordant speech; sámpatnī having one's husband along, sámmanas of accordant mind, sáṁsahasra accompanied by a thousand, sámokas of joint abode. Examples of others are: átyūrmi surging over, ádhivastra having a garment on, ádhyardha with a half over, ádhyakṣa overseer, ápodaka without water, abhírūpa