Page:The Art of Bookbinding, Zaehnsdorf, 1890.djvu/215

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to ascertain if they be in correct sequence.

Combs.—Instruments with wire teeth used in marbling.

Corners.—The triangular tools used in finishing backs and sides. The leather or material covering the corners of half-bound books. The metal ornaments used usually in keeping with clasps.

Cropped.—When a book has been cut down too much it is said to be cropped.

Cut down.—When a plough-knife dips downward out of the level it is said to "cut down"; on the contrary, if the point is out of the level upwards it is said to "cut up."

Cut up.—Same as the last explanation.

Divinity calf.—A dark brown calf used generally for religious books, and worked in blind or antique.

Dentelle.—As the word expresses. A style resembling lace work, finished with very finely cut tools.

Doubled.—When in working a tool a second time it is inadvertently not placed exactly in the previous impression, it is said to be "doubled."

Edge-rolled.—When the edges of the boards are rolled, either in blind or in gold.

End-papers.—The papers placed at each end of the volume and pasted down upon the boards.

Fillet.—A cylindrical tool used in finishing, upon which a line or lines are engraved.

Finishing.—The department that receives the volumes after they are put in leather. The ornaments placed on the volume. The person who works at this branch is termed a finisher.

Finishing press.—A small press, used for holding books when being finished.

Finishing stove.—A heating box or fire used for warming the various tools used in finishing.

Flexible.—When a book is sewn on raised bands, and the thread is passed entirely round each band. It is the strongest sewing done at the present time. This term is often misused for limp work, because the boards are limp or flexible.

Folder.—A flat piece of bone or ivory used in folding sheets, and in many other manipulations; called also a folding stick. A female engaged in folding sheets.

Folding machine.—A machine invented to fold sheets, generally used in newspaper offices.

Foredge.—The front edge of a book.

Forwarding.—The branch that takes the books after they are sewed, and advances them until they are put into leather ready for the finisher. The one who works at this branch is called a forwarder.

Full-bound.—When the sides and back of a volume are covered with leather it is said to be full-bound.

Gathering.—Collecting the various sheets from piles when folded, so that the arrange-