Page:The New International Encyclopædia 1st ed. v. 12.djvu/734

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the Palazzo Barberini (completed by Bernini and Boromini), and the Borghese Palace.

MĀDHAVA, mäd′hȧ-vȧ, MĀDHAVACHĀRYA, mäd′hȧ-vȧ-chä′ryȧ. An eminent Hindu scholar, royal counselor and divine, who lived in the fourteenth century of our era. He was elder brother of the famous Vedic commentator Sāyana (q.v.), and flourished under King Bukka I. (A.D. 1350-79), whom he served as Prime Minister and spiritual adviser. This ruler belonged to the dynasty of Vijaya-nagara, ‘City of Victory,’ now Hampi, in the District of Bellary, South Central India, which is said to have been Mādhava's birthplace. He was associated with the Monastery of Sringiri, of which he became abbot. The list of his works on philosophical, religious, and technical subjects is a long one. Consult Klemm, "“Mādhava, seine Lehre und seine Werke,” in the Gurupūjākammudī, Festgabe zum Doctorjubiläum Albrecht Weber (Leipzig, 1896). The name Mādhava is frequently found earlier in Sanskrit literature and Hindu mythology as an appellation of the god Vishnu (q.v.) or his incarnation, Krishna.

MADHUCA, mä′dụ-kȧ. A tropical tree. See Butter-Tree.

MA′DIA (Neo-Lat., from madi, the Chilean name), Madia. A genus of annual upright plants of the natural order Compositæ. The yellow ray flowers are shortly ligulate, those of the disk tubular; the seeds without pappus but very viscid, rich in oil which is expressed. Madia sativa, which attains a height of three to five feet, is cultivated under the names madi or melosa in Chile, where it is native and from whence, early in the nineteenth century, it was taken to Europe, where it has been cultivated to some extent since 1839 as an oil plant, Madia oil is richer than poppy oil, almost entirely inodorous, of a bland, agreeable taste, and very suitable for oiling machines, as it does not solidify even at 10° F. The oil-cake is a good food for cattle. The flowers ripen gradually in succession, so that they first ripen their seeds which fall off before the last flowers open, a great disadvantage in a crop. Another species, Madia elegans, is cultivated in flower-gardens.

MAD′ISON. A city and the county-seat of Morgan County, Ga., 68 miles east by south of Atlanta; on the Georgia and the Central of Georgia railroads (Map: Georgia, C 2). It is in the cotton belt of the State, and has a large trade in this commodity; and its industries are represented by cotton compresses, cottonseed oil and fertilizer works, a chair and furniture factory, etc. There is a public library. Population, in 1890, 2131; in 1900, 1992.

MADISON. A city and the county-seat of Jefferson County, Ind., 50 miles north by east of Louisville, Ky.; on the Ohio River and on the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis Railroad (Map: Indiana, D 4). The city has steamboat connection with important places on the river, and a large shipping trade. There are a marine railway and shipyards, ship lumber yards, foundries and machine shops, tanneries, saw and flour mills, and cotton and woolen mills—the various industries, according to the census of 1900, representing a capital of $1,553,000 and having a production valued at $2,146,000. Madison, first incorporated in 1824, is governed under a charter of 1836 which provides for a mayor, elected every two years, and a unicameral council that elects all administrative officials except the clerk, treasurer, and marshal. The city owns and operates the water-works. Population, in 1890, 8936; in 1900, 7835.

MADISON. A borough in Morris County, N. J., 26 miles by rail west of New York City, and 4½ miles southeast of Morristown; on the Lackawanna Railroad (Map: New Jersey, D 2). It is the seat of Drew Theological Seminary (q.v.); is popular as a suburb for Newark and New York business men; and has a public library and a fine public park, the latter having been improved at an expense of $200,000. The only important industry is that of flower culture, rose-growing being the most important specialty. Madison was settled before the Revolution, and was incorporated as a borough in 1889. The government is vested in a mayor, chosen biennially, and a council, elected on a general ticket. The borough owns and operates the water-works and electric light plant. Population, in 1890, 2469; in 1900, 3754.

MADISON. A city and the county-seat of Lake County, S. D., 60 miles south of Watertown; on the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Railroad (Map: South Dakota, H 5). It is the seat of a State Normal School. Madison is in a farming and stock-raising region from which it derives considerable trade, and there are several grain elevators. The water-works and electric light plant are owned by the municipality. Population, in 1890, 1736; in 1900, 2550.

MADISON. A city, the capital of Wisconsin and the county-seat of Dane County, 83 miles west of Milwaukee; on the Chicago and Northwestern, the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul, and the Illinois Central railroads (Map: Wisconsin, D 5). A widely noted educational and summer resort, it lies in the attractive Lake country (at an elevation of 788 feet above the sea, and 210 feet above Lake Michigan), between Lakes Mendota, Monona, and Wingra, and near Lakes Waubesa and Kegonsa. A system of beautiful parked suburban drives, carefully macadamized and nearly thirty miles in length, is maintained by popular subscription. The State House, whose chief attraction is a handsome dome, stands in a well-kept park. The finest building in the city—indeed the finest State structure in Wisconsin—is the library and museum building of the State Historical Society, situated a mile west of the State House, opposite the State University campus; it is an Ionic, colonnaded structure, built of Indiana limestone, and cost $700,000. The society's reference library of 240,000 volumes is one of the most famous of American libraries. Within the building are also housed the libraries of the State University and the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. There are, in addition, a free public library (for which a new building, donated by Andrew Carnegie, is (1903) being erected) and the State Law Library (in the State House), besides those of several educational institutions. Madison is the seat of the University of Wisconsin (q.v.); and the State Hospital for the Insane and the State fish hatchery are in the suburbs.

The city has wide-spread commercial interests throughout southwestern Wisconsin, and manufactories of agricultural implements, machinery,