- Panama, past and present, 1916 by Farnham Bishop
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 325, 26 January 1973
- Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 18 November, 1903 between the United States and the Republic of Panama
- “Panama” in The Nuttall Encyclopædia by James Wood, London: Frederick Warne and Co., Ltd., 1907.
- “Panama (city),” in Encyclopædia Britannica, (11th ed.), 1911
- “Republic and Diocese of Panama,” in Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: The Encyclopaedia Press (1913)
- “Panama” in The World Factbook by the CIA, 1982.
- “Panama” in The World Factbook by the CIA, 2004.