- Panama, past and present, 1916 by Farnham Bishop
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 325, 26 January 1973
- Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 18 November, 1903 between the United States and the Republic of Panama
- “Republic and Diocese of Panama,” in Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913..
- "Panama," in the CIA World Fact Book, 2004.