- The Soul of a Turk, 1910 by Victoria Alexandrina Buxton De Bunsen
- The Day of the Crescent, Glimpses of Old Turkey, 1920 by Gilbert Ernest Hubbard
- The promises of Turkey (1877) by Arthur Arnold
- “The Turkish Atrocities,” in Littell's Living Age, 130 (1683)
- German–Ottoman alliance treaty (1918)
- “Turkey” in The Nuttall Encyclopædia by James Wood, London: Frederick Warne and Co., Ltd., 1907.
- “Turkey”, in Encyclopædia Britannica, (11th ed.), 1911
- “Turkish Empire,” in Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: The Encyclopaedia Press (1913)
- “Turkey” in The World Factbook by the CIA, 1982.
- “Turkey” in The World Factbook by the CIA, 2004.