Portland, Oregon: Its History and Builders/Volume 1

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JOSEPH GASTON

PORTLAND

OREGON



ITS HISTORY AND BUILDERS

IN CONNECTION WITH

THE ANTECEDENT EXPLORATIONS, DISCOVERIES AND MOVEMENTS OF THE PIONEERS THAT SELECTED THE SITE FOR THE

GREAT CITY OF THE PACIFIC


By JOSEPH GASTON


Illustrated


VOLUME I



CHICAGO—PORTLAND

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING CO.

1911

Preface

In Memoriam: Harvey Whitefield Scott

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

CHAPTER IV.

The Antecedent Geological Preparation of the Country—The Native Indians—The Fur Trade and Traders—The Hudson Bay Company, McLoughlin, Ogden—Indian Ideas on Land Tenure—The Possession of the Land, the Bottom of All Troubles Between Whites and Indians.

The city of Portland was founded in an Indian country. Its citizens had to hastily arm and rush to the defense of out-lying settlements against the raids of infuriated savages. The native Indians were the first customers of the first merchants in this pioneer region, and their presence not only largely influenced the pioneer establishments of commerce, but it markedly influenced the lives and character of the pioneers themselves.

And, before there were Indians, there were here in old Oregon, many species of wild beasts that passed away from the face of the earth so many long ages ago, that the mind of man can have no comprehension of the time. Of the sabre-toothed tiger, the most destructive beast that ever trod the earth; of the mammoth, the grandest beast that has left behind perfect evidence of his existence, and of the great reptiles, seventy feet in length, we have now no representatives except the fossil remains preserved in the rocks or given up from the perpetual ice cap of Siberia. Great herds of the mammoth roamed over the plains of eastern Oregon, Washington and Idaho, browsing upon palm trees and other tropical vegetation which is now covered over with volcanic outflows and ice-cap drift four or five thousand feet deep. And long before those tropical forests fed the mammoth, and harbored his enemy, the sabre-toothed tiger, the site where Portland now stands was a spot in the bottom of the Pacific ocean a thousand miles from any existing land. The great Rocky mountain back-bone of the continent was even submerged under the one time almost universal sea of waters. The first to emerge from that universal sea, was the Bitter Root range; the next to emerge was the Blue mountains of eastern Oregon and Idaho, and the Sierra Navadas in California. Their first uplift did not give them the elevation above sea level which we now see. But in the uplifted mountains there were veins of gold, silver, copper, and iron, and streams of water. The intermediate and off coast waters of these ancient times were shallow seas. There were many islands in the Pacific then which are now submerged. Then following this stage of the evolutionary development of the habitable globe, we find the whole north temperate zone of the earth overtaken by a catastrophe which cannot be understood or explained, but which enveloped the whole region of North America down probably to thirty seven degrees of north latitude, in an ice cap or continental wide glacier five or six thousand feet deep. How much of the north Pacific ocean this ice-cap covered, or how long it existed can only be imagined. But,' when from a relapse to former conditions, or change of seasons, this vast ice covering commenced to slowly melt away, the face of the earth covered by it shows that the ice drifted slowly southward, grinding down the elevated ground, scarring the solid rock formations with deep stria, and filling up the valleys and lowlands with vast deposits of gravel, sand and clay. In this way was the outcrop of gold bearing rock veins ground off and the gold dust and nuggets of gold carried down and deposited in valleys from which it was recovered by American miners in California and Oregon in recent times. Subsequent to this glacial age of the earth, the water-shed west of the Rocky mountains passed through more than one submergence to, and elevation from, the depths of the ancient Pacific ocean. And with each one of these elevations appeared the outlines of subsequent appearing mountain ranges, and the disappearance one after another of the inland seas and sounds which covered eastern Oregon and the Willamette valley. Those mighty changes in the land and the sea greatly affected the flora and the fauna of the regions involved. We find in the rock graves, and in the vast drift deposits not only the remains of animals already mentioned, but other and later species; and especially the httle three-toed fossil horse discovered by Professor Thomas Condon of the Oregon university, and being the first discovery of the fossil horse contributed by the geology of the globe. And in the elevation which finally dried up the inland seas, and which extended from the Blue mountains in Oregon far down into Nevada and California, we can imagine the grandest volcanic display of mighty forces which ever took place on the entire globe. In that mountain range upheaval, the earth's crust was so extensively broken along the line of the Cascade range, that there must have been, between the British line on the north and the Shasta peak on the south, not less than twenty volcanoes in active operation belching forth vast deposits of lava and volcanic ashes at the same time for a period of several years. The ancient inland sea was not only dried up, but its great basin was filled up with the lava outflows from these volcanic mountains, and the remains of ancient forests, seas, meadow lands and all their teeming life of wild animals was covered up thousands of feet deep. And subsequent to this great volcanic upheaval, but without volcanic violence came the uplift of the coast range in Oregon, which dried up the Willamette valley sound and made dry land where Portland now stands. But prior to the uplift which made the Portland townsite dry land, the earth surface forces of nature had entered upon the vast work of constructing the Columbia river water way. Thousands of years before Portland and the Willamette valley had emerged from ocean's waves, the mighty Columbia had been carrying down millions upon millions of boulders, gravel and sand and depositing the same in the winding estuary this side of the Sandy river. So that when W. S. Ladd undertook to bore an artesian well on the Laurelhurst tract of land now inside of Portland city limits, he bored down for twelve hundred feet through the debris which had been carried down by the river and deposited in the deep waters of the ocean, among which debris were the trunks of, large trees. The construction of the Columbia river was the most important of all the great events in the selection and building of the city of Portland. The river is the life of the city. Without the. river, the city, any city might have been here or any where else. The work of erosion by grinding out a channel, miles wide and thousands of feet deep, and thousands of miles in length, through wide-extended fields of lava rock, with rolling boulders and pebbles from the distant reaches of the water-shed behind the Selkirk, Sawtooth and Blue mountain ranges of mountains, down through Idaho, British Columbia, eastern Washington, and eastern Oregon, carrying a deep cut through the Cascade and Coast Range mountains to the ocean, may have required a hundred thousand years. But it was done. The grand and incomprehensible work of nature is before us, is building our city, is feeding and clothing millions of people, and nowhere else on the face of the globe is there to be found such a marvelous display of the destructive forces of nature employed to make a great region the comfortable home of the human race.

And now we reach that development of the surface of the earth when it is possible for man to subsist in this region. And we find the Indian. Where did he come from? He was not created here. He was not evolved here. For not a single bone of him has ever been unearthed from the ancient sedimentary or rock deposits hereto described. From all the discoveries and investigations of science, this species of man must have started in Europe or Asia Minor. There is but one specie of man, and he could have had but one origin. There are different races of men which have been produced by environment and they each interbreed with the others. Different species of animals are not fertile with other species. This proves the one origin of all men. How then did the Indian get to America? How did he get to Portland, Oregon? He may have come over from the east coast of Asia on the last lingering floes of the glacial ice-cap, or he may have drifted across in some unfortunate canoe or elementary boat set afloat in the Pacific streams of Siberia. But how he reached this region is not so important as his character when the white man found him here.

One hundred years ago the Indian owned this whole country. He might well have sung with Robinson Crusoe:

"My right there is none to dispute;
From the center all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute."

He was to some extent a weaver, basket maker, canoe builder, stone ax and mortar maker, was expert in taking fish with a spear, and wild animals with the bow and arrow, whose skins he dressed for clothes and bedding. He was purely a child of nature, harbored no selfishness but the satisfaction of his immediate wants, and was quick to see the utility value of such articles of civilized life as would more efficiently serve the purposes of his simple wants than the simple instruments he then possessed. He believed in a great spirit who had made the heavens and the earth, and who had given the land and the water to all his children in common. He was the original socialist—the man who lived a socialist, fought for his lands as a socialist, and died in the belief that the white man robbed him of his God-given birthrights.

From this basis, and from small beginnings, the city of Portland has grown. The Indian had no more idea of the money value of his skins than a five year old child; as witness the instance already mentioned of his giving eight thousand dollars worth of sea otter skins for an old chisel that did not cost a dollar. In the grasp of the Indian mind he could catch more otter, but he might never have another opportunity to get a chisel, which would be more useful to him in carving a canoe out of a log than the stone ax he had made himself. But as lightly as it was esteemed by the Indian in the beginning of his bartering with the white man, the fur trade was a veritable gold mine. From the time that Captain James Hanna came over from China in a small brig of only sixty tons in the year 1785, as the pioneer fur trading ship to the northwest Pacific coast, down to the time of the discovery of the Columbia river by Gray, the number of fur trading ships numbered about fifty, and the value of the furs obtained from Indians in exchange for goods and trinkets of very trifling value must have amounted to millions of dollars. A dollar's worth of goods or trinkets, beads, fish hooks, and the like, would in the trade for furs, which would be sold in China and the proceeds invested in tea, silks or rice shipped to London or New York, bring twenty-five dollars as an average profit. Often three or four hundred dollars worth of goods would be sent out from the ship, or distributing depot, to the Indians, or trapper's camp, and there traded for furs that would sell in China for three or four thousand dollars. Bright colored calicoes, blankets, hats, axes, knives, kettles, beads, brass ornaments, and tobacco would be changed for furs at the rate of one dollar for ten or twenty, owing to the distance from the ship. The tobacco came from Brazil, a soggy molasses smeared leaf, twisted into a rope an inch in diameter, and sold by the inch of rope. Millions of dollars of this sort of trade was transacted in the trade region, of which this city is now the distributing point, for nearly fifty years, without a dollar of gold or silver coin or money—currency of any kind. The first merchants were fur traders; and their first customers were Indians.

The first organized effort to transact a mercantile business in the region of which Portland is now the distributing center, after the failure of Astor at Astoria, came from the great English corporation known as the Hudson Bay Company. It is true that the Northwest Fur Company, commonly called the Canadian Fur company had some stations and transacted some business in the Columbia river valley for a few years, after Astor's wreck; but it was soon absorbed and driven out by the Hudson Bay people. And as this latter company did so long rule this region and to a marked extent shape its future, it will be material to this narrative and interesting to the reader to give the origin and Oregon career of this first great organized trading monopoly of the Pacific coast.

The Hudson Bay Company was a British corporation created May 2, 1670, by royal charter from Charles II, by the grace of God King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, etc., which declared:

"Whereas our dear entirely beloved cousin, Prince Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria and Cumberland; George, Duke of Albermarle; William, earl of Craven; Henry, Lord Arlington; Anthony, Lord Ashley; Sir John Robinson, and Sir Robert Vyrner, knights and baronets. Sir Peter Colleton, baronet; Sir Edward Hungerford, knight of the bath. Sir Paul Neele, Sir John Griffith, Sir Philip Carteet, and Sir James Hayes, knights, and John Kirke, Francis Millington, William Prettyman and John Portman, citizen and goldsmith of London, have, at their own great cost and charges, undertaken an expedition for the Hudson's bay in the. northwest parts of America for a discovery of a new passage into the South sea (Pacific ocean), and for the finding of some trade for furs, minerals and other commodities, and by such, their undertakings have already made such discoveries as to encourage them to proceed farther in pursuance of their said design, by means whereof there may probably arise great advantage to us and our kingdom.

"And Whereas. The said undertakers, for their further encouragement to the said design, have humbly besought us to incorporate them, and grant unto them, and their successors, the whole trade and commerce of all those seas, straits, and bays, rivers, lakes, creeks and sounds, in whatever latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the straits commonly called Hudson straits, together with all the lands, countries and territories, upon the coasts and confines of the seas, straits, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, which are not now actually possessed by any of our subjects, or the subjects of other christian prince or state.

Now know ye. That we, being desirous to promote all endeavors that may tend to the public good of our people, and to encourage the said undertaking, have of our special grace, and mere motion, given, granted, ratified and confirmed unto our said cousin. Prince Rupert, (and the other nobilities and persons named) all and singular the most extensive rights of a private corporation, and also the sole trade and commerce of all those seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes, creeks and sounds, in whatsoever latitude they shall be, together with all the lands and territories upon the countries, coasts and confines of the seas, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, together with the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, and other royal fishes in the seas, bays, rivers, within the premises, and the fish therein taken together with the royalty of the sea upon the coasts, and all mines, royal as well discovered as not discovered, of gold, silver, gems and precious stones, to be found or discovered with the territories, limits and places aforesaid, and that the land be from henceforth reckoned and reputed as one 'of our colonies in America, called Rupert's land. And also, not only the whole, entire and only liberty, use and privilege of trading and traffic to and from the territories, limits and places aforesaid, but also the whole and entire trade and traffic to and from all havens, bays, creeks, rivers, lakes, and seas into which they shall find entrance or passage by water or land out of the territories, limits, and places aforesaid, and to and with all the natives and people, inhabitants or which shall inhabit within the territories, limits and places aforesaid, and to and with all other nations inhabitants any of the coasts adjacent to the said territories aforesaid. And do grant to the said company, that neither the said territories, limits, and places hereby granted, nor any part thereof, nor the islands, havens, ports, cities, towns, and places thereof, or therein contained shall ever be visited, frequented, or haunted by any of the subjects of us contrary to the true meaning of this grant; and any and every such person or persons who shall trade or traffic into any of such countries, territories, or limits aforesaid other than the said company and their successors, shall incur our indignation and the forfeiture and loss of all their goods, merchandise and other things whatsoever which shall be so brought into this realm of England or any dominion of the same country, to our said prohibition."

In all this monopoly of trade and commerce in all the vast region from Hudson bay west to the Pacific ocean, the charter conferred upon the company and its governors and chief factors, the sovereign rights of civil and military government of the region. Some people protest against the corporations and monopolies in the United States at the present day, not one of which has the sanction or support of the government, but every one of which is under the ban of the law. But here was a monopoly of all the trade in a region a thousand times greater in size than the country whose king created the monopoly, to which was given the right over the lives and liberties of the natives and subordinates of the chartered corporation. And all this by the grace of his most christian majesty. King Charles II. The kings of England two hundred and fifty years ago, had little conception of the rights of the common people. The whole government was run for the benefits of the king's favorites and relations; and it is no wonder that Macaulay should have said of this king: "That honor and shame to him were scarcely more than light and darkness to the blind."

Those who have not made some investigation of the subject have no idea of the vast powers and dominions of this great English corporation. From the Atlantic to the Pacific, three thousand miles, and from the Arctic ocean down to where the southern boundary is now located—a full two thousand miles, the undisputed sway of all living things for a half century, and over half of that region for more than a century. We are now all of us accustomed to think of organized governments with legislatures and laws, sworn officers and courts of justice, in connection with territorial expansion. That has been the rule under all the western extensions of American enterprise and settlement. But here in this great fur company we see an English king and his cousins and courtiers organizing in a private room, a private company, with all the powers of a responsible state government in America, and handling over to that private company a region larger than all Europe, to be ruled and exploited for their own private and exclusive use and profit for an unlimited period of time; and without any limitations or restrictions in favor of any other people or person on the face of the globe. Picture if you can, this vast empire of natural wealth in land, and all that the richest land will produce, six million square miles in extent, diversified with beautiful lakes, grand rivers, mountain ranges, fertile prairies, great forests, of matchless timber, millions of wild animals, and peopled by probably one hundred thousand native Indians, and you may have some idea of the sort of a monopoly that was set down to exploit old Oregon and all the region east and north of it except Alaska.

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CHAPTER V.

1834—1842.

The Native Indian—How the Hudson Bay Company Managed Him—The Flathead Mission—The Era of Evangelism—The First Missionaries and Priests—Jason Lee, Marcus Whitman — Blanchet and De Smet—The Indian s Fate and Future—The "Jargon" Language.

The mind of the native Indian possessed no ideas on the subject of religion except the single belief in a great spirit. And in the light of modern discoveries in science that might not be classed within the tenets or principles of any form of religion. The American Indian was the best specimen of the child of nature, the earth has ever produced. His instincts, passions and affections were but little above those of the forest bred animals around him on which he made war for his own subsistance. That he had attained to such simple arts as ministered to the bare necessities of his existance or aided the strength of his hands or the fleetness of his limbs in obtaining food and clothing shows some evolution of the mental faculties, but no enlargement of his moral or reflective nature. The Indians of the northwest coast of America were scarcely up to the average of Indians of the Atlantic coast and Mississippi valley. As a race they did not possess that vigor of constitution which characterized the tribes that rallied under the call of Pontiac and Tecumseh. They had but little reasoning powers and in a general way accepted everything they saw with their own eyes, or were told by the white men, to be facts until they found out to the contrary. To this lack of mental force and reflective faculties was added the inherent passion for alcoholic stimulants which has demoralized the native races of every land and country. It is both probable and reasonable, that if intoxicating liquors could have been kept entirely away from the Indian, he could have been perfectly controlled by just white men, taught the rudiments of education and Christianity and made a law-abiding self-supporting people. But long before the Missionaries reached this region the free fur traders of the coasting vessels, and free trappers and fur traders coming west from St. Louis, had debauched the Indian with whiskey and utterly poisoned his mind against all white men. The United States had spent five hundred millions of dollars in suppressing Indian wars and defending frontier settlements, which might have been saved and prevented entirely, if the same policy had been enforced in all intercourse with the natives which characterized the dealings of the Hudson Bay Company with the Indian. The policy of the United States government, so far as a policy could express the mind of the people, was intended to be just to the Indian. If wars came, and they did come—they had to be suppressed. But the error was in allowing irresponsible men to go into the wilderness with fire water to debauch the Indian, rob him of his peltries, ruin his wife and scatter corrupting diseases. It was inevitable that the weaker race would go down, or take an inferior position before the all-conquering Saxon. The Acts of Congress show that throughout the whole period called "The Century of Dishonor," the American people through their representatives in Congress provided ample means and necessary regulations (sufficient for honest men) to deal justly and humanely with all the Indian tribes. But it was the dishonesty of politics, the infernal corruption and dishonesty of Indian agents and their train of henchmen and hangers-on, robbing the Indians of the bounties of the government and corrupting and poisoning every element of their primitive life and ways, pushed on year after year for generations of men that wrought the monumental shame that disgraced the nation.

Why were there no Indian wars in the dominions of the Hudson Bay Company, a region as large as the United States? Because that company was a business government managed upon business principles and could not afford to have wars. If they allowed the Indians to have whiskey they would not go out and hunt for furs. And besides that, if the Indian got drunk he was incapacitated for work and business. If an Indian committed some offense the company did not go out and shoot down the first Indian met. The company did not wage war on Indian women, or allow white men to debauch Indian wives. A stolen article had to be returned, and a tribe harboring a thief was cut off from trade. If an Indian murdered a white man, his tribe was told that they had nothing to fear, but the murderer must be hunted up and surrendered for punishment. Justice was demanded, and nothing more than justice. And in all the vast empire the Hudson Bay Company ruled, there was no mountain fastness too far away, no forest deep enough, nor rocky cave dark enough to hide the felon from their justice, and not one single red man but the criminal himself, had anything to fear. Under this just and inexorable policy, criminals were tracked for thousands of miles and brought back for punishment. And had the United States adopted and rigidly enforces such a policy as this against both Indian and white men, and offered reasonable recompensation and provision for lands needed! for settlement, there would have been but few wars or troubles with the Indians. For the errors and mistakes of- public administration, the crimes and injustice of Indian agents, and the outrages of lawless border men, there was sure to come sooner or later a reaction against the injustice to the Indian and the dishonor of the nation. And revived and stimulated by the preaching of such evangelists as Peter Cartwright, and Lorenzo Dow, who traversed the western States in every direction, and more powerfully influenced public sentiment than any other agency, religious people were aroused to action and moved to make liberal provision for sending missionaries to distant Oregon to convert the Indians.

And about that time, in the year, 1832, occured the incident of the four native Indian chiefs going to St. Louis to get "the white man's book of Heaven." This pathetic advent from distant wilderness appealed forcibly to the sentimental feelings of all classes of people. There are several versions of the story. In one case it was the Flathead Indians of the Bitter Root mountains; in another the Nez Perces, of the Columbia; going in one story to the Catholic Priests of St. Louis, and in another to Captain Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. There is no doubt of the truth of the occurrence; and that these pious seekers of the gospel did reach St. Louis and spend a winter there, where two of them died, another dying on his way back to the mountains, while the remaining chief lived to return and report to his people.

This incident was heralded far and wide through the press, published in every pulpit and powerfully wrought up the feeling of religious people who felt condemned for the neglect of the poor heathen in the American wilderness. Hall J. Kelley, who will be fully noticed later on, took up the subject, as it was in line with the agitation he was carrying on, and published a pamphlet on the necessity of immediate action.

As a consequence of all this agitation, the Missionary Board of the Methodist Episcopal church was importuned to establish a mission among the Flathead Indians at once. A call was issued for volunteer missionaries for this work in distant Oregon. In answer to that call, Jason Lee formerly of Stanstead, Canada, and his nephew Daniel Lee, appeared and offered themselves for this work. Jason Lee had formerly been engaged in this line of work in the British Provinces. He had all the qualifications for the labors, trials and dangers for such a field of missionary effort. In fact no man could have been found probably who was as well prepared for such a trying and responsible trust. Lee was accepted by the Methodist Board and later on made a member of the Conference in 1833. He was now thirty years of age, tall, powerfully built, rather slow and awkward in his movements, prominent nose, strong jaws, pure blue eyes, with a vast store of reliable common sense. Such was the first man sent out to old Oregon, to preach the gospel to the heathen.

By October 10, 1833 three thousand dollars had been provided for an outfit; and in March 1834, Lee left New York for the west, lecturing on his way; and taking with him his nephew, Daniel, together with two laymen, Cyrus Shephard of Lynn, Mass. and Philip L. Edwards, and adding Courtney M. Walker of Richmond, Mo. At Independence, Mo. the missionary party fell in with Nathaniel J. Wyeth, then starting on his second trading expedition to the Columbia river, and were afterwards joined by the fur trader Sublette, going to California, and his party; and as they filed out westward on the 28th day of April, 1834, the party numbered all told, seventy men, and two hundred and fifty horses. Such was the first missionary expedition to old Oregon.

The Missionary party reached Old Fort Hall, which was some forty miles north of the present town of Pocatello, Idaho, on the 26th day of July, and held there the next day, being Sunday, the first public service of the Protestant churches ever held west of the state of Missouri and Missouri river, Jason Lee conducted this service and preached to a congregation made up of Wyeth's men, Hudson Bay fur hunters, half breeds and Indians, all of whom conducted themselves in a most respectful and devotional manner. It was a wonderful sight, a grand and solemn sight; the rough and reckless children of the forest, of various tongues and customs, gathered from the four quarters of the globe, a thousand miles distant from any civilized habitation, in the heart of the great American wilderness, listening to the message of Christ from this young man, and reverentially bowing their heads in prayer to the Almighty maker and Preserver of all men and things.

From Fort Hall (then only in process of construction by Capt. Wyeth) the party proceeded on to the Columbia river, being assisted by Indians sent along with them by Thomas McKay, a fur trading captain in the employ of the H. B. Co. On coming down the river in boats and canoes, most of which were wrecked, the missionary party lost nearly all of their personal effects. Rev. Lee reached Fort Vancouver in September in a bedraggled condition, and was very kindly received by Chief Factor. McLoughlin, who promptly supplied all his personal wants. The Lees had carefully noted all the conditions of the upper Columbia river country as they passed through it, and having heard much of the beauty of the Willamette valley, came on west to see it as probably the best location for a mission. After resting a few days with Dr. McLoughlin, the mission party proceeded down the river in boats furnished by McLoughlin, to the ship May Dacre, which had arrived from New York with the household goods of the party, and was then tied up at the bank of Sauvies Island (then called Wappato island) about twenty miles below this city. From Wappato island, and with horses and men to assist them, the Lees proceeded to hunt a location in the Willamette valley, and taking the trail made by the fur hunters, crossed the hills back of this city into a what is now Washington county, passing out into

Portland courthouse.png

THE NEW COURTHOUSE, NOW IN COURSE OF ERECTION

Tualitin plains by the point where Hillsboro is now located, and on by where the town of Cornelius is located, crossing- over the Tualtin river at Rocky Point where the first flouring mill in Washington County was constructed; from thence ascending the northwest end of the Chehalem mountain ridge and following the ridge five miles eastwardly, they found themselves on Bald Peak from which point they could see the great Willamette valley spread out before them for sixty miles south. Oregon was then all a wild wilderness country. Elk and deer were everywhere as tame almost as sheep.

From the Chehalem mountains, the party descended into the Chehalem valley, and passing along by the little prairie where the prosperous town of Newberg and its Quaker College is now located, the party swam their horses across the Willamette river, and crossing in a canoe kept on south to the farm of Joseph Gervais, where they stayed all night with the hospitable Frenchman, and for whom the town of Gervais has been named. The next day they selected a tract of land two miles above the Gervais farm on the east side of the river and sixty miles south of Portland for the site of their mission; and where they built their first mission house. Returning to Vancouver, Dr. McLoughlin furnished a boat and boatman to move the household goods from the ship and transport them up the Willamette river to the mission point; seven oxen were loaned with which to haul timbers to build houses at the mission, eight cows with calves were furnished to supply milk and start stock; and by the 6th of October, 1834, Jason Lee and his party were all safely landed at their mission home in the Willamette valley—the first Protestant mission in the United States, west of the Rocky mountains from the North Pole down to the Isthmus of Panama.

It will be asked by the reader, why did not Lee answer the pathetic call of the Flathead Indians and establish a mission among them. If Lee had been moved wholly by sentimental consideration he would have gone to the Flatheads. But while Jason Lee was first, last, and all the time an evangelist and servant of his God, he was at the same time eminently a man of safe practical common sense. With nothing but his own light and resources to guide him, he must shoulder all the responsibility of his position, and take that course which would secure success in this great experiment, or be blamed for a failure. He had noted carefully the conditions of an experiment with the Flatheads, six hundred miles from sea coast transportation, surrounded by unfriendly Indians, and exhausted by continuous wars with the vengeful Blackfeet. The outlook was not inviting. And the very fact that he had become the friend of the Flatheads, if he had decided to locate there, would have aroused the enmity of the Blackfeet and other tribes, and not only cut off from him the friendship and access to other tribes, but might have resulted in the destruction of himself, supporters and innocent victims he had sought to help. More than that, the Willamette was the wider field, with the greater outlook to the future. Lee. saw, then, as we see now, that the Willamette valley was more important to the future than all the valleys of the Rocky mountains. His decision was based upon the practical common sense and the great interests he had come to serve, and has been a thousand times over vindicated by the development of the country, and by the vast results of his work.

Let us now for a few moments, look in on this young missionary to the Oregon Indians as he builds his first log cabin, three thousand miles distant from the comfortable and luxurious homes of the people who sent him out here from the state of New York. As he stood there on the virgin prairie alongside the beautiful Willamette gliding silently to the sea, the hills, the waving grass and silent woods, with native men, all innocent of the great work of civilization ahead. He was facing the great responsibility, and he must commence his work with the humblest means. Before a sheltering house could be raised, he must sharpen his axes, his saws, and break his half wild oxen to the services of the yoke and the discipline of a driver. Napoleon might easily win the greatest battles, but he would have failed utterly to make a wild ox pull in a yoke, as Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/122 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/123 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/124

Pierre-Jean DeSmet from Portland Oregon History.png

PETER JOHN DESMET, THE GREAT APOSTLE OF THE INDIANS

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CHAPTER VI.

The Oregon Trail—What Started the Emigration—The Far-reaching Influence of the Movement—Lists of Emigrants—The Character of the Emigrants.

"None started but the brave; none got through but the strong."—Miller.

A song for the men who blazed the way,
With hearts that would not quail,
They made brave quest of the wild northwest.
They cut the Oregon trail.

A cheer for the men who cut the trail!
With souls as firm as steel;
And fiery as wrath they hewed the path.
For the coming commonweal.

Robertus Love.

It is an old and trite saying, that roads and highways are an indication of civilization; and the better the road or highway, the more of civilization. But what shall be said of a great movement of educated and intelligent people, without forecasting preparations, without preliminary investigations, and without maps or guides, which moves out into apparently boundless desert-like plains, to cross snow clad mountains, unbridged rivers, through two thousand miles of wilderness inhabited only by wild beasts and wilder men? The reader may search the whole history of the world in vain to find a parallel or even a suggestive example for the pioneer emigration to Oregon. The travels of the Jews to find the promised land, where kind Providence sent the manna and quails for subsistance, and fire-works by night for cheer and comfort, was but a picnic, compared with the journeyings of our pioneers for two thousand miles through a hostile Indian country offering every imaginable delay and obstruction. The celebrated march of Xenophon with his ten thousand Greek soldiers from the Tigris to the Black sea, celebrated in song and story as the most remarkable military exploit in the world, dwarfs to littleness by comparison with the achievements of the pioneer men and women of this state, burdened with little children, domestic animals and household goods, in their long and laborious struggle to reach the promised land of Oregon.

If the reader will stop to contemplate the size of the movement its originality, boldness, dangers, trials and want of support from the government, whose mission was being executed without orders, he will be lost in wonder at the success finally secured.

The first thought of the new-comer from a foreign shore, or the boy and girl justout of school, wanting to know about this great movement, will be—the road. But there was no road; not a wagon road, or a railroad, or a

Maps of trails to Oregon Country from Gaston book.png

The upper dotted line shows general route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805.
The lower black line is the old "Oregon Trail," according to Meeker's map made by the pioneers in 1843.

steamboat or a sailboat, or a cow path, on the whole way from Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon, when our pioneers pulled up stakes in Missouri, Iowa and other border states and started out on a jaunt of two thousand miles. There was not an automobile or a flying machine in all the world, and only a few hundred miles of railroad.

Those bold pioneers built their own bridges and ferries, crossed deserts, scaled mountains and floated down wild streams, all out of their own resources, as they went along. The world never had before 1843, and never will have again, the likes of the old Oregon trail. The trail did not, as many people believe, follow the route of the Lewis and Clarke expedition to Oregon, thirty-eight years prior to the making of the trail. The pioneers selected the route and made their own road from day to day. No surveyor or civil engineer preceded them. No guide or map furnished them the direction. Very few of them, if any, knew why they went in one direction or another. The Platte river furnished a general course from the Missouri river to the mountains; but beyond that, there was no distinctive mark to guide them. Fifteen or twenty men preceded the caravan on every day's travel and selected the courses, removed what obstructions they could, and prepared the way to cross streams. The great lumbering caravan, with its wagons, horseback men and women, and the thousands of cattle followed, conquering and to conquer. In one sense the pioneer emigration was national and military; because it decided the title to Oregon by actual settlement. And it cost the nation nothing, but added more in power and influence than all the battle ships afloat, that cost a hundred millions.

Without organization, without preliminary efforts or solicitation, without public meetings to arouse enthusiasm, without advertised rewards, without distresses in the past or hoped for bounties in the future, and without public announcement the pioneers quietly began to gather on the west bank of the Missouri river in the last days of April. Day after day the wagons came in from various parts of Iowa, Missouri and Arkansas, while a few came up the river in the little steamboats of that early day. The travelers camped around the town of Independence and pitched their tents upon the prairie, and day by day the host increased, and all was bustle and eagerness to be on the way. Nothing now was lacking but grass.

Grass! Did you ever think of it? The Creator of the heavens and the earth, covered three-quarters of the globe with water, and the remainder with grass. It was not Spitzenberg apples, or oranges, Lambert cherries or Tokay grapes, but grass that he caused to spring up to support all living creatures; for as the scriptures truthfully declare "all flesh is grass." And so the great caravan of Oregon pioneers had to wait on the banks of the Missouri river for the grass to grow before they could turn a wheel towards the goal of all their hopes. It was the grass that must feed the teams to haul the wagons, that must feed the milk cows for support of men, women and children, and it was the grass to feed the buffalo and antelope to furnish beef and venison to feed the pioneers, on their long and toilsome journey.

The first notable emigration started for Oregon from Independence, Missouri, in 1843. A smaller company had come over the summer before. The caravan of 1843 numbered over one thousand persons, men, women and children; and about five thousand domestic animals. And the making of the Oregon trail, or at least the hunting for a practicable route by the outriders sent forward each day in advance of the train of wagons, fell to the lot of the emigration of 1843. There had been a few traders' wagons over the route as far west as Fort Hall, which was the easy part of the whole distance, but nothing west of that point in the shape of anything better than an Elk or Indian trail.

All readers of the past fifty years are familiar with the advice of the later day Benjamin Franklin—Horace Greeley—who advised all the young men to "go west and grow up with the country." But the Oregon emigration of 1843 was too much for even the optimistic Greeley. "For what" wrote Greeley in his great paper, the New York Tribune, July 22, 1843, "do they brave the desert, the wilderness, the savages, the snowy precipices of the Rocky mountains, the weary summer march, the storm-drenched bivouac, and the gnawings of famine? This emigration of more than one thousand persons in one body to Oregon wears an aspect of insanity."

And that is what it did look like to the great mass of people of the United States. And although no political sentiment moved the pioneers, yet the movement was big with political consequences; and vital to all the commercial and military interests of the nation at large; and should have had adequate support from the national congress, but did not get even the poor compliment of recognition by any department of the government.

This first caravan was followed by others in succeeding years. Fourteen hundred people in 1844 followed the trail made in 1843; ^"d three thousand men women and children came over in 1845. Probably the largest emigration in any one season came over the trail in 1852. Ezra Meeker, who has been instrumental in getting a congressional appropriation to put up suitable monuments on the old trail, was in the caravan of that year, and has given us a vivid description of it. He says: "The army of loose cattle and other animals that accompanied this caravan five hundred miles in length, added greatly to the discomfort of all. It will never be known the number of such, or of the emigrants themselves. A conservative estimate would be not less than six animals helping pull each wagon, and eighteen loose animals to each one laboring. There were an average of five persons to each wagon; and during four days that we stopped sixteen hundred wagons passed by; making eight thousand persons and nearly thirty thousand domestic animals passing in that four days. We knew from the dates inscribed on Independence rock, and elsewhere, that there were wagons three hundred miles ahead of us, and that the throng had continued to pass the river for more than a month after we had crossed, so that it does not require a stretch of imagination to say the column was covering five hundred miles of trail at one time."

Jesse Applegate came to Oregon with the train of 1843, ^^^ took a prominent part in its conduct and became one of the most useful and influential citizens of the state. In a contribution to the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, ten years ago, he gives the following graphic picture of the daily routine of the emigrants on the trail:

"It is four o'clock A. M.; the sentinels on duty have discharged their rifles—the signals that the hours of sleep are over—and every wagon and tent is pouring forth its night tenants, and slow kindling smokes begin to rise and float away in the morning air. Sixty men start from the corral, spreading as they make through the vast herd of cattle and horses that make a semi-circle around the encampment, the most distant perhaps two miles away.

"The herders pass to the extreme verge and carefully examine for trails beyond, to see that none of the animals have strayed or been stolen during the night. By five o'clock the herders begin to contract the great moving circle, and the well trained animals move slowly towards camp. In about an hour five thousand animals are close up to the encampment, and the teamsters are busy selecting their teams and driving them inside to be yoked. The corral is a circular pen, three hundred feet in diameter, formed with wagons conected strongly with each other, the front end of one wagon being chained to the rear end of the wagon in front. It is a strong barrier that the most vicious ox could not break, and in case of an attack by Indians would be a strong intrenchment.

"From six to seven o'clock is a busy time; breakfast is to be eaten, the tents struck, the wagons loaded, and the teams hitched to their respective wagons. All know when at 7 o'clock, the signal of march sounds, that those not ready

Ezra Meeker from Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders.png

E. Meeker

Passed over the old trail with an ox-team the second time in 1906. setting up markers along the trail.

to take their proper places in the line of march must fall into the dusty rear for the day.

"There are one hundred and twenty wagons. They have been divided into thirty divisions or platoons of four wagons each, and each platoon is entitled to lead in its turn. The leading platoon will be the rear one tomorrow, and will bring up the rear unless some teamster, through indolence and negligence, has lost his place in the line. It is within ten minutes of seven; the corral, until now a strong barricade, is opened, the teams being attached to the wagons. The women and children have taken their places in them. The pilot, an old trapper and hunter, stands ready to mount and lead the way. Ten or fifteen young men, not on duty for the day, form a cluster ready to start on a buffalo hunt, well armed, and if need be ready for a brush with the unfriendly Sioux. The hunters must ride fifteen or twenty miles to reach buffalo, shoot and cut up half a dozen for fresh beef for the whole train the next day. The cow drivers are rounding up the cows at the rear of the train for the day's drive.

"It is on the clock strike of seven; the rush is to and fro; the whips crack, the loud commands to the oxen, the wagons creak and move, and the train is again on its slow and toilsome journey, as if every thing was moved by clock work. The loose horses follow next the wagons, guided by boys, but know that when noon comes they can graze on the grass. Following the horses come the cattle, lazy, selfish, unsocial, grabbing at every bunch of grass, straying from the trail, blocking the passageway, the strong thrusting out of the weaker ones, and seemingly never getting enough to eat. Some of the teamsters ride the front of their wagon, others walk alongside of the teams, and all of them incessantly whoop and goad the lazy ox who seems to know that no good thing was ever accomplished in a minute."

Such was the life of the pioneers on the trail. No such a picture of human life was ever at any time in any part of the earth exhibited before. Abraham, the father of the faithful, as he four thousand years ago moved his people out upon their annual stock grazing excursions to the plains of Mesopotamia, with his flocks of Angora goats, fat-tailed sheep, asses and camels, numerous wives, and dark eyed maidens, doubtless could have put up a good show; but the Missourians would have "had to be shown" before they would have yielded the colors.

But it was not all fun, or hard work or excitement. There were serious phases, and sad, pathetic scenes. The caravan made and enforced its own laws; and without such proper regulations the train would have been stranded in hopeless anarchy. There was the selected council of experienced and responsible men, which was a court to all intents and purposes, and before it was brought every offender to be tried by the common law of decency and even handed justice. This council exercised both legislative and judicial powers. If an offence was found to be without an applicable rule or punishment, a law was forthwith enacted to meet all such cases. The council held its sessions when the train was not moving—Sundays and rest days. It considered the caravan as a whole in the aspect of a state or commonwealth, and as such it had first consideration. The common welfare being cared for, the council would then, as a court, take up and decide disputes between individual members of the train, hearing both the aggrieved complainant and the offender, and by counsel when desired, and then deciding every case upon its merits. See what a training school here in the heart of the wilderness, as the lumbering caravan dragged its slow length across plains, mountains and deserts. Some of the improvised judges became distinguished legislators and statesmen in Oregon, and young men who appeared before that pioneer court arose to judicial honors in the states they helped to build in the Columbia river valley. Burnett, distinguished in Oregon, became governor of California. Nesmith was a judge, congressman, and U. S. senator from Oregon. Applegate was a legislator and helped make the constitution of the state. John McBride was legislator, congressman, and afterwards chief justice of Idaho. And many others might be named.

All sorts of incidents of human life break the monotony of the march. Suddenly a wagon is seen to pull out of the train and off to the wayside. The only doctor in the train (Marcus Whitman) goes off with it. Many are the inquiries of the unusual event; and grave fears expressed of the danger of leaving a lone wagon behind in an Indian country. The lumbering caravan moves slowly on, passes behind the bluffs and out of sight, and the anxiety and fears for the lone wagon left behind increase. The train halts for the night, forms its defensive circle, fires are lighted for the evening meal and the shadows of the night are creeping down upon the camp—when, behold the lone wagon rolls into camp, the doctor smiling and happy—it was a newborn boy—mother and child all right and ready for the continued journey.

Applegate, in the article mentioned, speaking of Dr. Whitman, who had been over the trail once before, says his constant advice was "travel, travel, TRAVEL; nothing else will take you to the end of your journey; nothing is wise that does not help you along; nothing is good for you that causes a moment's delay." And Applegate adds his testimonial as follows: "It is no disparagement to others to say, that to no other individual are the emigrants of 1843 so much indebted for the successful conclusion of their journey as to Dr. Marcus Whitman."

The watch for the night is set; the flute and violin have ceased their soothing notes, the enamored swain has whispered his last good night, or stolen the last kiss from his blushing sweetheart, and all is hushed in the slumber of the camp of one thousand persons in the heart of the great mountains a thousand miles from any white man's habitation, with savage Indians in all directions. What a picture of American ideas, push, enterprise, courage, and empire building. Risking everything, braving every danger, and conquering every difficulty and obstruction. We are a vain, conceited, bumptious people, boasting of our good deeds and utterly ignoring our bad ones. But where is the people who have accomplished such a work as these Missourians and their neighbors from Iowa, did in literally picking up a commonwealth in pieces, on the other side of the continent and transporting it two thousand miles to the Pacific coast and setting it down here around and about this Portland townsite in the Willamette valley, and starting it off in good working order at Champoeg, with all the state machinery to protect life and property and promote the peace and happiness of all concerned, and all others who might join in the society. In is something to be proud of.

To accomplish this result the pioneers who founded the city of Portland passed through every phase of human experience. Toils, labors and dangers beyond number or description; joys, sorrows, pains, suffering and death. The unmarked graves by the wayside of those who fell in the march to Oregon were thousands. The dust and heat at times were intolerable. Think, if you can, of a moving mass of humanity and dumb brutes, often mixed in inextricable confusion, moving along in a column twice as wide as Portland street. Here and there were drivers of the loose cattle lashing them to keep moving. Young girls riding astride ponies with a younger child behind, and all packed, jammed into a roadway, too narow for a tenth of its travelers through mountain defiles, and all looking ahead as if the next turn of the trail would bring them the promised land. To all this was added to the train of 1852, the panic and scourge of the Asiatic cholera. This was the largest train ever started to Oregon, and it suffered proportionately. This caravan was in fact made up of many trains from different localities in the border states. Mrs. M. E. Jones of North Yakima, relates that forty persons of their train died of cholera in the Platte valley in one day. A family of seven person from Hartford, Warren county, Iowa, all died of cholera in one day and were buried in one grave. While camped with a sick brother, above Grand island on the Platte, Ezra Meeker states he saw six

Covered Wagon on Trail sketch.png

HOW THE PIONEERS GOT HERE

Nearing the end of the two thousand mile, six months' journey, from the Missouri River to Portland, Oregon, sixty-four years ago. "None started but the brave, None got through but the strong."

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FRANCIS XAVIER MATTHIEU—A CITIZEN OF PORTLAND

The man whose vote to organize the Provisional Government of 1843, under the American flag, most probably gave the territory of Old Oregon to the United States instead of Great Britain. The monument to his left was erected as a memorial to the men who organized the Provisional Government, the names of the fifty-two men voting for organization being engraved thereon.

Moved and carried, that the remainder of the officers be chosen by hand ballot, and nominations from the floor.

Messrs. Hill, Shortess, Newell, Beers, Hubbard, Gray, O'Neil, Moore, and Dougherty, were chosen to act as the legislative committee.

Messrs. Burns, Judson, and A. T. Smith, were chosen to act as magistrates.

Messrs. Elbert, Bridges, and Lewis, were chosen to act as constables.

Mr. John Howard, was chosen mayor.

Messrs. Wm. McCarty, C. M'Roy and S. Smith, were chosen captains.

Moved and carried, that the legislative committee make their report on the 5th day of July next, at Champooick.

Moved and carried, that the services of the legislative committee be paid for, at $1.25 per day, and that the money be raised by subscription.

Moved and carried, that the mayor and captains be instructed to enlist men to form companies of mounted riflemen.

Moved and carried, that an additional magistrate and constable be chosen.

Mr. Campo was chosen as an additional magistrate.

Mr. Matthieu was chosen as an additional constable.

Moved and carried, that the legislative committee shall not sit over six days.

The meeting was then adjourned.

The question having arisen, with regard to what time the newly appointed officers shall commence their duties, the meeting was again called to order, when

It was moved and carried, that the old officers remain in office till the laws are made and accepted, or until the next public meeting.

Attest:

G. W. LeBreton.

There has been much discussion of what did actually take place at the Champoeg meeting. It is evident upon the face of it, that what has been printed in "The Oregon Archives" as the proceedings of that meeting, is an imperfect report. The Hon. L. F. Grover was authorized by the territorial legislature of 1849, to collect all the papers and records of the provisional government for publication; and in a note appended to the work, says: "Within the proper depository of the public papers, he has not been able to find entire and satisfactory records of all that he is satisfied has transpired in Oregon of a public general nature, and which would be of eminent historic importance." The fact that the three secretaries of that meeting, were active partizans of the purpose to form a government, and were actively advocating such purpose at the meeting, will explain why a fuller account of the proceedings was not made. The most striking and important event of the meeting was Meek's dramatic appeal for a "division," and yet that is not mentioned in the "Archives," but that it actually took place there can be no doubt. The following persons told the writer of this book substantially what Meek told him, viz., Rev. J. S. Griffin, Medorum Crawford, Robert Shortess, William Doughty, George W. Ebberts, and F. X. Matthieu.

But while much may have been lost of interesting history, there is the printed record of 335 octave pages to show the minds, thoughts, sentiments, and principles of the pioneers as "state builders;" and the state of Oregon is the glorious monument to their memory.

In organizing this provisional government, the Americans did not seek to exclude the Canadians from any part in the work; but on the countrary used all their influence to have them co-operate. At the meeting of February 2, 1843, they adjourned to meet at the house of Joseph Gervais, a Canadian, who voted against organization; and at the "Wolf Meeting," Gervais and Maitune were appointed on the standing committee—both Canadians.

The legislative committee appointed on May 2d, went to work on May 16, 1843, as a legislative body, electing Robert Moore, chairman, and G. W. Le Breton, secretary; and held sessions on May 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, June 27th and 28th; opening their sessions with prayers. On July 5, 1843, a public meeting of all the inhabitants of "Oregon territory" was held, pursuant to Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/164 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/165 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/166 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/167 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/168 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/169 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/170 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/171 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/172 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/173 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/174 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/175 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/176
PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT, AND FIRST TERRITORIAL DELEGATE TO CONGRESS
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And while England made a pretense that Captain Gray did not really enter the Columbia river, but had only sailed into a bay into which the river emptied, and that an English ship had, subsequent to Gray, sailed up the Columbia a hundred miles, and therefore the English discovered the river, yet that pretense had to be abandoned when actual sea-faring men proved that the Columbia was a real irresistible river clear down onto the ocean bar.

And England never disputed the right of Lewis and Clarke as a government expedition to explore this region in 1805; nor did the British object to the founding of Astoria until the war of 1812 gave them an excuse to rob American citizens of their property wherever they could find them; and so they robbed Astor of what his treacherous partners had not already stolen. But this gave England nothing but a robbers title to Astoria, which they surrendered after the close of the war.

President Jefferson attempted to get the northern boundary line settled with England in 1807; and because the English negotiators attempted to insert a paragraph in the treaty that would make Spain believe that the United States and England intended to claim Spanish territory west of the Rocky mountains, Jefferson rejected the whole business as an unfriendly intimation to Spain. In 1814, after the close of the war of 1812, President Madison renewed the effort to have the northern boundary line settled, and offered the proposition of 1807, to wit: that the boundary should run west from the most northern point of the Lake of the Woods (at the head of the Mississippi river) to the,, summit of the Rocky mountains, but, "that nothing in the present article be construed to extend to the northwest coast of America, or to the territory claimed by either party westward of the Rocky mountains."

The British ministry offered to accept this article, provided, England was granted the right of navigation of the Mississippi river from British America to the Gulf of Mexico. And this, of course, was rejected by the Americans.

In 1815 our government notified the British that immediate possession would be taken of Astoria and the mouth of the Columbia river, and ordered the sloop of war, Captain James Biddle, to make ready to sail for the Columbia. The British minister at Washington objected and remonstrated, but finally agreed to the unconditional surrender of Astoria by the British, and that the status quo before the war should be restored; and that in treating about the title to old Oregon, the United States should be in possession.

And again for the third time, 1817, negotiations were renewed to establish the boundary line. President Madison offering to extend the 49th parallel of north latitude boundary from the Lake of the Woods through to the Pacific ocean, but without prejudice to the rights or claims of Spain. But to this proposition the British would not agree unless they could have free navigation of the Mississippi river. And this was again rejected by the Americans.

And again for the fourth time, 1818, negotiations were renewed to settle the northern boundary, James Monroe having become president, he appointed the two able statesmen. Albert Gallatin aid Richard Rush to manage the business. The whole history of the discovery and exploration of the North Pacific Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/194 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/195 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/196 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/197

Chapter 9

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HALL KELLEY'S TOWN, 1834

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First house in Portland, Oregon.png

FIRST HOUSE IN PORTLAND.—Erected in 1844 at Front and Washington Sts.

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The coin that was tossed to decide the name of the town

Ten Dollars.

Five Dollars.

Beaver Money}}

Seal of the Provisional Government, called the "Salmon Seal."

Seal of the Territory of Oregon. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/273 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/274 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/275 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/276 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/277 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/278 Map of Portland, Oregon land claims from Gaston book.png

PLAT OF LAND CLAIMS COVERED BY THE CITY

Early Portland civic leaders.png

Francis W. Pettygrove, Stephen Coffin, W. W. Chapman, Amos Lawrence Lovejoy, Daniel H. Lownsdale

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First preachers Portland Oregon.png

FIRST PREACHERS

Rev. Horace LymanRev. J.L. Yantis
Father FierensRev. J.H. Wilbur

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THOMAS CARTER,

Founder of Carter's Addition and Portland Heights

CAPT. JOHN H. COUCH,

Founder of Couch's Addition Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/295 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/296 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/299 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/300

Front Street in 1910.png

FRONT STREET, 1910

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1 — Mrs. Liicina Coffin, wife of Stephen Coffin, aged ninety-two years. 2 — Charles Ray, carried first United States mail out of Portland, aged eighty-one years. 3 — A. B. Stewart, carried United States military dispatches during Indian wars, aged eighty-one years. 4 — Mrs. Julia Wilcox, wife of the first physician in Portland, aged ninety-two years. All still living in Portland except Mrs. Coffin, who passed away a few months ago. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/311 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/312 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/313 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/314 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/315 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/316 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/317 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/318 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/319 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/320 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/321 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/322 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/323 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/324 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/325 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/326 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/327 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/328 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/329

Chapter 14

CHAPTER XV.

1850—1910.

Portland Water Transportation—The Lot Whitcomb, and Other Steamboats—Nesmith's Account of the First Ship—Judge Strong's Account of the First Boats—The Effect of Gold Discoveries in Eastern Oregon—The Bridge of the Gods, and Other Obstructions to Navigation—The Great Territory to Be Developed—The Formation of the First Great Oregon Monopoly—The Oregon Steam Navigation Co.—The Northern Pacific Railroad Buys Controlling Interest in O. S. N. Co. and Then Fails—Ainsworth Picks Up the Old Stock for a Trifle—D. P. Thompson Uncovers Great Profits of O. S. N. Co—The Jay Gould Scarecrow—Ainsworth Sells Co. to Henry Villard—The Oregon Steam Navigation Company—The Father of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company—River and Ocean Steamers and Sail Vessels.

As there were no land means of transportation when Portland town was started, there was no patronage from the land side. Canoes, boats, sail boats, anything that could be floated on the water bearing goods or men, was in demand to start the town with. It naturally resulted from this state of affairs that water transportation, and the means thereto, occupied the front seat in all propositions to build up the town. First, was the necessity of controlling the point where the ships would come to discharge cargo. Ships might come in from Boston, New York, London, China, Siberia, the Islands, and they were the first consideration. Canoes, batteaux, sail boats, might come in from the Cascades, Vancouver, Oregon City or Astoria; but what of it? They could not found a city; they could tie up anywhere.

But it was soon seen that as immigration came in. as farms were opened, as saw mills were started, that these primitive means of transportation would not suffice, and that steam must take the place of paddles and sails. Then came the proposition to build steamboats. And it may be easily seen that such tireless men as Stephen Coffin, Lot Whitcomb, J. C. Ainsworth and John H. Couch, may have spent sleepless nights in solving the transportation proposition. There has been a great deal of discussion as to whom was due the credit for building and operating the first American steamboat on the rivers of Oregon. As the man is still living in the city who knows all about this history we will give his story of the whole matter and settle the question for all time.

U. B. SCOTT

JACOB KAMM

JOHN C. AINSWORTH

GEORGE H. PEASE

LEADING STEAMBOAT MEN IN THE HISTORY OF THE STATE As to the building of the old Lot Whitcomb, Jacob Kamm can truthfully say "all of which I saw, and a part of which I was." The Lot Whitcomb was launched at the town of Milwaukie, six miles above Portland on Christmas day, 1850, now sixty years ago. In his notice of the early steamboats Judge Strong seems to think that the Columbia, a boat projected by General Adair, and built at upper Astoria in 1850 was the first boat. But that fact can't be well decided between the two contestants for the honor, as both boats were built in the same year, and there is no accessible evidence showing which boat "took to the water" first. Strong says that the mechanics building the Columbia were paid sixteen dollars a day for their work, and the common laborers handling lumber were paid from five to eight dollars a day in gold dust. They certainly fared better than the men working on the Whitcomb, for they got no pay until the boat was running and earning something, and then they had to take pay in wheat, and farmers produce, and convert it into cash or "store pay" as best they could.

The history of the Lot Whitcomb is mixed up with the struggle between rival towns for the location of the future city. Mr. Lot Whitcomb, one of the most energetic and ambitious men of early Oregon pioneer days, had located his land claim on the present site of the town of Milwaukie, and with the aid of Captain Joseph Kellogg started in to build a city. He had got together enough machinery to build a little saw mill, and was shipping little "jags" of lumber to the embryo town of San Francisco in '49 and '50; the profits on which were so large, that he was enabled to buy the old bark Lausanne that had brought the fifty-two Methodist missionaries out here. In the Lausanne were a pair of engines and all the necessary machinery for a steamboat. These engines had evidently been sent out in the bark from New York for the express purpose of building a steamboat on the Willamette or Columbia rivers, and had been forgotten, or overlooked as not necessary to the Methodist mission; and so Whitcomb looked upon his "find" in the bottom of the ship as an act of Providence to enable him to build a steamboat, and with her aid annihilate the pretensions of the little town of Portland. Whitcomb. lost -no- time in getting those engines to Milwaukie and made all possible haste to build his boat. He had taken time by the forelock and hunted up a man at Sacramento, California, that was qualified to build a steamboat. That man he found in the person of a young man named Jacob Kamm, who was born in Switzerland, and coming to the United States and to St. Louis had learned the business of an engineer on the Mississippi river steamboats from the bottom up, and had his papers to show his qualifications. Whitcomb at once engaged Mr. Kamm, and brought him to Oregon to put up the engines and boilers, and put all the machinery in the boat.

This was a great opening for the young engineer, and Jacob Kamm was the man to fully appreciate it and make the most of his opportunity. Young, ambitious to succeed, industrious, frugal and thoroughly conscientious in the discharge of every duty, and in protecting and promoting the interests of his employer, he won the confidence of everybody, and his fortune was made in the good name and good standing he secured from this first employment in Oregon. So that from that time on Jacob Kamm never lacked employment at the highest wages, nor friends, nor chances to get ahead in the battle of life.

While Mr. Kamm was entrusted with the most important work of putting in and operating the machinery of the new boat, Mr. W. L. Hanscom was employed to build the hull and cabin. All hands worked together with a hearty good will to complete the boat and make the best showing possible; although the reputed owner'?. Lot Whitcomb and Berryman Jennings, were in such straitened circumstances as to be scarcely able to pay the board bills of the men; having expended all their means in the purchase of the engines and machinery. The boat was practically finished and launched on Christmas day, 1850. Wm. Henry Harrison Hall was employed as pilot. Jacob Kamm as engineer, while the builder Hanscom acted as master in running the boat until she was paid for and the necessary papers issued by the collector of customs at Astoria. No Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/368 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/369 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/370 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/371 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/372 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/373 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/374 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/375 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/376 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/377 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/378 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/379 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/380 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/381 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/382 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/383 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/384 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/385 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/386 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/387 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/388

OVVERLAND STAGE-TYPE OF THE EARLY SIXTIES

... Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/391 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/392 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/393 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/394 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/395 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/396 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/397 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/398

REBECCA LEWIS,

Wife of David Lewis, civil engineer, cast the first shovelfull of earth in construction of Oregon railroads.

Ben Holladay, City Founder (Beaverton, Oregon Historical Photo Gallery) (233).jpg

BEN HOLLADAY

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/403 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/404 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/405 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/406 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/407 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/408 HENRY VILLARD Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/411 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/412 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/413 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/414 in excess of the exact amount; $7.00 per acre would probably be more accurate.

ACRES.

Lands patented under East Side grant 2,765,597.13
Lands patented under West Side grant 128,618.13
Total lands patented, both grants 2,894,215.26
Lands claimed but not yet patented, approximately 293,000.00
Total 3,187,215.26
Total lands sold 819,927.94

Balance remaining unsold and involved in land grant suit 2,367,287.32

The United States is now seeking to recover these 2,367,287 acres by a suit in equity for violation of the provisions of the law granting the lands; and estimates these lands to be of the value of fifty million dollars. The lands already sold probably produced fifteen million dollars to the purchasers from the railroad companies. All of these lands were secured for railroad purposes by the direct efforts of Joseph Gaston, and their value to the companies is some evidence of the value of Gaston's services in the railroad development of the state.


THE WORK OF WILIAM REID.

In 1880 the narrow gauge road built by Mr. Gaston in Yamhill and Polk counties was sold to capitalists in Dundee, Scotland, who, through their agent in Oregon, William Reid of Portland, extended the lines on the west side of the Willamette river to Airlie in Polk county, and to Dundee, Yamhill county, with an east side of the river branch from Dundee crossing the river at Ray's Landing, thence to Woodburn, Silverton, Scio, and on to Coburg in Lane county. Mr. Villard leased this system (about 200 miles) in 1880; and Mr. Reid, on his own capital, subsequently extended the Hne from Dundee to Portland via Newberg; and the whole road thus built was soon after incorporated in the standard gauge system up the Willamette valley.

It was during Mr. Reid's administration of this enterprise that the great fight about the "public levee" in Portland took place. As it was "public" ground, it seemed to Reid's attorneys that the railroad had as much right to land on top of the levee as the steamboats had to tie up at the front of the same ground. And so the superintendent of Reid's road commenced improving the levee for a railroad track. Whereupon Mayor D. P. Thompson ordered the chief of police to arrest the railroad laborers and put them in the city jail, which was done. But as fast as one man was carried away, another man was put in his place, and he in turn arrested until the chief of police had got eightyfive big husky fellows in the city jail for grading and cleaning up the levee. It had become a farce, and the chief of police threw open the doors of his prison and told the men to go—which they did.

From the levee the matter was transferred to the legislature at Salem. The mayor, the Oregonian, and a lot of rich men of Portland were against Reid, but' the farmers were all in his favor. The legislature promptly passed an act to give Reid's road terminal privileges on the levee. Governor Thayer vetoed the bill, and then the legislature passed it over the governor's veto—and two railroads are now using that public levee for terminal grounds. Mr. Reid subsequently took up the proposition of building a railroad from Astoria to Portland. On this work he expended many thousand dollars in surveys and in grading the line from Seaside eastwardly into the heavily timbered region of Saddle mountain. But the financial depression of 1893 coming on put a stop Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/418 JAMES J. HILL, "THE EMPIRE BUILDER" Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/421 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/422 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/423 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/424 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/425 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/426 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/427 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/428

MAJOR ALFRED SEARS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/431 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/432 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/433 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/434 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/435 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/436 Portland buildings, 1911.png

1— City Hall. 2— Postoffice. 3— Public Library. 4— United States Custom House. 5— Soldiers' Monument. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/439 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/440 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/441 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/442 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/443 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/444 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/445 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/446 VIEW OF THE PORTLAND LUMBER COMPANY Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/449 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/450 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/451 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/452 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/453 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/454 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/455 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/456

Copyrighted photo by Kiser, Portland, Oregon

THE OLD WAY

The beginning of the lumbering industry in the great northwest, on Portland townsite, more than fifty years ago. and now developed into a business aggregating in the same terri-

tory one hundred million dollars annually. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/459 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/460 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/461 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/463 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/464 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/465 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/466 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/467 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/468 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/469 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/470
Bull Run construction.png

BUILDING BULL RUN WATER PIPE

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THE FLOOD AT FRONT AND MORRISON STREETS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/487 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/488 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/489 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/490 the sheep's back, making an annual income of four million dollars to the wealth of the state.


HORTICULTURE AND EXPORT OF FRUIT.

Dr. J. R. Cardwell, the veteran horticulturist of the state, and president of the State Horticultural Society for nearly a quarter of a century, and whose lifelike likeness appears on another page, has saved the author a world of trouble by recollecting and writing down the early history of horticulture in the vicinity of this city. What is said here is what Dr. Cardwell says and knows to be the facts. The gentlemen of Hood river, and the most favored localities have not surpassed the big red apple of the '50's, that gave Oregon the world-wide reputation of "the land of the big red apples." That was before the advent of the codlin moth, the scale, and the fungus.

The fungus growths came first; were noticed on the apples in the '60's—first the bitter spots on the Baldwin, then the scab and all the rest.

The first bark louse, as a pest, was noticed in 1870—trees literally covered. The enemy came. In '75 it was gone.

The first codlin moth was discovered in a box of early apples from California, in 1882; did not become a pest until early in the '90's, when the wooly aphis and the whole aphis family with the San Jose scale and other pests from California, put in their appearance. We have them yet.

The introduction of the first cultivated fruits in the country in 1824 by employees of the Hudson's Bay Company is a pretty story, with a touch of romance. At "a dinner given in London in 1824 to several young men in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, bound for the far distant Pacific coast, a young lady at the table, beside one of the young gentlemen, ate an apple, carefully wrapped the seeds in a paper and placed them in a vest pocket of the young gentleman, with the request that when he arrived in the Oregon country, he should plant them and grow apple trees. The act was noticed and in a spirit of merriment other ladies present, from the fruits of the table, put seeds of apples, pears, peaches and grapes into the vest pockets of all the young gentlemen. On their arrival at the Hudson's Bay Company fort at Vancouver the young gentlemen gave the seeds to the company's gardener, James Bruce, who planted them in the spring of 1825. From these seeds came the trees now growing on the grounds of the Vancouver barracks, as transferred to the government on the disbanding of the company. One of these trees has been recently identified, marked and protected, and is now 85 years old, and in a healthy condition.

The apple and the pear trees and the grapevines from these seeds are yet annually bearing fruits on the grounds of the government barracks af Vancouver. Mrs. Gay Hayden of Vancouver, informed me she had eaten fruit from these trees for 54 years. The fruit is not large, but of fair quality. _ Fortunately the government does not allow a tree to be removed or destroyed without an order from the department. Captain Nathaniel Wyeth, in his diary of 1835, speaks of having grafted trees on his place, Fort William, on Wapato island, now called Sauvies' island. Grafts and stock must have come from the Sandwich islands, then the nearest point to the cultivated fruits, which early missionaries had brought to those islands. Captain Wyeth left the country soon after, and we have no record of his success with these fruits.

The Hudson's Bay Company introduced the first cultivated roses as early as 1830, a pink rose, with the attar-of-roses aroma. An occasional Hudson bay rose may 'yet be seen in the old yards in Oregon City, and at Vancouver. It is sometimes called the mission rose.

In the summer of 1847, Henderson Luelling, of Iowa, brought across the plains, several hundred yearling grafted sprouts— apple, pear, cherry, plum, prune, peach, grape, and berries— a full assortmentment of all the fruits grown in the then far west. These were placed in soil in two large boxes, made to fit into a wagon bed, and carefully watered and tended on the long and hazardous six months' journey with an ox team, thousands of miles, to the banks of the Willamette, just north of the little townsite of Milwaukie, Clackamas County.

Here a little patch in the dense fir forest was cleared away with great labor and expense, and the first Oregon nursery was set that autumn with portent more significant for the luxury and civilization of this country than any laden ship that ever entered the mouth of the Columbia. A fellow traveler, William Meek, had also brought a sack of apple seeds and a few grafted trees. A partnership was formed and the firm of Luelling & Meek started the first nursery of 1848. Roots from seeding apples planted at Oregon City and on French prairie, and sprouts from the wild cherry of the vicinity and wild plum roots brought in from Rogue river valley, furnished the first stock. And it is related that one root graft in the nursery, the first year, bore a big red apple and so great was the fame of it and such the curiosity of the people, that men, women and children came from miles around to see it and made a hard beaten track through the nursery to this joyous reminder of the old homestead so far away.

Ralph C. Geer also came in 1847 and brought one bushel of apple seeds and half a bushel of pear seeds and was one of the first to plant an orchard in the Waldo hills.

People in those days in this sparsely settled country knew what their neighbors were doing, and in the fall of 1848 and spring of 1849 they came hundreds of miles from all over the country for scions and young trees to set in the little dooryard or to start an orchard; so that the trees were soon distributed all over the settlements of the valley—yearlings selling at 50 cents to $1 each.

The first considerable orchards were set on French prairie, and in the Waldo hills and about Salem. Of apples the following varieties were common: Red Astrachan, Red June, Talman's Sweet, Summer Sweet, Gravenstein, White Winter Pearmain, Blue Pearmain, Genet, Gloria Mundi, Baldwin, Rambo, Winesap, Jenett, Seek-no-Further, Tulpahockin, American Pippin, Red Cheek Pippin, Rhode Island Greening, Virginia Greening, Little Romanite, Spitzenberg, Swaar, Waxen, and a spurious Yellow Newtown Pippin, since called Green Newton Pippin—a worthless variety which has since caused much trouble to nurserymen, orchardists and fruitbuyers, and brought by mistake for the genuine—and other varieties not now remembered.

Of pears, the Fall Butter, Pound Pear, Winter Nellis, Seckel, Bartlett, Easter and others. Of cherries. May Duke, Governor Wood, Oxheart, Blackheart, Black Tartarian, Kentish and others. Peaches, the Crawford, Hale's Early, Indian Peach, Golden Cling, and seedlings. Of plums, the Gages, Jefferson, Washington, Columbia, Peach Plum, Reine Claude, and Coe's Late Red were leading varieties. Of prunes there was only one variety, our little German prune, a native of the Rhine, sometimes called the Rhine prune, and from which our Italian is a lineal descendant—a sport from its native country. The grapes were the Catawba and Isabella.

The climate was propitious, and the soil fertile, and there were no insect pests. Trees grew rapidly and they were prolific of such fruit as had never been seen before.

About 1850, a Mr. Ladd started a nursery near Butteville, and in the same year George Settlemier arrived by way of California with a good supply of fruit-tree seed, which he planted on Green Point, and afterwards removed to his present home at Mount Angel, where, as fast as his limited means would allow, a large stock of fruit and ornamental trees were accumulated, making in all the largest variety in the territory. Mr. Settlemier wisely interested his large family of sons in the business by giving them little blocks of ground for side nurseries of their own. J. H. Settlemier of Woodburn, tells with pride how he started at 10 years of age, in three fence corners, and at 13 had 1,000 trees and sold one bill of $60.

Another nursery was started near Salem and the pioneer fruit industry was fairly inaugurated. This year Mr. Luelling went back east and selected from

James Robert Cardwell.png

DR. J. R. CARDWELL
For twenty years president of Oregon Horticultural Association

the extensive nurseries of Ellwanger and Barry and A. J. Downing a large variety of young trees and plants, which he brought back via the Isthmus of Panama, carried across by Indians and mules. This time Mr. Luelling, to correct his mistake in the Yellow Newtown Pippin, had Mr. Downing personally point out the trees as they were dug. Strangely the same mistake occurred again, and again Luelling brought out the Green Newtown Pippin, and it was not for some years that the real Yellow Newtown Pippin was introduced into Oregon. The first box of apples placed upon the sidewalk in Portland in 1852 by Mr. Luelling was eagerly purchased by the admiring fruit-hungry crowd that gathered about, at $1 per apple, and returned the neat little sum of $75.

The home market now showed many of the above mentioned fruits, which were eagerly sought at fabulous prices. Apples brought as high as $1 per pound by the box, and in Portland retailed at $1.50 per pound readily, and all other fruit nearly as much.

Californians fruit-hungry, with plethoric purses, bid high for the surplus and in 1853 a few boxes securely bound with strap iron (as was the custom in those days for protection against fruit thieves), were shipped to San Francisco and sold for $2.00 per pound.

In 1854, 500 bushels of apples were shipped and returned a net profit of from $1.50 to $2.00 per pound. In 1855, 6,000 bushels were shipped and returned $20 to $30 per bushel. Young trees were now in full bearing and the export of 1856 was 20,000 boxes. This year one box of Esopus Spitzenberg paid the shipper a net profit of $60, and three boxes of Winesap were sold in Portland at $102. From this time to 1860 the fall and winter shipments bi-monthly to San Francisco, per steamer, were from 3,000 to 6,000 boxes.

The business decreased from 1860 until 1870. Only a few boxes per steamer of the late winter varieties were sent. There were the Yellow Newtown Pippin, Winesap, Red Cheek, Pippin, Genet and Red Romanite, which grown in our cool climate, kept until the California varieties were gone. This marks the decadence of the fruit industry in Oregon. California sent us apples, pears, cherries, plums, prunes, apricots, grapes, and berries a month or two earlier than we could produce them; and with them came many of the insect pests which had been imported from Australia and the eastern states, and which hitherto had been unknown to us. In our isolation we had no outlet by rail or water for our surplus products. Transportation, such as we had, was enormously expensive. We could not even ship dried fruits. Our elegant orchards were neglected and the fruit allowed to fall to the ground and decay, thus furnishing breeding grounds for the green and wooly "aphis" and the "codlin moth."

In 1857, Henry Miller of the firm of Miller & Lambert, of Milwaukie, who had purchased the orchard of Luelling and Meek, sent to Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, New York, for the best drying prunes; and in answer received scions of the Italian (Fallenburg), and a little oblong purple prune walled the d'Agen, but not the prune known now as Petite d'Agen or French prune.

About the year 1858, Seth Luelling, a brother of Henderson Luelling, set the first Italian prune orchard, five acres, near Milwaukie. Others, noting the elegance of the fruit, in quality, size, and flavor, and its fine shipping and drying qualities, began setting trees in different localities over the state for home use, and as an experiment to test locality, and as a basis for business calculation. About 1870 there was much talk and speculation about prunes and prune growing as a business, for and against, those favoring showing facts and figures, those against claiming that our prunes were not the true German and Italian prunes, and that the prunes in this country would, as they had in eastern states, degenerate in a worthless, watery plum not fit for drying, and, at any rate, that the curculio would soon come and destroy them. Solid business men considered the prune business a visionary scheme, not worthy a serious consideration.

To verify our plums and prunes, in 1872, I ordered from August Bauman, of Bolwiler on the Rhine, one of the largest and most reliable nurserymen in Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/496 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/497 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/498 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/499 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/500 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/501 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/502

H. C. ATWELL

President of the State Horticultural Society Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/505 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/506 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/509 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/510

Chapter 20

CHAPTER XXI.

1834—1910.

The First Churches—The Development of the Churches—The Groups of Great Preachers—The Founding of Sectarian Schools—The Steady Growth of Religious Work—Notable Characters, Roberts, Wilbur, Blanchet, Scott, Atkinson, Fierens, Lindsley, Morris, Christie and Stephen Wise.


THE FIRST CHURCH.

The first church in North America, built for white people west of the Rocky mountains, was erected at Willamette Falls (now called Oregon City) in the year 1843—sixty-seven years ago. Jason Lee had established a Methodist mission up in the Willamette valley before that date, but had not built a church. It was erected by a committee acting for the subscribers to the building fund, composed of Governor George Abernethy, Robert Shortess, David Carter, Rev. A. Waller, and C. Rogers. The subscribers to the building fund were as follows:


George Abernethy $100
John Force, 100
Jason Lee, 50
A. F. Waller 50
L. H. Judson, 50
Elijah White, 50
J. L. Parish, 50
David Leslie, 50
W. H. Wilson, 50
A. E. Wilson 30
Robert Shortess, 30
James R. Robb, 30
S. Smith 25
W. H. Gray, 25
W. H. Pheiffer, 25
John McCord, 20
L. J. Hubbard, 20
Wm. C. Sutton, 20
G. W. Le Breton, 20
S. C. Pomeroy, 12
James O'Neill 10
Wm. Perry 10
J. E. Long, 10
A. Beers, 10
John Dabenbis 3 days' work
Joseph Yatter, 2 days' work

This was a Methodist church building, and dedicated to the services of that denomination; but as Oregon City is within the purview of this history, the building is noticed here, and an engraving of it given on another page.

The first church building in Portland, and the first religious organization in Portland was erected by the Methodists and made by that denomination. When the first Methodist church was organized in Portland there were only ten Methodist ministers in Oregon. Rev. J. H. Wilbur was the first pastor of the First Methodist church in Portland. Mr. Wilbur was a very energetic character. With his own hands he cut down the big trees and grubbed out the great stumps and burned the logs, and brush on the block where Taylor Street Church now stands, and with his own hands to a very great extent, built the first church building in the city of Portland, and wholly painted it himself; being the old Methodist church which stood years ago on nearly the same spot that the large brick building at the corner of Third and Taylor streets now occupies. The bell now used in the church was purchased by Gen. Stephen Coffin to be donated to the first building erected for public uses; but none having been so erected, it was turned over to the Methodists for their church, and has now regularly called the faithful together every Thursday evening and every Sunday morning for more than sixty years.


EARLY HISTORY CONNECTED WITH FIRST CHURCHES.

The history is indebted to Mr. Himes for the following incidents, throwing the searchlight back for sixty years to the beginning.

After a half century it is difficult to find the address and occupation of the various members of the old choir who may be alive today.

Mrs. A. E. Chamberlain, who sang soprano, and played the melodeon, is still living, and resides at Walla Walla, Washington. Rev. P. B. Chamberlain, husband of Mrs. A. E. Chamberlain, was the first regular installed pastor, and was afterward transferred to Walla Walla and at which place he died several years ago.

Mrs. Celinda Shipley, soprano, was the wife of A. R. Shipley, who also sang in the choir. In 1852 Mrs. Shipley (then Miss Celinda Hines) was preceptress in the old Portland Academy and Female Seminary. One writer has said, referring to this school: "Among the institutions of the state and territory of Oregon, which greatly tended toward the advancement of education and good morals, none are remembered with more affection." On Nov. 17th, 1851, this institution was opened with Rev. C. S. Kingsley as principal of the school and his wife assistant. Miss Hines had charge of the school exhibitions and on one occasion composed the words of a song which was rendered by a class of the younger students. These exhibitions or exercises, were held at the Taylor street Methodist church. Miss Hines taught until her marriage to Mr. Shipley in 1854. Mrs Shipley is living in Portland with her son, Lester Shipley.

Mrs. Hiram S. Pine, soprano, removed from Portland to some point in eastern Oregon, and afterwards, we are informed, went to Buffalo, N. Y. So far as known she is alive today. When Mrs. Pine sang in the choir her husband taught in the Sunday school and it is thought she was also a teacher.

Mrs. Pine's husband was employed by A. H. Francis, a colored man who was proprietor of a leading store in Portland's early days. Francis had his "kinky" hair cut off and in its stead he wore a wig. He did this, it is supposed, to disguise himself. He resembled a Spaniard rather than one through whose veins coursed negro blood. In those days the lines were sharply drawn between those who favored the cause of the south and those who stood by the union. The sympathisers of the south were here in no small numbers, and, as a result this negro merchant felt that it would be less tropical and more congenial for him elsewhere. He therefore left Portland, and, became a resident of Victoria, B. C.

Miss Helen Burton, soprano, is unmarried and living in Portland (June, 1910) in the old home on Burnside street. Miss Burton attended the old Portland Academy and graduated from that institution in July, 1861. Her father, E, M. Burton, was one of Portland's first architects. Mr. Burton was the architect for the Multnomah county court house. This building as first designed was symrnetrical and pleasing to the eye. It was, however, changed so often by alterations and additions as to lose its original identity. He was also the architect for the "Masonic Temple" building, northwest corner Third and Alder streets, and the Breeden building, northeast corner Third and Washington streets. There are also buildings in Salem, Seattle and other cities in Oregon and Washington wbJrh attest to the skill of this pioneer architect.

Miss Lenora Blossom, soprano, was a daughter of the pioneer merchant, James M. Blossom, of the firm of Northrup (E. J.) & Blossom, these gentlemen being the immediate successors to the first hardxmre firm established in Portland. Their place of business was situated on the northwest corner of Front and Yamhill streets, and at which location Nelson Northrup (E. J.'s father) first opened a little store in 1851, and where business was conducted by the firm for many years. The business has continued uninterruptedly to the present day, and as an outgrowth of this old firm, we have the present one, known over the entire northwest, the Honeyman Hardware Company. Miss Blossom was a student in the Portland Academy, and together with Rebecca Greer, Elizabeth Carter (who afterward married Governor L. F. Grover) and Samuel A. Moreland, composed the graduating class of 1862.

Miss Blossom married Judge J. J. Hoffman, and died in New York city, August 29, 1883, and was laid to rest in the congressional cemetery at Washington, D. C.

Miss Elizabeth A. Failing, soprano, was a daughter of Josiah Failing. "In the days of old" Mr. Failing was prominent in public school affairs. He was a school director when the late ex-Governor Pennoyer taught in its schools, and he has been termed one of the fathers of Portland's public schools. The "Failing School" was named for him. Miss Failing married John Connor, a merchant of Albany, Oregon, who afterward became a banker in the same city. Mrs. Connor died suddenly, May 2, 1884, while visiting her brother, Henry Failing, at Portland, Oregon. This worthy daughter and wife is sleeping in Riverview cemetery near Portland.

Miss Mary L. Millard, soprano, was a daughter of Dr. Justin Millard, one of the first physicians of Portland. She was a student in the Portland Academy, but did not graduate. There was evidently a "touch of romance" in this famous organization, for we find that in 1861 Miss Millard became the wife of Capt. H. L, Hoyt, one of the choir's tenors.

Mrs. Hoyt was a great sufferer for many years, but was supremely patient through it all. She died April 16, 1902, much beloved by a wide circle of friends and acquaintances, and is buried in Riverview.

Mrs. Alonzo Leland, the lone alto, had a phenomenal voice. Her tones were of a resonant character and full of sweetness and purity as well. What the alto lacked numerically was compensated for in volume and purity of tone.

On June 21, 1853, John O. Waterman was appointed postmaster of Portland. He retained the position until October 12, 1853, at which time Alonzo Leland was made his successor. Both of these appointments were made by President Pierce, James Campbell being postmaster-general. Mrs. Leland was assistant postmaster. The postoffice was then located on the second floor of a two-story frame building, situated on the east side of Front street near Stark. Mr. Leland was also editor of the "Democratic Standard." In the early history of Portland, and before the advent of the telegraph made it possible for the "Associated Press" to disseminate its news, the editors of opposing political papers were engaged continually in violent controversies. We can imagine but dimly the vast amount of gray matter and energy gone to waste over the "political issues of the day." Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/574 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/575 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/576 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/577 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/578 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/579 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/580 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/581 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/582 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/583 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/584 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/585 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/586 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/587 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/588 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/589 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/590 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/591 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/592 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/593 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/594 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/595 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/596 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/597 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/598 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/599 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/600 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/601 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/602 RT. REV. BENJAMIN WISTAR MORRIS, BISHOP OF OREGON Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/605 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/606 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/607 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/608

AARON LADNER LINDSLEY, D. D. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/611 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/612 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/613 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/614 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/615 The vine maple which now follows the direction of the original scaffold, was brought from the then nearby woods and planted by Bishop Morris himself, and constitutes what is now known as the "Bishop's Arch." Another interesting receipt is one for $67 for "extracting stumps."

Among the original donors we find the names of General Eaton, Colonel McCraken, Samuel Sherlock, S. Pennoyer, Dr. R. B. Wilson, G. S. Brooks, Lloyd Brooke, Mrs. Couch, Judge M. P. Deady, Mrs. Hewett, Wm. Sherlock, Mrs. Corbett, Weeks & Morgan, Ladd & Tilton, Dr. Glisan, W. Wadhams, S. G. Skidmore, Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Lewis, George Goode, Elijah Corbett, H. W. Corbett, James Laidlaw, G. E. Wethington, Hodge, Calef & Co., James Steel, D. P. Thompson, Henry Failing and others. Also the churches of Trinity and St. Stephens of Portland, St. Peter's of Albany, St. Paul's of Oregon City, St. Mary's of Eugene, St. David's of East Portland, and St. Luke's of Vancouver, Washington.

An appeal from the bishop to raise funds for the hospital reads, "A hospital and orphanage to be erected in the northwest part of the city under the supervision of the Episcopal church. Patients will be admitted to this hospital, and children to this orphanage, without distinction of race or religion, of color or country, and any ministration that may be desired at the bedside of any patient, will be cordially allowed. It is proposed to raise a building fund of $5,000 for immediate use. I have pledged $2,000 of this and hope the good people of Portland will soon furnish the $3,000. The first hospital board of managers were Hon. M. P. Deady, Rev. Geo. F. Plummer, Mr. C. H. Lewis, Capt. Geo. H. Flanders, Dr. R. B. Wilson, Dr. R. Glisan, Mr. James Laidlaw, Mr, Henry Hewett, Gen. J. H. Eaton, Mr. Ivan R. Dawson, Mr. Henry Failing, Gen. J. H, Eaton, secretary, and Mr. George Goode, treasurer.

The hospital was opened October 9, 1875, and the first patient admitted October 10th. It then consisted of a building which cost $10,000, of which $1,500 was unpaid at that time. The first superintendent was George Boyd, a deacon of the church, who did faithful service in the hospital for 10 years. During the first year it cared for 51 patients, and in the orphanage were 25 children. Two years later there were 129 patients in the hospital, and 15 children in the orphanage. In 1877 a mortgage of $2,000 was placed on the hospital, but was paid in 1880.

A portion of the address of Bishop Morris for the year 1878 we quote: "By the fencing of the surrounding property, access to the hospital has been very difficult for the past year, and in the winter, the long and circuitous road to it was almost impassable to any ordinary vehicle, and a very terror to patients and physicians." It was during this winter while the bishop was east that the hospital was closed, waiting for a passable road. One of the staff, Dr. W. H. Saylor, often told about letting down bars while on his road to make his daily visits to the hospital.

Some years later the bishop makes an appeal for money "to relieve an alarming indebtedness of $636." Another time he was strongly urged to sell it for a marine hospital, as he had what was then considered a good offer for it; but gradually it prospered. During the year 1883, it sustained a great loss in the death by typhoid fever of Mr. Boyd. The expenditure of the hospital during this year was $4,988.20. Sister Hannah and Sister Mary were next in charge, and after them, Rev. Mr. Ferguson. In 1885, Mrs. Emma J. Wakeman was asked to manage its affairs, and for 20 years was its faithful and beloved superintendent.

The first addition to the original part was made in 1889, increasing its capacity about 25 beds. In 1890 the training school was organized—the first in the northwest; Miss Emily L. Loveridge, a graduate of Bellevue, taking charge of it, and starting with six student nurses. It has now ninety.

When the missionary jurisdiction of Oregon became a diocese, the control of Good Samaritan Hospital was vested in a corporation founded under the laws

Good Samaritan Hospital from Gaston book.png

GOOD SAMARITAN HOSPITALMRS. EMMA J. WAKEMAN, SUPT.

of Oregon, and known as the Board of hospital trustees of the diocese of Oregon. This board now consists of three clergymen and three laymen, the bishop of Oregon being ex-officio the chairman of the board. The first board was Rev. Thos. L. Cole, Rev. W. R. Howell, Dr. S. E. Josephi and Dr. Geo. F. Wilson. In 1896 two more members were added—Rev. Mr. , and Mr. L. B. Cox, whose untiring interest in the hospital, and whose earnest work for its welfare will long be remembered. Mr. Glisan was appointed his successor on the death of Mr. Cox, in 1890.

In 1891 the next addition was made, adding a capacity for 30 ward and room beds for patients, and also accommodations for fourteen nurses. The first brick portion of the hospital was the Lewis wing, being the southwest portion of the west wing. In 1902 the nurses' home was begun, and two floors completed. In 1905 was built the northwest wing of the hospital, containing the Couch surgery, a memorial to John and Caroline Couch. In this same year the laundry was built, and the following year the two unfinished floors of the nurses' home were completed. In 1909 was erected the middle or north portion of the hospital as a memorial to the late Bishop Morris, containing a complete administration building with a chapel, also a memorial to the bishop. This was made possible largely by the generosity of some of its friends, among them Mrs. C. H. Lewis, Mrs. Glisan and family and others.

During the year 1894, Mrs. Wakeman's health failed, and with great regret her resignation was accepted in 1905, when Miss Loveridge was appointed her successor and Miss G. M. Welch, one of the school's first graduates, made superintendent of the training school.

The hospital has now a capacity for 250 beds, and in 1909 cared for 4,374 patients. In 1909, Miss R. M. Jolly was appointed superintendent of the training school, and Miss Welch assistant superintendent.

Medical and Surgical Staff—Andrew J. Giesy, M. D.; Andrew C. Panton, M. D.; S. E. Josephi, M. D.; A. E. Mackay, M. D.; E. H. Parker, M. D.; Holt C. Wilson, M. D.; Geo. F. Wilson, M. D.; Richard Nunn, M. D.; W. L. Wood, M. D.

House Staff—H. B. Lieser, M. D.; B. E. Smith, M. D. ; Miss Emily Lover idge, superintendent; Mrs. N. J. Carroll, matron; M. E. Lieser, M. D.; Rev. Wm. Powell, chaplain; Miss Mary Welch, superintendent training school of nurses.

Number of full pay patients from March 1, 1908, to February 28, 1909
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
2,017
Number of part pay patients from March 1, 1908, to February 28, 1909
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
1,215
Number of free patients from March 1, 1909, to February 28, 1909
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
491
Number of days' treatment bestowed on full pay patients
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
22,950
Number of days' treatment bestowed on part pay patients
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
19,383
Number of days' treatment bestowed on free patients
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
9,742
Number of patients under treatment March 1, 1908
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
168
Number of patients under treatment March 1, 1909
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
134
Number of patients admitted during the year
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3,723
Number of patients discharged during the year
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3,606
Number of patients died during the year
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
161

Of the above, endowment beds furnished days' care and treatment as follows: Queen Victoria Jubilee commemoration bed, 516; Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee commemoration bed, 371; British Consulate bed, 489; S. Morris Wain memorial bed, 217; Grace Charlotte Stark memorial bed, 212; H. Rodney Morris memorial bed, 365; Mary and Lewis Flanders memorial bed, 365; George C. Morris memorial bed, 245; Caroline Couch memorial bed, 210; Ellen Wain memorial bed, 203; Philadelphia bed, 160; Strangers bed, 189; Arthur William Morris memorial bed, 190; Maria Blanchard memorial bed, 214; Children's Christmas cot, 205; Hamilton-Brooke memorial bed, 365; Wm. Sherlock memorial bed, 218; Sailors' bed, 120; Hannah M. Smith and Margery Lindsley memorial bed, 180; Trinity Church memorial bed, 255; Child's comfort cot, 150; total, 5,439.


PATIENTS UNDER TREATMENT DURING THE YEAR.

By nationalities — Americans, 2,803; Austrians, 38; Belgians, 7; Bohemians, 3; Bulgarians, 8; Canadians, 75; Chinese, 24; Danes, 30; Dutch, 2; English, 90; Finns, 50; French, 19; Germans, 126; Grecians, 41; Hungarians, 5; Indians, 1; Irish, 31; Italians, 49; Japanese, z|4; Macedonians, 4; Mexican, 1; Norwegians, 67; Poles, 8; Russians, 29; Scotch, 45; Servian, 1; Spanish, 1; Swedes, 101; Swiss, 18; Turks, 2; total, 3,723.

By religious faith — Adventist, 15; Baptist, 235; Campbellite, 1; Christians, 83 ; Christian Scientists, 5 ; Church of the Apostles, 2; Church of the Disciples, 1; Church of God, i; Church of the Nazarene, 1; Church of Zion, 2; Buddhists, 8; Episcopalians, 247; Evangelicals, 48; German Reform, 4; Greek, 32; Heathens, 33; Hebrew, 15; Hindoo, 1; Lutherans, 374; Macedonian, 1; Methodists, 465; Mohammedans, 2; Mormons, 2; Presbyterians, 222 ; Protestants, 624 ; Quakers, 2; Roman Catholic, 444; Salvation Army, 2; Spiritualists, 3; Unitarians, 17; United Brethren, 16; Universalists, 9; None, 806; total, 3,723.

Total cash income for the year $249,282.39 Total cash expense of operation 248,821.53 Balance in the treasury . 460.86


ENDOWED BEDS AND GIFTER FUNDS.

S. Morris Wain memorial bed fund. $ 3,500.00
Grace Charlotte Stark memorial bed fu.mi •; 3,000.00
H. Rodney Morris memorial bed fund. . 2,673.00
Mary and Lewis Flanders memorial bed fund 3,250.00
George C. Morris memorial bed fund 3,000.00
Caroline Couch memorial bed fund 3,000.00
Ellen Wain memorial bed fund 3,000.00
Queen Victoria Jubilee bed fund 3,250.00
British Consulate bed fund 2,500.00
Philadelphia bed fund 3,000.00
Strangers' bed fund 3,000.00
Arthur William Morris memorial bed fund 3,000.00
Maria E. Blanchard memorial bed fund 3,500.00
Children's Christmas cot fund 3,250.00
Trinity Church free bed fund 3,000.00
Childs' comfort cot fund 3,000.00
Hamilton-Brooke memorial bed fund 3,500.00
Hannah M. Smith and Margery L. Lindsley memorial bed
fund 4,500.00
Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee bed fund 3,500.00
William Sherlock memorial bed fund 3,500.00
Sailors' bed (the B. H. Buckingham memorial) 5,000.00
Benjamin C. Stanton memorial bed fund 5,000.00
Henry Whitaker bequest 3.546-37
Masonic free bed fund 775-i^
R. Glisan fund 1,000.00
Mothers' bed endowment fund (Lamson) 334-8i
Mothers' bed endowment fund (the Laura A. McGill memorial) 200.00
Sinking fund (cottages) 8,003.05
Seller-Loewengart fund 596- 14

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/621 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/622 After holding it for a few years, it was determined that it was not good for hospital purposes, and it was sold for $88,000, and a block of land bought in East Portland for $30,000. Plans were drawn and a building commenced on a reinforced concrete plan. Some more money was given by friends, and so far, above $70,000 has been spent on the building. As soon as more money can be collected, the building will be completed. This will be the only hospital in the city which is entirely fireproof. The management, consisting of Judge Bronaugh, F. M. Warren, W. B. Ayer, Tyler Woodard and Walter F. Burrell, are now considering plans for money sufficient to furnish and fully equip the new hospital for work.

THE COUNTY HOSPITAL.

Multnomah county maintains a county hospital in the city, now under the care and direction of Dr. E. P. Geary, which is fitted up to minister to the in- digent unfortunate in the inost comfortable manner. This hospital has grown out of the general provision made by the county authorities for the unfortunate poor, known as the "Poor Farm." This public charity was organized in 1869, by the county of Multnomah purchasing one hundred and sixty acres of land of Gen. Stephen Coffin in the year 1869. The land lay about two miles west of the then city of Portland, and was purchased of General Coffin for fifty dollars an acre. It was recently sold by the county for seven hundred and fifty dollars an acre ; the proceeds of which are to be invested in land for a poor farm near the town of Troutdale, and the necessary buildings to be erected thereon.

Multnomah Hospital, on Second street, between Hooker and Hood streets, came into existence in its present form in 1909. For many years the indigent sick of the county received indififerent care in wards connected with the alms- house. The county physician. Dr. E. P. Geary, soon after his appointment, be- came impressed with the inadequacy of the facilities in this institution and strove for better things. Backed by a humane board of county commissioners, composed of Judge L. R. Webster, W. L. Lightner and F. C. Barnes, he was enabled to introduce modern methods into the hospital department. The male attend- ants were replaced with white capped trained nurses, and the old-time hit or miss methods of nursing gave place to scientific and cleanly regulations. The first step having been accomplished, a demand was made for better rooms, better beds and better food. The county commissioners authorized the purchase and equipment of suitable grounds and buildings for a hospital away from the environment of the poorhouse, and the new institution there to be erected was named Multnomah Hospital ; the word county being dropped, and with it the stigma of pauperism so unnecessary and so oiTensive to the unfortunate who, by reason of sickness, is obliged to seek charity.

The new grounds provide accommodations for buildings which will house 1,000 or more beds. As Portland grows, this number will, at no distant day be needed. Meanwhile the inmates of the present structure enjoy the use of grounds and shrubbery which might adorn the palace of a king. The mansion which occupied the center of the grounds has been reconstructed and enlarged, and already 100 people at times occupy the beds therein. A surgery and dressing rooms with racolith floors insures that degree of cleanliness which is necessary for the performance of successful operative work; and a staff of nurses under the guidance of the superintendent, Mrs. Alta Y. Spaulding, give the needed care to the sufferers who seek the hospital.

But the most progressive feature introduced into the hospital by the county physician and his co-workers is to be found in the organized staff which divides with Dr. Geary the responsibility of caring for the sick. New York, Philadel- phia, Chicago, Buft'alo and every large city has realized the need of organized medical and surgical help in the care of the county sick, and each in turn has

secured the aid of charitable physicians for this purpose. So widespread has Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/624 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/625 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/626

MANAGERS OF PATTON HOME Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/629 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/630 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/631 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/632 the river. And from this fact the Albina ladies were compelled to rely on what aid they could get from a community of people all struggling to build homes of their own. But in spite of all discouragements, the "Home for the Friendless" took deep root and continued to grow. From the six-room cottage, it was enlarged into a two-story building of eighteen rooms ; and within the past year the eighteen rooms have grown into forty with the building of an annex, furnishing comfortable quarters for forty-two aged ladies and eight aged men. One of these aged ladies is past ninety-five years of age, with a mind bright and clear. Some of these aged people have a little income of their own and pay their way. Others are supported by churches, or relations, or fraternal societies; and a few are kept at the expense of the society. The average cost of each inmate is thirteen dollars a month; and some are confined to their beds, requiring a nurse. Mrs. Mary A. Knox, the first president of the society, is still retained in that position, having now faithfully devoted twenty years of her life to the building and care of this most worthy institution.

THE OLD PEOPLE'S HOME.

The Old Ladies' Home Society — prototype of this home, was organized March 3, 1893, Mrs. Mary H. Holbrook, a pioneer woman of Portland, noted for good works, being its first president. The object of the society was declared to be the establishment of one or more homes for aged women. The need of institutions of the kind had been recognized before this formal organization; and Mrs. Holbrook, Mrs. W. W. Spaulding, Mrs. R. B. Wilson and Mrs. F. E. Beach, together with Mr. C. A. Dolph, Mr. W. W. Spaulding, and Mr. Richard Williams, had entered into an agreement to promote the establishment of such home or homes.

It was first decided to limit the beneficiaries of the society to aged women; and a committee was appointed to prepare articles of incorporation, which were on February 28, 1893, presented and signed, and thus organizing "The Old Ladies' Home." From this time on the membership of the society increased, and a number of liberal donations were made, the most notable of which were bequests of the late Amanda W. Reed and Henry W. Corbett, Mrs. Reed giving block No. 124 of the city, and Mr. Corbett bequeathing $15,000 in cash and some real estate. But the advance in the price of land suitable for a home site, the cost of construction, and the necessity of enlarging the plans at first proposed, made the task of securing sufficient funds to execute so large an undertaking too great to be attempted by the society.

In this emergency, and during the spring of 1908, Peter John Mann, a resident of the city of Portland, generously proposed to the society that in case the scope of its beneficence could be enlarged as indicated by a change in the name to "The Old People's Home" he would purchase a site and erect a suitable building for old people of both sexes; adding thereto, the suggestion that he did not think it right to separate aged couples, and that in his opinion, a home was not complete without both men and women. And after due consideration, the society unanimously decided to make the change, and a committee was appointed to legally make it.

But before this change could be entirely consummated, Mr. Mann was suddenly called by death. Upon the death of her husband, Anna Mary E. Mann, president of the society, desiring to carry into effect the wishes of her departed companion, took up the work planned by him; and in the hope that in thus applying the fruits of his industry, many old people, both men and women, may be afforded in their declining years the comforts of a home, and the society continue to be a blessing to the city in which he lived for more than forty years, she dedicates a large portion of the fortune left her by her husband, to the erection of this home to the memory of Peter John Mann. This home has now been completed.

MT. ST. JOSEPH HOME.

The Sisters of Mercy have had for some years a home for the aged, and about ten years ago the work assumed such importance that more commodious quarters were required. In consequence the building and grounds formerly known as the Portland hospital were purchased by the sisters in June, 1901. By this purchase the sisters came into possession of the brick building erected several years before by the Methodists as a hospital, and five acres of ground surrounding it. The place is admirably adapted to the use to which the sisters have put it.

The home was dedicated September 15, of the same year by Most Rev. A. Christie, in the presence of a great gathering of Portland people. More than 500 aged persons of all denominations and nationalities have been cared for at Mt. St. Joseph's in the eight years of its existence. At present there are 110 inmates. Of these 80 per cent are men. This proportion has been usual from the beginning. On account of sickness or extreme old age (several are over 90) very few of the men are able to perform any labor.

THE ODD FELLOWS HOME.

This is not a charity, but a wise provision of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, for providing and taking care of their aged and disabled members. The annual dues paid into the treasury of the order by the membership constitute the fund from which this institution is supported. It is the only secret society (so-called) here at this city, that has made this provision for its membership; and this fact attests in the very highest and effective way the benefits and brotherhood merits of this fraternal order.

The grand lodge of the order took the necessary steps in 1883 to establish this home near the village of Fairview, some fifteen miles east of this city. And after erecting a building on the tract of land owned at that place by the order, it was never used or occupied as a home. Its inaccessibility, and distance from the city, rendered the selection inappropriate, and it had to be abandoned, and the land sold to found the present home in the southeast part of East Portland.

In carrying this benevolent work through to success, the late Richard Scott of Milwaukie (sic), and Dr. Williamson, trustees for this purpose, rendered most efficient service. The ladies connected with the order — Mrs. Mary Tomlinson, vice-president ; Mrs. Emma Galloway, of McMinnville, secretary, and Mrs. Lizzie Howell of Oregon City, treasurer, together with Robert Andrews, president, have the care and management of the institution. The corner stone of the home, which is a substantial brick structure, was laid May 25, 1907, and the building completed and dedicated on January 4, 1908. At last report, there were eleven men, four women and thirteen children, beneficiaries of the institution, of which Mrs. Viola Crawford, was superintendent and matron, and Miss Irene Bemar, governess. They have ample funds, and do not solicit aid.

THE BOYS' AND GIRLS' AID SOCIETY.

In the early part of April, 1885, Dr. T. L. Eliot of the First Unitarian church, Dr. A. L. Lindsley, of the First Presbyterian church, and Harvey W. Scott, editor of the Oregonian, met in the office of the last named gentleman and spoke of the needs of a society whose duty it would be to care for dependent and delinquent children of Portland. A letter framed by these three appeared in the Oregonian on April 6, 1885, setting forth the needs of such a society, and inviting those who were interested in the uplifting of children to formulate some plan of organization, and on July 3, 1885, a meeting was called to consider organization in the office of the Hon. W. B. Gilbert, and there were present at that

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MRS. ANNA MARY LEWIS MANN
Builder of Old People's Home — President of Women's Union and Children's Home

meeting, W. S. Ladd, William Wadhams, Miss Helen F. Spaulding, F. K. Arnold, C. E. Sitton, L. L. Hawkins, W. B. Gilbert, Dr. P. T. Keene, Rev. T. L. Eliot, F. E. Beach, F. B. Pettingill, H. W. Scott, H. W. Corbett and Dr. Chance.

A committee of five was then appointed to perfect organization. W. S. Ladd was elected chairman of the meeting and F. E. Beach, secretary.

The first meeting of the board of trustees of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society of Oregon was held on the 7th day of October, 1885, and consisted of the following: L W. Pratt, Miss Helen F. Spaulding, F. E. Beach, H. W. Corbett, W. S. Ladd, L F. Powers, W. B. Gilbert, P. T. Keene, and L. L. Hawkins.

The first officers elected were H. W. Corbett, president; F. E. Beach, secretary and L. L. Hawkins, treasurer.

During the first ten years of the life of the society, Mr. Ira F. Powers, acted as superintendent, without compensation, and did a large amount of good work for the organization.

The present board of trustees consists of W. B, Gilbert, president; F. E. Beach, secretary; J. C. Ainsworth, treasurer; Dr. T. L. Eliot, Robt. S. Farrell, Chas. E. Wolverton, Fredk. H. Strong, Wm. F. Woodward and Mrs. Levi White.

The Boys' and Girls' Aid Society was organized for the care and disposition of homeless, neglected and abused children and to receive first offenders, caring for them until suitable homes or employment was found for them, and thereafter to continue systematic attention to their condition and treatment. The society at that time was entirely supported by voluntary contributions, and the first bequest made to the society was in 1889, by Miss Ella M. Smith, who left the society the handsome sum of $40,000.00. This was of course an irreducible fund and was loaned out on note and mortgage.

The first appropriation made by the state of Oregon was in the year 1895, to the amount of $2,500.00. Then followed other bequests from friends of the society until the society had received as bequests the following:

Miss Ella M. Smith $40,000.00
Levi C. Millard 5,000.00
Lindsley Estate 2,134.55
Mrs. Rosa F. Burrell 9,000.00
H. W. Corbett 10,000.00
Mrs. Amanda W. Reed 1,000.00
Henry W. Weinhard, 1,000.00

Making a total of $63,134.55

Besides which a farmer named W. L. Justice, residing in Fox valley. Grant County, Oregon, recently died leaving all his real and personal property to the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, which will in all probability amount to about $2,000.00 after the debts outstanding against the estate are liquidated.

As may be seen by the present names of the board of trustees, there are still three of its organizers members of the board. While Dr. T. L. Eliot was not a member of the first board of trustees, yet, he always took an active interest in the work, and was instrumental in raising the funds for the erection of the present receiving home, which is built on a beautiful site donated by Mrs. Rachael Hawthorne, on the corner of East 29th and Irving streets, one block from the line of the Rose City Park cars.

In addition to the donations for the site the Ladd estate donated nine lots at the back and immediately adjoining the grounds of the receiving home and the society purchased the next nine lots adjoining these, making the grounds four hundred and fifty feet long by three hundred and thirty feet wide. These grounds are beautifully laid out with roses and ornamental trees. The children's play ground in the back is situated in a beautiful grove where all kinds of children's games can be indulged in.

Since its organization the society has appointed three superintendents, the first being Mr. E. T. Dooley, who served for about one year from 1891 to 1892. Mr. Dooley was for twenty years preceding his appointment, superintendent of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society of California, situated in San Francisco. During his incumbancy he organized this work and formulated methods for its prosecution and opened books in which was entered the history of the children coming under the care of the society. Mr. Dooley was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Misner, who served from February, 1893, at which time the present superintendent, W. T. Gardner, was appointed, and who has served ever since in this capacity.

The present assistant, Mrs. Mary J. Graham, was the first matron employed, to which position she was appointed in February, 1892.

The work of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society is state wide. Children are committed to the society from every county in the state. Since its organization it has received and cared for three thousand, seven hundred and twenty-three children and deducting those who have become of age, children adopted, and those sent to relatives or discharged for other causes, they have now upwards of five hundred children under the direct care of the society. About fifty-five of this number are at the Receiving Home awaiting placement and the balance are placed in family homes throughout the state of Oregon. One hundred and fifty of this number being for the most part girls between the age of ten and eighteen years, are placed in family homes within the corporate limits of the city of Portland. The younger ones are attending school and receiving their board and clothing in return for service rendered while the older ones are working in families at regular wages.

Mrs. Mary J. Graham acts as city visitor and has in charge girls whom she visits at regular intervals and pays particular attention to their conditions and treatment.

The southern Oregon district is under the care and supervision of Miss Myrtle E. Pease, while the eastern Oregon district is looked after by Mr. J. C. Kilpack, thus, all the wards of the society are systematically cared for after being placed in family homes.

The result of the work can be seen throughout the entire state of Oregon and it is hard to find a better equipped child placing agency than the Boys' and GirlsAid Society in the United States.


THE BABY HOME.

Portland's home for deserted orphaned babies, located at East 36th and Ellsworth streets, was organized in 1888. The first officers being: Mrs. Mary D. Halsey, president; Mrs. Kate Mendenhall, vice-president; Mrs. R. N. Robb, secretary; Mrs. Jane Abraham, treasurer.

The institution was incorporated in 1889, with a capital stock of one thousand dollars, divided into one hundred shares of ten dollars each. And of this incorporation Mrs. Sarah Kern was president; Mrs. J. C. Warner, vice-president; Mrs. A. J. Wells, secretary; Mrs. A. L. Keenan, treasurer; and Mrs. E. R. Harbin, each being a member of the board of five directors.

A block of eight city lots was donated to the institution by Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Kern, for a building site, and opened a house for the little charges then at hand, and commenced business with ten children.

In May, 1910, in order to enlist a larger circle of interest, senior and junior auxiliaries were added to the board of directors, consisting of, for the seniors: Mrs. Walter Burrell, president; Mrs. Frank Ransom, vice-president; Mrs. Whitney L. Boise, secretary; Mrs. W. J. Van Schuyver, treasurer, with seventy-five lay members. And for the juniors, Miss Maida Hart, president; Miss Marguerita Hume, vice-president; Miss May Coon, secretary; Miss Ruth Beach, treasurer; and fifty lay members.

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MISS ELLA M. SMITH

Built City Library Building and gave forty thousand dollars to Boys' and Girls' Aid Society

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1 — Boys' and Girls' Aid Society Home. 2 — Odd Fellows Home. 3 — St. Joseph's Home for

Aged Persons. 4 — Home of the Good Shepherd. 5 — The Children's Home. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/645 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/646 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/647 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/648 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/649 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/650 THESE LABORED TO SAVE THE YOUTH Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/653 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/654 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/655 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/656 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/657 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/658 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/659 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/660 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/661 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/662

MRS. W. J. HONEYMAN

President of the Y. W. C. A.

CHAPTER XXIII.

1839—1910.


The Pioneer Newspaper, with Much Local History—The Pioneer Printers—Fleming, Craig, et al.—The Oregonian—Various Other Newspapers and Their Editors.


THE PIONEER PAPER—THE SPECTATOR.

The following sketch of the pioneer newspaper and its immediate successors, and of the men connected therewith, is contributed to this history by Mr. George H. Himes, one of the advisory board, of this work. The article was prepared originally for the Historical Quarterly. Mr. Himes' unequaled and indispensable work as secretary of the Oregon Pioneer Association, and acting secretary of the Oregon Historical Society, and also publisher of the History of the Willamette Valley, qualifies him to treat the subject of this chapter more thoroughly than any other person.


THE HIMES' ARTICLE.

The first press on the Pacific coast, or any of its tributary islands, operated by citizens of the United States, was the Mission Press of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (the foreign missionary society of the Congregational and Presbyterian churches of the United States), which was sent to Oahu, Sandwich Islands, late in 1821. On January 5, 1822, stands for type cases were made and part of the type placed in the cases. On January 7th, the first impression of the first sheet of the Owyhee spelling book was taken. The name of the printer was Elisha Loomis, who was also a teacher, and went from Middlesex, New York, to join the mission party at Boston, which sailed from that port to the islands on October 23, 1819. When the first sheet of the spelling book was printed, the native governor, Tiamoko, several masters of vessels, and others, were present to witness the scene, the first of the kind in these islands. How interesting to those who carried forward their reflections to the future and distant and endless results. On January loth, Mr. Loomis printed the king's name in "elegant capitals" in the two forms, "Rihoriho" and "Liholiho," so that he might settle the question whether "R" or "L" should be used in spelling his name. He chose the former. On January 12th, Mr. Loomis printed a supply of several kinds of approbation tickets, to be used among the school children. The progress of printing was slow, owing to the difficulties in translating the language. At the end of six months, only sixteen pages of a small spelling book had been printed. Later, in 1825, Mr. Loomis made a statement to the effect that up to that date, sixteen thousand copies of the spelling book, four thousand copies of a small scripture tract, four thousand copies of a catechism, and two thousand copies of a hymn book of sixty pages had been printed; and in this connection stated that another press and more type was greatly needed. Not long after the above date, a press was established at Honolulu, and by March 20, 1830, the combined plants had issued twenty-two distinct books, averaging thirty-seven small pages each, amounting in all to three hundred and eightyseven thousand copies.

In a few years the demand for printed matter in the islands assumed such proportions that greater facilities for printing became necessary; hence the first Honolulu press was laid aside.

In 1836, the American board mission among the Indians in Oregon was established; so as a means of encouragement, and with a view to helping on in the work of this mission as far as possible, the first native church of Honolulu decided to send it the unused press. Accordingly, an arrangement was effected with Mr. Edwin O. Hall, who had been one of the printers of the mission since 1835, to take it to Oregon. It was shipped with type, fixtures, paper and binding apparatus, all valued at $500, and arrived at Vancouver, on the Columbia river, about April 10, 1839. An express was sent to Dr. Marcus Whitman at Wai-il-et-pu, six miles west of the present city of Walla Walla, Washington, and to Rev. H. H. Spalding at Lapwai, on the Clearwater, not a great way from the present city of Lewiston, Idaho, notifying them that the press, with Mr. and Mrs. Hall and F. Ermantinger as guide, would leave Vancouver on the 13th with the hope of reaching Fort Walla Walla (now Wallula) on the 30th. Spalding, with his wife and child, started for Wai-il-et-pu on the 24th and reached his destination on the 27th. The next day a note was received to the effect that the press and party before named had just arrived, passage having been made up the Columbia river in a canoe. On May 6th, the press and escort, started for Lapwai, the press on pack animals in charge of Ermatinger; Hall and wife and Spalding and family in a canoe, and all arrived safely at their destination late on the evening of the 13th. On the 16th, the press was set up, and on May 18, 1839, the first proof sheet in the original Oregon territory was struck off. This was an occasion of great rejoicing. On the 23d, it was resolved to build an adobe printing office. On the 24th, the first four hundred copies of a small book in the Nez Perce Indian language were printed. The translation was made by Mr. and Mrs. Spalding and Cornelius Rogers, a teacher in the mission, and used in manuscript form prior to the arrival of the press. On July 10th, the style of alphabet was agreed upon, it having been decided to adopt the one used in the Sandwich Islands. This was done at Kamiah by Dr. and Mrs. Whitman, Mr. Spalding and wife. Rev. A. R. Smith and wife, and Mr. Hall. On August 1st, the printing of another book was commenced in the new alphabet, and by the 15th, five hundred copies were completed. On December 30th the press was packed, with the intention of sending it to Dr. Whitman's station, Wai-il-et-pu, to print a book there. The next day it started on its journey, and that evening the packhorse fell down a precipice, and it was supposed that the press was dashed to pieces. On January i, 1840, Mr. Rogers rode to the scene of the accident, gathered all the material together and returned. By the 17th the press was again set up, and it was discovered that nothing was lost save a few type. By this experience, it was found that it would be easier to send the manuscript to the press than the press to the manuscript. Printing was resumed on the 20th, and on the 28th Mr. Hall having started for the Sandwich Islands, Mr. Rogers, who had been taught to set type and operate the press by Mr. Hall, was employed to take charge of the press and do the printing for the mission for 30 pounds, English money, per year and his board. Thereafter, so long as the mission was sustained, the usual routine of work was pursued.

It is impossible to state accurately the number of publications that were issued from this press in the Flathead, Spokane, Cayuse and Nez Perce languages; but it is believed to have been at least a dozen. It has been my good fortune to secure four copies of these publications for the library of the Oregon Historical Society during the past three years.

Tramp printers were not common in those early days, and but few found their way to this then unknown region. The earhest one that there is any record of was a man named Turner. One evening in 1839, soon after the press was set up at Lapwai, Mr. Spalding was standing on the banks of the Clearwater, and was surprised to hear a white man on the opposite shore call him. He paddled across the river in a canoe to the stranger, and took him home. The man gave his name as above, that his home was in Canada, and that he had come from Saskatchewan on foot. Spalding, being somewhat incredulous, never learned his history. When Turner saw the printing office, he said, "Now I am at home." He assisted in arranging the plant and in making pads. Mr. Spalding translated passages of the Bible and several hymns for the Sunday school in the Nez Perce tongue, and Turner set them up. He was qviite attentive to his work and remained all winter. Mr. Spalding had planned to have con^idorable printing done, and had arranged to pay Turner wages, but he suddenly disappeared and was never heard of afterward.

The next printers to appear at Lapwai were Medare G. Foisy and Charles Saxton, both coming across the plains from Saint Louis in 1844. But little is known of Mr. Saxton, as he returned to "the states" the following year and published a journal of his trip across the plains, giving a description of Oregon, and dwelling at length upon the importance of the country claimed by the United States upon the north Pacific coast.

Mr. Foisy was a French Canadian by birth, a son of an affluent leather merchant, and was born at Quebec in 1816. After receiving a practical education in the French schools of his native city, at the age of sixteen he was sent to an English school in Vermont for a short time. His father desiring that he should learn the leather business, kept him about the tannery and store for eighteen months. This proving uncongenial, and having a desire to acquire a knowledge of printing, he learned the trade in a French office. Determining to acquire a knowledge of English, he left home early in 1837. and worked in a Cincinnati office a short time, then in the Louisville Journal office two months, and that fall went to St. Louis, where he obtained a situation on the Republican, remaining imtil the close of 1843, when he gave up his job to prepare for the overland trip to Oregon, and arrived at Spalding's mission at Lapwai as above stated. He worked in the mission printing office nearly a year, and in December, 1845, went to French Prairie. The following spring he was elected a member of the legislative committee from Champoeg county—changed to Marion county in 1850. Soon after, he concluded to visit Canada, and started thither by the way of California and the Nicaragua route. On reaching California, his homeward journey was temporarily given up. Here he met the northwestern limits of the Mexican war, and saw considerable active service under Fremont. For a time he was the alcalde of Monterey, and worked on the first newspaper printed in that place. When peace was declared in February, 1848, Mr. Foisy once more started for his home via Central America, but was blockaded in the port of San Bias, Mexico. Soon he was relieved by Captain Bailey of the United States navy, and taken back to Monterey. Here he remained until after the delegates to form a state constitution were elected. In that exciting event, he took an active part against the spread of slavery. The years 1849 and 1850 were, for the most part, spent in the mines, and in the fall of the latter year he gave up his contemplated trip to Canada, and returned to Oregon, bought a farm near the present site of Gervais, and became one of the principal farmers of that region, and was highly respected by all who knew him. He died in 1879.

The next that is known about this mission press is in June, 1846. A number of parties living at Salem, among them Dr. W. H. Willson, Joseph Holman, Mr. Robinson, Rev. David Leslie, J. B. McClane and Rev. L. H. Hudson, desiring to issue a paper, sent Mr. Alanson Hinman, then a teacher in Salem, on horseback to Whitman mission, to secure it for the purpose indicated. Dr. Whitman was willing that it should be used, but referred the matter to Mr. Spalding, at Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/668 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/669 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/670 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/671 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/672 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/673 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/674 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/675 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/676 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/677 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/678 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/679 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/680 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/681 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/682 Builders of the Oregonian.png

BUILDERS OF THE OREGONIAN

  1. Thomas J. Dryer, First Editor
  2. Harry L. Pittock, Founder of Daily
  3. Harvey W. Scott, "The" Editor Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/685 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/686 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/687 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/688 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/689 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/690 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/691 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/692 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/693 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/694 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/695 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/696 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/697 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/698 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/699 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/700 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/701 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/702 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/703 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/704
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FOUNDERS OF PORTLAND BANKS 1— Benjamin I. Cohen— Portland Trust Company. 2— William S. Ladd (portrait of 1851) — Ladd and Tilton Bank. 3 — Julius Lowenberg — ^Merchant's National Bank. 4 — Henry

Failing — First National Bank. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/707 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/708 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/709 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/710 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/711 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/712 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/713 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/714 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/715 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/716 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/717 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/718 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/719 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/720 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/721 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/722 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/723 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/724

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PIONEER PHYSICIANS 1 — Dr. Mary Thompson, first woman physician at Portland. 2 — Dr. R. B. Glisan. 3 — Dr.

William H. Watkins. 4 — Dr. R. Glisan. 5 — Dr. Henry INIeKinnell. first homeopath Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/727 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/728 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/729 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/730 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/731 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/732 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/733 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/734 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/735 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/736 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/737 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/738 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/739 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/740

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DAVID LOGAN

Great Advocate — Brilliant Lawyer — "Master of the Twelve" Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/743 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/744 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/746

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WILLIAM STRONG

Justice of the Supreme Courts of Oregon and Washington Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/749 when Oregon included everything American west of the Rocky mountains. Judge Strong made a permanent impression on the laws and juris-prudence of both states. And after an honorable and useful career on the bench he took up private practice of the law and became the first great authority on corporation law in Oregon; and his ability in that field has never been surpassed since. Judge Strong was born at St. Albans, Vermont; came to Oregon in 1850; served as associate justice of Oregon and Washington for eight years; and died in this city in April 1887.

Another man of mark, highly prized and greatly honored, trusted and venerated by all who knew him, was Erasmus D. Shattuck, who for a quarter of a century served the people of Oregon as circuit or supreme judge. Judge Shattuck was not ranked as a great lawyer, or a great judge, or as even an average advocate; he was a man of practical common sense, with an extensive knowledge on so many subjects affecting the rights, interests and welfare of men, as to make him an unusually useful man on the bench and universally acceptable and satisfactory to busy lawyers. His general equipment of knowledge, information and learning so prepared him to hear, try and decide the great mass of causes affecting the great mass of people, that he did not have to be educated on any case. To all this was added the universal confidence of lawyers, juries, and litigants that the man was absolutely fair and just, without respect to rank, wealth, politics or position; and that the poorest and humblest would get justice just as surely and certainly as the highest and richest man in the state. And as a mark of respect and honor, the Multnomah County Bar Association had a lifelike and elegant oil painting portrait executed of the veteran jurist, and hung in the court room where he so long presided.

Judge Shattuck was born in Vermont in 1824, and educated in that state. Taught school for some time and was admitted to the bar in 1852. Came to Oregon in 1853, and became professor of Latin and Greek in the Forest Grove College. Was county judge of -Washington county, member of the constitutional convention, member of the legislature, and elected a circuit and supreme judge in 1862; and reelected for four terms, and died in office.

No history of the attorneys of Portland could overlook Joseph S. Smith. Mr. Smith did not pursue the law steadily throughout his active career, but when he did appear in the courts he was one of its most conspicuous characters. The old adage "that the law is a jealous mistress," did not seem to apply to him. He always had the best of clients whenever and wherever he opened an office. He arrived at Oregon City in 1845, and commenced studying law soon after his arrival, supporting himself by teaching school and manual labor. He was the first law student in Oregon. After being admitted to the bar he went to Puget Sound and for a period served as prosecuting attorney, and was afterward by President Buchanan appointed to that office for Washington territory. In 1858 Mr. Smith returned to Oregon and practiced law at Salem, until his removal to Portland in 1870, and was for a number of years a member of the law firm of Grover, Smith & Page; and at the same time he was promoting the manufacture of wool in Oregon, and held large interests at Salem and Ellendale. In 1868 he was elected to congress, and it was to his efforts, and especially to his able advocacy in the house, that congress passed the act granting lands to build a railroad from Astoria to Forest Grove and McMinnville. And at the same session of congress, while the Northern Pacific land grant v^^as before the house for amendment, Mr. Smith drew up and had attached to the grant an amendment requiring the company to build its main line down the Columbia river to the city of Portland, and thus establishing the fact that Joseph S. Smith was the original "North Bank" railroad man, antedating Mr. James J. Hill just forty years.

W. W. Page, who was a partner of Smith & Grover, was also an able lawyer and a very dangerous opponent in the trial of a cause. Of rather a pugnacious disposition, he went into a trial before a jury with such vim and determination

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ERASMUS D. SHATTUCK

A greatly iKUKjred and trusted judge for twenty-five years

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THE CODE MAKERS 1— Matthew P. Deady. allies K. Ivellv. ?, — Charles 1j lou Ijelliiiger. 4 — ^^'illianl Lair

Hill. 5— William P. Lord Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/757 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/758 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/759 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/760 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/761 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/762 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/763 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/764 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/765 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/766

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WILLIAM S. U'REN

Advocate of District Legislation Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/769 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/770 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/771 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/772

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REPRESENTATIVE OREGON INDIANS Left hand above — Joseph. Chief of the Nez Perces, Statesman and General. Right hand above — Fish Hawk, war chief and fierce fighter of the Cayuses. Below — Paul Show-

a-Way, the dandy. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/775 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/777 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/778

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WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON MYERS Commander of Indian War Veterans JABEZ WILKES

Vice Commander of Indian War Veterans Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/781 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/782

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ADDISON C. GIBBS

War Governor of Oregon

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CAPTAIN JAMES P. SHAW

Past Commander Grand Army Veterans, State of Oregon Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/787 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/788

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BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES F. BEEBE Organized Oregon Brigade

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BRIGADIER GENERAL STEPHEN COFFIN

Organized Union men of Oregon to maintain the Union in 1860 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/793 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/794 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/795 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/796

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OREGON OFFICERS IN PHILIPPINE WAR Owen Summers.png

BRIGADIER GENERAL OWEN SUMMERS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/801 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/802 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/803 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/804

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GENERAL THOMAS M. ANDERSON Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/807 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/808

Chapter 28

Chapter 29

CHAPTER XXX.

The Expansion of the City—Its Commanding Position—The Resources that Sustain It—Its Great Future.

The growth of a city is something hke the growth of a living organism; except that it is far more complex, and not subject to accidental mortalities. The founding and building of a city opens wide the consideration of every human agency, and brings into play the whole vast and almost innumerable motives of human conduct. To commence with the beginning and follow this development and expansion of a limited and concrete organization, is a most interesting study.

The first census taken in 1850, five years after the town was started by a survey and plat of lots and blocks shows a population of 821. This could be in no sense an index to its growth; for the question was not yet then settled whether the place was "to be, or not to be"—a village, or a city. And other evidence shows that the town did not have more than 400 population in 1850.

But starting with the next census, the census of 1860, fifty years ago, and at the period when the town had taken on an assured and regular development, its growth can be followed from cause to effect with ease and certainty. The census taken in 1860 shows a population of 2,874. Two years later the census taken by S. J. McCormick for the first directory of the town, shows a population of 3,357; an increase of about 8 per cent per annum, exclusive of a floating population going to and coming from the gold mines in eastern Oregon and Idaho, which averaged probably one thousand.

At this date the town was 14 years old, and its increase up to 1860 must have been slow. And if divided into annual periods, it would not have averaged an increase of more than 208 per annum. In 1870 the population had increased to 8,293; and in 1880 to 17,577; and in 1890 to 46,385 in the city, and 6,742 in Multnomah County outside the city. In 1900 the population of the city had increased to 90,426; and in 1910, it is reported by the census authorities at 207,214.

The population of the city under the recent census has been under examination for errors. It is understood that on the face of the returns by Oregon enumerators under control of the U. S. superintendent for this congressional district, the population of Portland is shown to be 221,214. Examiners from Washington city have cut that down to 207,214 for alleged errors or "padding." This is a great injustice to the city; for the reason, that since the census was taken in April last, probably more than 14,000 persons who spent the winter in this city have left for the mines and salmon fisheries in Alaska, and the logging camps in Oregon and Washington, and the railroad construction work in central Oregon. This floating population would not be counted anywhere unless counted here.

But even taking out 14,000 for errors, a fair consideration of Portland's population would include the people who work and do business here but live in the Portland suburbs outside the corporate limits of the city. That would include Linnton, St. Johns, Montavilla, all the people on the Mt. Scott Railroad (about 15,000) and Milwaukie and Oak Grove—probably 25,000 altogether.

The first impulse of growth beyond what seemed to be the average growth of a new town in a new country, came from the discoveries of gold in California, Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/860 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/861 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/862

WILLIAM MacMASTER

President of Chamber of Commerce Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/865 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/866 SCENES IN PORTLAND HARBOR— 1910

SOME FOUNDERS OF BIG BUSINESS IN PORTLAND

1 — S. W. King, of Olds, Wortman & King — Department Store. 2 — C. H. Lewis, of Allen & Lewis — Wholesale Grocers. 3 — Adolphe Wolfe, of Lipman. Wolfe & Company — Depart- ment Store. 4 — Louis Fleischner — Wholesale Dry Goods. 5 — Aaron Meier, of Meier &

Frank Company — Department Store. G — Josiah Failing — Wholesale Hardware trade. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/871 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/872 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/875 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/876

WASHINOTON STREET, LOOKING WEST FROM THIRD—1910

THIRD STREET, LOOKING NORTH FROM MORRISON —1910 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/881 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/882 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/885 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/886

THE COMING SUPREMACY ON THE PACIFIC

PORTLAND ON THE DIRECT MAIN ROUTE AROUND THE WORLD CONNECTING ALL THE GREAT COMMERCIAL CITIES AND NATIONS

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/889 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/890 act all business connected with the office. Our readers will hear from us as often as circumstances will permit.

(From the Weekly Oregonian, Portland, Oregon, Saturday morning. August 6th, 1859.)


TRIP IN THE MOUNTAINS.

We left this city on the 18th of July, in company with T. Myers, H. W. Davis, and J. M. Blossom; overtook our companions, C. Pickett, A. G. Myers, and M. McLaughlin, who had left on the Friday previous with pack animals, stores, etc., about 20 miles on the route toward the Cascade mountains. The advance party had encamped to await our coming. Upon our arrival we found the camp well stocked with grouse, pheasants, rabbits, squirrels, etc., upon which we all feasted to the entire satisfaction of a most voracious appetite.

The next morning at an early hour, our whole party, consisting of seven men and eleven horses, packed up and got under way, and proceeded towards the mountains. After several hours march, we left the main trail, known as the Barlow road, some five or six miles east of Philip Foster's, on a trail leading to a fine prairie about five miles south, where Mr. Foster informed us we would find an abundance of grass, good water, fine camping-ground and splendid hunting.

The next morning all the hunters left camp at an early hour, with an understanding to shoot any sort of game that wore hair or carried feathers. About noon Myers came in with a load of grouse and pheasants; Davis and Pickett soon followed, each with a respectable number; and Blossom still later with nothing, in consequence of conscientious scruples of firing a first-class yager at small game, and a determination to kill either an elk, bear, or deer or nothing.

After a considerable picking of feathers we enjoyed a good game supper, and prepared our mountain bed for the night. Proceeding on towards the mountain up Zigzag, Rock creek, Sandy and getting lost, the party finally made camp two days afterward as follows:

About two o'clock P. M. the whole party got into camp, where we found an abundance of grass and every convenience for comfort. Fishing-rods were cut, fines strung, and in a few minutes the frying-pans were over the fire, full of fine mountain-trout, weighing from a half to one and a half pounds each. They were no sooner cooked than despatched by as hungry a set of pleasure-seekers as ever surrounded a camp fire. Some of the party had shot a brace of grouse on their way in, and as trout were plenty within a few rods of the camp, and we were all very tired, it was decided that all would remain in camp and rest for the remainder of the day.

The next morning early Blossom, Pickett, McLaughlin, Davis and Young Myers started out for a hunt, leaving the elder Myers and ourself to keep camp and catch trout. We soon heard the echo of Blossom's yager on the mountain side, and soon after the signal—two shots from a revolver in quick succession — to come out. In less than half an hour we reached Blossom, where lay at his feet a fine, large fat black-tailed deer. It was soon packed into camp, and very soon several of his ribs stuck on sticks were before the camp fire. In the afternoon about a dozen grouse and pheasants were brought into camp, and several long strings of trout hung up on the camp poles. The next day being Sunday, was devoted to shaving, bathing, fishing, hunting, eating, drinking, reading, smoking, lounging, chatting and yarn telling.

On Monday morning early we struck camp and left for Mt. Hood. We soon reached the main trail, or Barlow road, and followed it to within about two miles of Summit prairie—eight hours' march. The road is comparatively good for pack animals, but impracticable and impassable for wagons. In two and a half hours after leaving the Barlow road, "we pitched our tents" near the upper edge of timber on the south side of Mt. Hood, where we found an abundance of grass between the large fields of snow which surrounded us on every side, and which extended down to the main trail or Barlow road.

The next morning the two Myers, Blossom, Pickett, Davis and ourself mounted our riding horses and started for the summit at four o'clock. After five hours' "beating" as sailors would term it, we attained an altitude much higher than we were able to do on horseback last year, in consequence of the large quantity of snow yet on the mountain. We left our horses under the lee of a large ledge of rock and commenced the ascent on foot. At twelve and a half o'clock we had all reached the extreme summit in good condition, save somewhat jaded. The party partook of the lunch which each had brought with him, with a relish seldom enjoyed by the most fastidious epicure. After feasting our eyes for an hour or more upon the world below, until all were satisfied that no man who has never been on this mountain's top, can form the remotest idea of the grandeur and sublimity of the scene, and that no man can by language describe it intelligently to another, we resolved to return to camp. The descent for a portion of the way was far more difficult than the ascent. We were compelled to come down the main peak by the aid of a rope looped over the crags of rock. When all were down to a standpoint the rope was overhauled and again fastened, when one after another descended until finally we regained the snow where every man adopted his own way and pursued his own course in descending. Some of the party took it into their heads, after we had got down to where the snow was smoother and the angle about 45 or 50 degrees, to try another mode, to-wit: place the "seat of honor" on the snow, a mountain stafif in each hand drawn up closely under the arm as a drag, hoist your heels, and away you go with a speed equal to a locomotive. Thus several descended for a couple of miles in double-quick time. We reached our horses in safety and regained our camp, just as the sun was sinking into the Pacific ocean.

After a good supper, a good smoke, and listening to a great variety of opinions in relation to Mt. Hood, and a universal surprise expressed that people did not have a more correct idea about it, we retired to our blankets and were soon sound asleep, dreaming of towering mountains, fearful chasms, tumbling rocks, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc., etc."

Mountain exploration and climbing was reduced to a science later on by Mr. W. G. Steel who organized the society of the "Mazamas"—from "Mazame" — the 'Mexican for mountain goat. Through the efforts of Mr. Steel, and the organization of the Mazamas, headquarters at Portland, Oregon, nearly all the great mountains of Oregon and Washington have been ascended, explored and mapped, adding largely to the stock of knowledge of animal and vegetable life on these lofty uplands. Many young and even middle aged women have become members of the Mazama organization, and make enthusiastic and successful mountain climbers; although it is a most severe trial of physical strength and endurance to ascend a rugged mountain to the height of two and a half miles above sea level, covered with ice and snow, bearing immense glaciers, seamed with awful crevices, threatening life at every turn.


THE ROSE FESTIVAL.

Portland has the most unique annual festival of any city in the United States, lasting an entire week, with the opening of the roses in June of each year. One hundred thousand dollars was spent in producing this week of festivity in 1910. More than one-quarter of a million visitors were entertained at this jubilee in 1910. More than 5,000,000 beautiful roses were used in decoration. Portland has a thousand miles of roses. If set side by side, they would reach to Los Angeles.

Tokio is noted for its cherry blossom parades. Florence, Naples, Venice and Nice are famous for their floral carnivals, and New Orleans for its Mardi Gras. Portland with her peerless floral pageants has won world-wide renown as "The rose city."

W. G. Steel, president of the Mazamas, and an ascent of Mt. Hood.png

W. G. STEEL, PRESIDENT OF THE MAZAMAS.—ASCENDING MOUNT HOOD

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THE GLASGOW VOTER

(Scotland)

My city is governed by the Council and my ballot contains just the single office Councilor from my ward. I have one man to choose and it's so easy for me to itnow what I'm voting for that I never get buncoed. That's why Glas- gow is the best governed city In the world.

THE DES MOIXES (IOWA) VOTER

My city is governed by a commission of Five, and my ballot contains just those five offices. I have just five men to choose and you can't fool me into voting for a man I don't really want. No long ready-made tickets for me — I'm boss myself witli this Sliort Bal- lot, and the politicians in this town are out of jobs.

THE PORTLAND. OREGON VOTER. ^^T:TH a BALLOT THREE FEET LONG

My city, county and state are gov- erned by hundreds of elective officers and my ballot is so long with seventy- five candidates and thirty-two initiative laws, that no one but a professional politician can vote it intelligently. I'm voting half the time for men I wouldn't vote for if I could find out about them. My ballot is designed to favor the ex- pert politicians and befudge the plain voter, and it succeeds. That's why I liave government by politicians instead of government by the people. time—colleges or no colleges. The election just passed shows that there are many thousands of men and women willing to battle for truth, purity, morality and justice. It is a long and serious contest—line upon line, and precept upon precept—to make and preserve a national character. Our old pioneers had a comparatively easy job in their time; for there were not many of them, and very few temptations compared with this day. While the moral status of a city is not necessarily the life of all its people, yet it has a powerful influence on every individual life. That influence is exerted upon the young and inexperienced, when too young or lacking in experience to discern the influence of conduct or associations. That there is a standard of morals or ethics which rules a city or state in its organized civic life, and which carries its people upward or downward in the eventful wind up of society, there can be no doubt. And recognizing this principle, as derived from all history, we have the lines:

"There is a moral of all human tales, 

'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past,
First, freedom, and then glory—when that fails.
Wealth, vice, corruption—barbarism at last.
And history, with all her volumes vast, hath but one page."

But over against that is the life of the individual soul, or family, determined to not fail. Society and all its privileges, functions, advantages or drawbacks may have done its best, or its worst, yet anchored to the immutable principles of truth, justice and morality it rises above the base, the brute, the weakness of human na-ture, and mounts to the summit by slow and painful steps.

"By the things that are under feet;
By what we have mastered of good and gain;
And the vanquished ills that we hourly meet."

From the individual we turn to the state, from the unorganized mass to the concrete civic organization; and find under the new system of law making a reversal of the practice and experience of all American states since the formation of the federal union. Under the new system of law making provided by amendments to the state constitution, there are for the city of Portland, five separate, distinct and diverse law making powers.

First: primarily, the electors of the city.
Second: the common council of the city.
Third: the port of Portland commission.
Fourth: the legislature of the state.
Fifth: the electors of the state.

All of these authorities have the power to levy taxes; one of the most important of sovereign powers. And each have also many other powers, and may have the power to extend their own authority. This is not settled, and the supreme court has apparently avoided an opinion on the point in cases which have come before it. A revision of the state constitution seems to be demanded to segregate and limit these authorities, and to harmonize and unify the local and municipal authorities with that of the state. And to the force or weakness of the above enactments is added the power of the electors to "recall" and remove from office any public official, or administrator of the law, no matter at what stage of his service, or in what measure he is endeavoring to carry out measures affecting the public welfare. How far such a "club" prevents the people from getting the services of the most capable and conscientious men, is an important question.

But it is not upon the technical statement of this new system or its administration, that we will dwell; but on its influence and possible results. It was the criticism of the historian Macaulay, that the Americans had set up a government that was all sail, and no ballast. And that as long as we had plenty of free land Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/910 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/911 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/912 OLD HUDSON BAY COMPANY, FORT VANCOUVER, 1827 HUDSON BAY COMPANY FORT AND VILLAGE OF VANCOUVER-1854 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/917 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/918

FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH BUILDING ERECTED IN OLD OREGON AT

VANCOUVER Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/921 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/922 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/923 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/924

UPPER VIEW— STREET SCENE IN VANCOUVER IN 191] LOWER VIEW— GREAT STEEL BRIDGE ACROSS THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT VANCOUVER Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/927

Chapter 33