Portland, Oregon: Its History and Builders/Volume 1

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JOSEPH GASTON

PORTLAND

OREGON



ITS HISTORY AND BUILDERS

IN CONNECTION WITH

THE ANTECEDENT EXPLORATIONS, DISCOVERIES AND MOVEMENTS OF THE PIONEERS THAT SELECTED THE SITE FOR THE

GREAT CITY OF THE PACIFIC


By JOSEPH GASTON


Illustrated


VOLUME I



CHICAGO—PORTLAND

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING CO.

1911

Preface

In Memoriam: Harvey Whitefield Scott

Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

CHAPTER III.

1774—1814.

The Evolutionary and Political Movements—The Pioneer American Pushing West—The Revolutionary Break-up—George Rogers Clark and Old Vincennes—Thomas Jefferson the Great Colonizer—The Lewis and Clark Expedition—and Capture of Old Astoria.

If the reader cares to go back into history far enough to find out how our people got started west, he will find that the same blood which moved out of and west from the dark forests of Germany, crossed over the North sea from Schleswig to the shores of Britain and over-run the country we now call England, and then crossed over the North Atlantic during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries to the poverty stricken soil of the east coast of America, and there began over again the same development, more or less warlike, to capture the Continent of North America as their ancestors had utilized in the conquest of the British island. Do not imagine for a moment that this is a far-fetched suggestion, having no connection with the Oregon of the twentieth century. The blood and brains which planted civilization in England, just as surely planted the same forces in the wilds of America, and then pushed on westward to the Alleghanies, to the Ohio, to the Mississippi, to the Rocky mountains, and finally to Oregon. And as the new life and surroundings of old England developed out of the Teutonic blood which came to its shores as robbers—new laws, customs and a higher civilization, so likewise did the new world of America develop out of these descendants from ancient Germany, still newer laws, higher ideals and a more perfect civilization which over-run the wilderness west and conferred upon Oregon, the perfect flower and fruit of all the trials, struggles, sacrifices and labors of the race from its cradle in the Black Forest of Germany to its favored home by the sundown seas.

And as the Englishman was different from his German ancestor, so likewise was the American different from his English ancestor. And as the German pushed across seas westward, and the Englishman pushed across seas westward, so also the American pushed on, and on, until he reached a west that is merged in the east. These peoples carried their laws and their civilization, such as it was, with them. It was part of their blood, love and spirit. The Roman historian, Tacitus, who wrote about eighteen hundred years ago, and who was celebrated for his profound insight into the motives of human conduct and the dark recesses of character, describes the ancient German ancestors of the English, as a nation of farmers, pasturing their cattle on the forest glades around their villages and plowing their village fields. They loved the land and freedom; and freedom was associated with the ownership of land. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/77 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/78 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/79 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/80 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/81 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/82 MERIWETHER LEWIS. OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION

WILLIAM CLARK, OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION France claimed in America. The whole tone of France changed at once, and the bargaining for an empire of land went merrily as a marriage bell. Sixteen million dollars was the price agreed upon for Louisiana territory; the, largest real estate transaction in the world from the beginning of the human race. It conveyed all the lands in, the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, three-fourths of Wyoming, North Dacotah, South Dacotah, half of Colorado, Oklahoma, Indian territory, Utah, half of Minnesota and most of Montana; five hundred and sixty-five million acres at a price of about one dollar and a half per square mile of land. Napoleon was greatly pleased with the sale he had made, and said to the American minister. "This accession of territory strengthens forever the power of the United States; and I have given to England a maritime rival that will sooner or later humble her pride." And the most curious thing in the whole transaction was that President Jefferson borrowed the money from English bankers to pay France when it was perfectly plain that Napoleon would use the whole sum fighting England, taking a most outrageous advantage of the stupidity of the English ministry. On the 20th of December following, formal possession of the Province of Louisiana, was taken by the American commissioners, Wm. C. Claiborne and General James Wilkinson, and the tri-colored flag was pulled down to wave no more forever over American soil.

President Jefferson was now free to pursue his life long desire to know what was in the far west. He had now cleared away all obstacles; he had added to the national domain territory enough to make thirteen more great states; he had opened the way now to find out what was in the far off Oregon country. Oregon had been in his mind ever since he had started Ledyard across Asia to reach and explore it. And that is the reason this history of the Louisiana purchase is pertinent to the history of the city of Portland. Without Louisiana, the United States could never reach Oregon, and without Oregon, there would be no American Portland.

Accordingly at the next session of Congress after the treaty of purchase from France on January 18, 1803, Jefferson sent a confidential message to congress containing a recommendation for an exploring expedition to the west, and congress promptly passed an act providing the necessary funds to make the exploration. The president lost no time in organizing the expedition known in all the histories as the Lewis and Clark expedition, appointing his private secretary. Captain Meriwether Lewis to the chief command and captain Wm. Clark, a brother of General George Rogers Clark, as second in command. As a matter of historical fact, the president had already, before he knew of the signing of the treaty of cession at Paris, perfected arrangements with Captain Lewis to go west and organize a strong party to cross the continent to the mouth of the Columbia river. This is proved by the fact that Lewis left Washington city within four days after the news was received by the president, that the treaty had finally been executed. A large part of the year was spent in making preparations for the journey, and the president was so anxious for the safety and success of the men, that he prepared with his own hands the written instructions which were to govern their conduct. We make the following extract from these instructions to show the nature of them, and the great care the President was taking to have success assured, and the natives treated with justice and consideration. "In all your intercourse with the natives," says Jefferson, "treat them in the most friendly and conciliatory manner which their own conduct will admit; allay all jealousies as to the object of your journey; satisfy them of its innocence; make them acquainted with the extent, position, character, peaceable, and commercial dispositions of the United States; of our wish to be neighborly, friendly, and useful to them, and of our disposition to hold commercial intercourse with them, and to confer with them on the point most convenient for trade and the articles of the most desirable interchange for them and for us."

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TIMOTSK. HEREDITARY CHIEF OF THE KLICKITATS

Yet alive, one hundred and fifteen years old; saw the Lewis and Clark party in 1806. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/95 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/96
Patrick Gass from Centennial History of Oregon.png

PATRICK GASS
Private in the Lewis and Clark Expedition, publishing the first account of it.

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Portland courthouse.png

THE NEW COURTHOUSE, NOW IN COURSE OF ERECTION

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Pierre-Jean DeSmet from Portland Oregon History.png
PETER JOHN DESMET, THE GREAT APOSTLE OF THE INDIANS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/127 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/128 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/129 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/130 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/131 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/132 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/133 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/134

The upper dotted line shows general route of the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805.

The lower black line is the old "Oregon Trail," according to Meeker's map made by the pioneers in 1843. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/137 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/138

E. Meeker

Passed over the old trail with an ox-team the second time in 1906. setting up markers along the trail.

to take their proper places in the line of march must fall into the dusty rear for the day.

"There are one hundred and twenty wagons. They have been divided into thirty divisions or platoons of four wagons each, and each platoon is entitled to lead in its turn. The leading platoon will be the rear one tomorrow, and will bring up the rear unless some teamster, through indolence and negligence, has lost his place in the line. It is within ten minutes of seven; the corral, until now a strong barricade, is opened, the teams being attached to the wagons. The women and children have taken their places in them. The pilot, an old trapper and hunter, stands ready to mount and lead the way. Ten or fifteen young men, not on duty for the day, form a cluster ready to start on a buffalo hunt, well armed, and if need be ready for a brush with the unfriendly Sioux. The hunters must ride fifteen or twenty miles to reach buffalo, shoot and cut up half a dozen for fresh beef for the whole train the next day. The cow drivers are rounding up the cows at the rear of the train for the day's drive.

"It is on the clock strike of seven; the rush is to and fro; the whips crack, the loud commands to the oxen, the wagons creak and move, and the train is again on its slow and toilsome journey, as if every thing was moved by clock work. The loose horses follow next the wagons, guided by boys, but know that when noon comes they can graze on the grass. Following the horses come the cattle, lazy, selfish, unsocial, grabbing at every bunch of grass, straying from the trail, blocking the passageway, the strong thrusting out of the weaker ones, and seemingly never getting enough to eat. Some of the teamsters ride the front of their wagon, others walk alongside of the teams, and all of them incessantly whoop and goad the lazy ox who seems to know that no good thing was ever accomplished in a minute."

Such was the life of the pioneers on the trail. No such a picture of human life was ever at any time in any part of the earth exhibited before. Abraham, the father of the faithful, as he four thousand years ago moved his people out upon their annual stock grazing excursions to the plains of Mesopotamia, with his flocks of Angora goats, fat-tailed sheep, asses and camels, numerous wives, and dark eyed maidens, doubtless could have put up a good show; but the Missourians would have "had to be shown" before they would have yielded the colors.

But it was not all fun, or hard work or excitement. There were serious phases, and sad, pathetic scenes. The caravan made and enforced its own laws; and without such proper regulations the train would have been stranded in hopeless anarchy. There was the selected council of experienced and responsible men, which was a court to all intents and purposes, and before it was brought every offender to be tried by the common law of decency and even handed justice. This council exercised both legislative and judicial powers. If an offence was found to be without an applicable rule or punishment, a law was forthwith enacted to meet all such cases. The council held its sessions when the train was not moving—Sundays and rest days. It considered the caravan as a whole in the aspect of a state or commonwealth, and as such it had first consideration. The common welfare being cared for, the council would then, as a court, take up and decide disputes between individual members of the train, hearing both the aggrieved complainant and the offender, and by counsel when desired, and then deciding every case upon its merits. See what a training school here in the heart of the wilderness, as the lumbering caravan dragged its slow length across plains, mountains and deserts. Some of the improvised judges became distinguished legislators and statesmen in Oregon, and young men who appeared before that pioneer court arose to judicial honors in the states they helped to build in the Columbia river valley. Burnett, distinguished in Oregon, became governor of California. Nesmith was a judge, congressman, and U. S. senator from Oregon. Applegate was a legislator and helped make the constitution of the state. John McBride was legislator, congressman, and afterwards chief justice of Idaho. And many others might be named.

All sorts of incidents of human life break the monotony of the march. Suddenly a wagon is seen to pull out of the train and off to the wayside. The only doctor in the train (Marcus Whitman) goes off with it. Many are the inquiries of the unusual event; and grave fears expressed of the danger of leaving a lone wagon behind in an Indian country. The lumbering caravan moves slowly on, passes behind the bluffs and out of sight, and the anxiety and fears for the lone wagon left behind increase. The train halts for the night, forms its defensive circle, fires are lighted for the evening meal and the shadows of the night are creeping down upon the camp—when, behold the lone wagon rolls into camp, the doctor smiling and happy—it was a newborn boy—mother and child all right and ready for the continued journey.

Applegate, in the article mentioned, speaking of Dr. Whitman, who had been over the trail once before, says his constant advice was "travel, travel, TRAVEL; nothing else will take you to the end of your journey; nothing is wise that does not help you along; nothing is good for you that causes a moment's delay." And Applegate adds his testimonial as follows: "It is no disparagement to others to say, that to no other individual are the emigrants of 1843 so much indebted for the successful conclusion of their journey as to Dr. Marcus Whitman."

The watch for the night is set; the flute and violin have ceased their soothing notes, the enamored swain has whispered his last good night, or stolen the last kiss from his blushing sweetheart, and all is hushed in the slumber of the camp of one thousand persons in the heart of the great mountains a thousand miles from any white man's habitation, with savage Indians in all directions. What a picture of American ideas, push, enterprise, courage, and empire building. Risking everything, braving every danger, and conquering every difficulty and obstruction. We are a vain, conceited, bumptious people, boasting of our good deeds and utterly ignoring our bad ones. But where is the people who have accomplished such a work as these Missourians and their neighbors from Iowa, did in literally picking up a commonwealth in pieces, on the other side of the continent and transporting it two thousand miles to the Pacific coast and setting it down here around and about this Portland townsite in the Willamette valley, and starting it off in good working order at Champoeg, with all the state machinery to protect life and property and promote the peace and happiness of all concerned, and all others who might join in the society. In is something to be proud of.

To accomplish this result the pioneers who founded the city of Portland passed through every phase of human experience. Toils, labors and dangers beyond number or description; joys, sorrows, pains, suffering and death. The unmarked graves by the wayside of those who fell in the march to Oregon were thousands. The dust and heat at times were intolerable. Think, if you can, of a moving mass of humanity and dumb brutes, often mixed in inextricable confusion, moving along in a column twice as wide as Portland street. Here and there were drivers of the loose cattle lashing them to keep moving. Young girls riding astride ponies with a younger child behind, and all packed, jammed into a roadway, too narow for a tenth of its travelers through mountain defiles, and all looking ahead as if the next turn of the trail would bring them the promised land. To all this was added to the train of 1852, the panic and scourge of the Asiatic cholera. This was the largest train ever started to Oregon, and it suffered proportionately. This caravan was in fact made up of many trains from different localities in the border states. Mrs. M. E. Jones of North Yakima, relates that forty persons of their train died of cholera in the Platte valley in one day. A family of seven person from Hartford, Warren county, Iowa, all died of cholera in one day and were buried in one grave. While camped with a sick brother, above Grand island on the Platte, Ezra Meeker states he saw six

Covered Wagon on Trail sketch.png

HOW THE PIONEERS GOT HERE

Nearing the end of the two thousand mile, six months' journey, from the Missouri River to Portland, Oregon, sixty-four years ago. "None started but the brave, None got through but the strong."

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FRANCIS XAVIER MATTHIEU—A CITIZEN OF PORTLAND

The man whose vote to organize the Provisional Government of 1843, under the American flag, most probably gave the territory of Old Oregon to the United States instead of Great Britain. The monument to his left was erected as a memorial to the men who organized the Provisional Government, the names of the fifty-two men voting for organization being engraved thereon.

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PRINCIPAL OFFICERS OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT, AND FIRST TERRITORIAL DELEGATE TO CONGRESS
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And while England made a pretense that Captain Gray did not really enter the Columbia river, but had only sailed into a bay into which the river emptied, and that an English ship had, subsequent to Gray, sailed up the Columbia a hundred miles, and therefore the English discovered the river, yet that pretense had to be abandoned when actual sea-faring men proved that the Columbia was a real irresistible river clear down onto the ocean bar.

And England never disputed the right of Lewis and Clarke as a government expedition to explore this region in 1805; nor did the British object to the founding of Astoria until the war of 1812 gave them an excuse to rob American citizens of their property wherever they could find them; and so they robbed Astor of what his treacherous partners had not already stolen. But this gave England nothing but a robbers title to Astoria, which they surrendered after the close of the war.

President Jefferson attempted to get the northern boundary line settled with England in 1807; and because the English negotiators attempted to insert a paragraph in the treaty that would make Spain believe that the United States and England intended to claim Spanish territory west of the Rocky mountains, Jefferson rejected the whole business as an unfriendly intimation to Spain. In 1814, after the close of the war of 1812, President Madison renewed the effort to have the northern boundary line settled, and offered the proposition of 1807, to wit: that the boundary should run west from the most northern point of the Lake of the Woods (at the head of the Mississippi river) to the,, summit of the Rocky mountains, but, "that nothing in the present article be construed to extend to the northwest coast of America, or to the territory claimed by either party westward of the Rocky mountains."

The British ministry offered to accept this article, provided, England was granted the right of navigation of the Mississippi river from British America to the Gulf of Mexico. And this, of course, was rejected by the Americans.

In 1815 our government notified the British that immediate possession would be taken of Astoria and the mouth of the Columbia river, and ordered the sloop of war, Captain James Biddle, to make ready to sail for the Columbia. The British minister at Washington objected and remonstrated, but finally agreed to the unconditional surrender of Astoria by the British, and that the status quo before the war should be restored; and that in treating about the title to old Oregon, the United States should be in possession.

And again for the third time, 1817, negotiations were renewed to establish the boundary line. President Madison offering to extend the 49th parallel of north latitude boundary from the Lake of the Woods through to the Pacific ocean, but without prejudice to the rights or claims of Spain. But to this proposition the British would not agree unless they could have free navigation of the Mississippi river. And this was again rejected by the Americans.

And again for the fourth time, 1818, negotiations were renewed to settle the northern boundary, James Monroe having become president, he appointed the two able statesmen. Albert Gallatin aid Richard Rush to manage the business. The whole history of the discovery and exploration of the North Pacific Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/194 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/195 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/196 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/197

Chapter 9

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HALL KELLEY'S TOWN, 1834

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The coin that was tossed to decide the name of the town

Ten Dollars.

Five Dollars.

Beaver Money}}

Seal of the Provisional Government, called the "Salmon Seal."

Seal of the Territory of Oregon. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/273 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/274 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/275 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/276 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/277 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/278 Map of Portland, Oregon land claims from Gaston book.png

PLAT OF LAND CLAIMS COVERED BY THE CITY Early Portland civic leaders.png

Francis W. Pettygrove

Stephen Coffin

W. W. Chapman

Amos Lawrence Lovejoy

Daniel H. Lownsdale Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/283 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/284
FIRST PREACHERS
*Rev. Horace Lyman *Rev. J.L. Yantis *Father Fierens *Rev. J.H. Wilbur
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THOMAS CARTER,

Founder of Carter's Addition and Portland Heights

CAPT. JOHN H. COUCH,

Founder of Couch's Addition Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/295 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/296 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/299 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/300

Front Street in 1910.png

FRONT STREET, 1910

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1 — Mrs. Liicina Coffin, wife of Stephen Coffin, aged ninety-two years. 2 — Charles Ray, carried first United States mail out of Portland, aged eighty-one years. 3 — A. B. Stewart, carried United States military dispatches during Indian wars, aged eighty-one years. 4 — Mrs. Julia Wilcox, wife of the first physician in Portland, aged ninety-two years. All still living in Portland except Mrs. Coffin, who passed away a few months ago. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/311 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/312 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/313 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/314 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/315 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/316 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/317 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/318 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/319 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/320 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/321 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/322 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/323 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/324 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/325 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/326 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/327 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/328 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/329

Chapter 14

CHAPTER XV.

1850—1910.

Portland Water Transportation—The Lot Whitcomb, and Other Steamboats—Nesmith's Account of the First Ship—Judge Strong's Account of the First Boats—The Effect of Gold Discoveries in Eastern Oregon—The Bridge of the Gods, and Other Obstructions to Navigation—The Great Territory to Be Developed—The Formation of the First Great Oregon Monopoly—The Oregon Steam Navigation Co.—The Northern Pacific Railroad Buys Controlling Interest in O. S. N. Co. and Then Fails—Ainsworth Picks Up the Old Stock for a Trifle—D. P. Thompson Uncovers Great Profits of O. S. N. Co—The Jay Gould Scarecrow—Ainsworth Sells Co. to Henry Villard—The Oregon Steam Navigation Company—The Father of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company—River and Ocean Steamers and Sail Vessels.

As there were no land means of transportation when Portland town was started, there was no patronage from the land side. Canoes, boats, sail boats, anything that could be floated on the water bearing goods or men, was in demand to start the town with. It naturally resulted from this state of affairs that water transportation, and the means thereto, occupied the front seat in all propositions to build up the town. First, was the necessity of controlling the point where the ships would come to discharge cargo. Ships might come in from Boston, New York, London, China, Siberia, the Islands, and they were the first consideration. Canoes, batteaux, sail boats, might come in from the Cascades, Vancouver, Oregon City or Astoria; but what of it? They could not found a city; they could tie up anywhere.

But it was soon seen that as immigration came in. as farms were opened, as saw mills were started, that these primitive means of transportation would not suffice, and that steam must take the place of paddles and sails. Then came the proposition to build steamboats. And it may be easily seen that such tireless men as Stephen Coffin, Lot Whitcomb, J. C. Ainsworth and John H. Couch, may have spent sleepless nights in solving the transportation proposition. There has been a great deal of discussion as to whom was due the credit for building and operating the first American steamboat on the rivers of Oregon. As the man is still living in the city who knows all about this history we will give his story of the whole matter and settle the question for all time.

U. B. SCOTT

JACOB KAMM

JOHN C. AINSWORTH

GEORGE H. PEASE

LEADING STEAMBOAT MEN IN THE HISTORY OF THE STATE Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/367 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/368 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/369 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/370 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/371 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/372 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/373 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/374 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/375 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/376 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/377 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/378 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/379 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/380 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/381 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/382 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/383 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/384 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/385 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/386 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/387 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/388

OVVERLAND STAGE-TYPE OF THE EARLY SIXTIES

... Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/391 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/392 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/393 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/394 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/395 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/396 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/397 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/398

REBECCA LEWIS,

Wife of David Lewis, civil engineer, cast the first shovelfull of earth in construction of Oregon railroads. BEN HOLLADAY Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/403 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/404 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/405 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/406 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/407 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/408 HENRY VILLARD Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/411 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/412 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/413 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/414 in excess of the exact amount; $7.00 per acre would probably be more accurate.

ACRES.

Lands patented under East Side grant 2,765,597.13
Lands patented under West Side grant 128,618.13
Total lands patented, both grants 2,894,215.26
Lands claimed but not yet patented, approximately 293,000.00
Total 3,187,215.26
Total lands sold 819,927.94

Balance remaining unsold and involved in land grant suit 2,367,287.32

The United States is now seeking to recover these 2,367,287 acres by a suit in equity for violation of the provisions of the law granting the lands; and estimates these lands to be of the value of fifty million dollars. The lands already sold probably produced fifteen million dollars to the purchasers from the railroad companies. All of these lands were secured for railroad purposes by the direct efforts of Joseph Gaston, and their value to the companies is some evidence of the value of Gaston's services in the railroad development of the state.


THE WORK OF WILIAM REID.

In 1880 the narrow gauge road built by Mr. Gaston in Yamhill and Polk counties was sold to capitalists in Dundee, Scotland, who, through their agent in Oregon, William Reid of Portland, extended the lines on the west side of the Willamette river to Airlie in Polk county, and to Dundee, Yamhill county, with an east side of the river branch from Dundee crossing the river at Ray's Landing, thence to Woodburn, Silverton, Scio, and on to Coburg in Lane county. Mr. Villard leased this system (about 200 miles) in 1880; and Mr. Reid, on his own capital, subsequently extended the Hne from Dundee to Portland via Newberg; and the whole road thus built was soon after incorporated in the standard gauge system up the Willamette valley.

It was during Mr. Reid's administration of this enterprise that the great fight about the "public levee" in Portland took place. As it was "public" ground, it seemed to Reid's attorneys that the railroad had as much right to land on top of the levee as the steamboats had to tie up at the front of the same ground. And so the superintendent of Reid's road commenced improving the levee for a railroad track. Whereupon Mayor D. P. Thompson ordered the chief of police to arrest the railroad laborers and put them in the city jail, which was done. But as fast as one man was carried away, another man was put in his place, and he in turn arrested until the chief of police had got eightyfive big husky fellows in the city jail for grading and cleaning up the levee. It had become a farce, and the chief of police threw open the doors of his prison and told the men to go—which they did.

From the levee the matter was transferred to the legislature at Salem. The mayor, the Oregonian, and a lot of rich men of Portland were against Reid, but' the farmers were all in his favor. The legislature promptly passed an act to give Reid's road terminal privileges on the levee. Governor Thayer vetoed the bill, and then the legislature passed it over the governor's veto—and two railroads are now using that public levee for terminal grounds. Mr. Reid subsequently took up the proposition of building a railroad from Astoria to Portland. On this work he expended many thousand dollars in surveys and in grading the line from Seaside eastwardly into the heavily timbered region of Saddle mountain. But the financial depression of 1893 coming on put a stop Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/418 JAMES J. HILL, "THE EMPIRE BUILDER" Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/421 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/422 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/423 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/424 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/425 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/426 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/427 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/428

MAJOR ALFRED SEARS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/431 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/432 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/433 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/434 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/435 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/436 Portland buildings, 1911.png

1— City Hall. 2— Postoffice. 3— Public Library. 4— United States Custom House. 5— Soldiers' Monument. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/439 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/440 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/441 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/442 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/443 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/444 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/445 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/446 VIEW OF THE PORTLAND LUMBER COMPANY Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/449 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/450 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/451 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/452 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/453 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/454 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/455 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/456

Copyrighted photo by Kiser, Portland, Oregon

THE OLD WAY

The beginning of the lumbering industry in the great northwest, on Portland townsite, more than fifty years ago. and now developed into a business aggregating in the same terri-

tory one hundred million dollars annually. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/459 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/460 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/461 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/463 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/464 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/465 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/466 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/467 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/468 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/469 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/470
Bull Run construction.png

BUILDING BULL RUN WATER PIPE

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/473 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/474 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/475 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/476 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/477 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/478 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/479 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/480 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/481 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/482 Downtown Portland flood.png SCENE AT ANKENY AND WEST PARK STREETS DURING FLOOD THE FLOOD AT FRONT AND MORRISON STREETS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/487 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/488 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/489 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/490 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/491 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/492
DR. J. R. CARDWELL
For twenty years president of Oregon Horticultural Association
Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/495 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/496 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/497 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/498 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/499 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/500 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/501 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/502

H. C. ATWELL

President of the State Horticultural Society Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/505 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/506 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/509 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/510 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/511 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/512 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/515 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/516 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/519 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/520 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/521 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/522 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/523 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/524 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/525 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/526 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/527 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/528 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/529 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/530 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/531 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/532 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/533 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/534 PROFESSOR THOMAS H. CRAWFORD Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/537 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/538

MRS. L. W. SITTON

President of the Board of Education

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/541 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/542

TABITHA BROWN

A Pioneer Heroine — Founder of Pacific University Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/545 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/546 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/547 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/548 THE TWELVE FOUNDRESSES OF ST. MARY'S AXD MANY OTHER SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/551 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/552 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/553 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/554 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/555 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/556 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/557 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/558

COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY AND PHARMACY

DR. HERBERT C. MILLER President of College of Dentistry and Pharmacy


DR. E. H. GRIFFIN

First Dentist in Portland Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/561 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/562

SIMEON G. REED

Founder of Reed Institute

THREE COLLEGE PRESIDENTS SENT OUT FROM PORTLAND, THE LAST TWO BORN AND REARED IN PORTLAND

1— Miss Ella Sabin, of Downer College of Wisconsin. 2— Miss Luella Clay Carson, of Mills College of California. 3— C. A. Duniway, of Montana University. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/567 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/568 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/569 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/570 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/571 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/572 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/573 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/574 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/575 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/576 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/577 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/578 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/579 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/580 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/581 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/582 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/583 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/584 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/585 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/586 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/587 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/588 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/589 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/590 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/591 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/592 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/593 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/594 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/595 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/596 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/597 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/598 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/599 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/600 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/601 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/602 RT. REV. BENJAMIN WISTAR MORRIS, BISHOP OF OREGON Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/605 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/606 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/607 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/608

AARON LADNER LINDSLEY, D. D. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/611 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/612 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/613 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/614 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/615 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/616 Good Samaritan Hospital from Gaston book.png

GOOD SAMARITAN HOSPITAL

MRS. EMMA J. WAKEMAN, SUPT. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/618 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/620 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/621 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/622 After holding it for a few years, it was determined that it was not good for hospital purposes, and it was sold for $88,000, and a block of land bought in East Portland for $30,000. Plans were drawn and a building commenced on a reinforced concrete plan. Some more money was given by friends, and so far, above $70,000 has been spent on the building. As soon as more money can be collected, the building will be completed. This will be the only hospital in the city which is entirely fireproof. The management, consisting of Judge Bronaugh, F. M. Warren, W. B. Ayer, Tyler Woodard and Walter F. Burrell, are now considering plans for money sufficient to furnish and fully equip the new hospital for work.

THE COUNTY HOSPITAL.

Multnomah county maintains a county hospital in the city, now under the care and direction of Dr. E. P. Geary, which is fitted up to minister to the in- digent unfortunate in the inost comfortable manner. This hospital has grown out of the general provision made by the county authorities for the unfortunate poor, known as the "Poor Farm." This public charity was organized in 1869, by the county of Multnomah purchasing one hundred and sixty acres of land of Gen. Stephen Coffin in the year 1869. The land lay about two miles west of the then city of Portland, and was purchased of General Coffin for fifty dollars an acre. It was recently sold by the county for seven hundred and fifty dollars an acre ; the proceeds of which are to be invested in land for a poor farm near the town of Troutdale, and the necessary buildings to be erected thereon.

Multnomah Hospital, on Second street, between Hooker and Hood streets, came into existence in its present form in 1909. For many years the indigent sick of the county received indififerent care in wards connected with the alms- house. The county physician. Dr. E. P. Geary, soon after his appointment, be- came impressed with the inadequacy of the facilities in this institution and strove for better things. Backed by a humane board of county commissioners, composed of Judge L. R. Webster, W. L. Lightner and F. C. Barnes, he was enabled to introduce modern methods into the hospital department. The male attend- ants were replaced with white capped trained nurses, and the old-time hit or miss methods of nursing gave place to scientific and cleanly regulations. The first step having been accomplished, a demand was made for better rooms, better beds and better food. The county commissioners authorized the purchase and equipment of suitable grounds and buildings for a hospital away from the environment of the poorhouse, and the new institution there to be erected was named Multnomah Hospital ; the word county being dropped, and with it the stigma of pauperism so unnecessary and so oiTensive to the unfortunate who, by reason of sickness, is obliged to seek charity.

The new grounds provide accommodations for buildings which will house 1,000 or more beds. As Portland grows, this number will, at no distant day be needed. Meanwhile the inmates of the present structure enjoy the use of grounds and shrubbery which might adorn the palace of a king. The mansion which occupied the center of the grounds has been reconstructed and enlarged, and already 100 people at times occupy the beds therein. A surgery and dressing rooms with racolith floors insures that degree of cleanliness which is necessary for the performance of successful operative work; and a staff of nurses under the guidance of the superintendent, Mrs. Alta Y. Spaulding, give the needed care to the sufferers who seek the hospital.

But the most progressive feature introduced into the hospital by the county physician and his co-workers is to be found in the organized staff which divides with Dr. Geary the responsibility of caring for the sick. New York, Philadel- phia, Chicago, Buft'alo and every large city has realized the need of organized medical and surgical help in the care of the county sick, and each in turn has

secured the aid of charitable physicians for this purpose. So widespread has Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/624 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/625 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/626

MANAGERS OF PATTON HOME Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/629 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/630 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/631 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/632 the river. And from this fact the Albina ladies were compelled to rely on what aid they could get from a community of people all struggling to build homes of their own. But in spite of all discouragements, the "Home for the Friendless" took deep root and continued to grow. From the six-room cottage, it was enlarged into a two-story building of eighteen rooms ; and within the past year the eighteen rooms have grown into forty with the building of an annex, furnishing comfortable quarters for forty-two aged ladies and eight aged men. One of these aged ladies is past ninety-five years of age, with a mind bright and clear. Some of these aged people have a little income of their own and pay their way. Others are supported by churches, or relations, or fraternal societies; and a few are kept at the expense of the society. The average cost of each inmate is thirteen dollars a month; and some are confined to their beds, requiring a nurse. Mrs. Mary A. Knox, the first president of the society, is still retained in that position, having now faithfully devoted twenty years of her life to the building and care of this most worthy institution.

THE OLD PEOPLE'S HOME.

The Old Ladies' Home Society — prototype of this home, was organized March 3, 1893, Mrs. Mary H. Holbrook, a pioneer woman of Portland, noted for good works, being its first president. The object of the society was declared to be the establishment of one or more homes for aged women. The need of institutions of the kind had been recognized before this formal organization; and Mrs. Holbrook, Mrs. W. W. Spaulding, Mrs. R. B. Wilson and Mrs. F. E. Beach, together with Mr. C. A. Dolph, Mr. W. W. Spaulding, and Mr. Richard Williams, had entered into an agreement to promote the establishment of such home or homes.

It was first decided to limit the beneficiaries of the society to aged women; and a committee was appointed to prepare articles of incorporation, which were on February 28, 1893, presented and signed, and thus organizing "The Old Ladies' Home." From this time on the membership of the society increased, and a number of liberal donations were made, the most notable of which were bequests of the late Amanda W. Reed and Henry W. Corbett, Mrs. Reed giving block No. 124 of the city, and Mr. Corbett bequeathing $15,000 in cash and some real estate. But the advance in the price of land suitable for a home site, the cost of construction, and the necessity of enlarging the plans at first proposed, made the task of securing sufficient funds to execute so large an undertaking too great to be attempted by the society.

In this emergency, and during the spring of 1908, Peter John Mann, a resident of the city of Portland, generously proposed to the society that in case the scope of its beneficence could be enlarged as indicated by a change in the name to "The Old People's Home" he would purchase a site and erect a suitable building for old people of both sexes; adding thereto, the suggestion that he did not think it right to separate aged couples, and that in his opinion, a home was not complete without both men and women. And after due consideration, the society unanimously decided to make the change, and a committee was appointed to legally make it.

But before this change could be entirely consummated, Mr. Mann was suddenly called by death. Upon the death of her husband, Anna Mary E. Mann, president of the society, desiring to carry into effect the wishes of her departed companion, took up the work planned by him; and in the hope that in thus applying the fruits of his industry, many old people, both men and women, may be afforded in their declining years the comforts of a home, and the society continue to be a blessing to the city in which he lived for more than forty years, she dedicates a large portion of the fortune left her by her husband, to the erection of this home to the memory of Peter John Mann. This home has now been completed.

MT. ST. JOSEPH HOME.

The Sisters of Mercy have had for some years a home for the aged, and about ten years ago the work assumed such importance that more commodious quarters were required. In consequence the building and grounds formerly known as the Portland hospital were purchased by the sisters in June, 1901. By this purchase the sisters came into possession of the brick building erected several years before by the Methodists as a hospital, and five acres of ground surrounding it. The place is admirably adapted to the use to which the sisters have put it.

The home was dedicated September 15, of the same year by Most Rev. A. Christie, in the presence of a great gathering of Portland people. More than 500 aged persons of all denominations and nationalities have been cared for at Mt. St. Joseph's in the eight years of its existence. At present there are 110 inmates. Of these 80 per cent are men. This proportion has been usual from the beginning. On account of sickness or extreme old age (several are over 90) very few of the men are able to perform any labor.

THE ODD FELLOWS HOME.

This is not a charity, but a wise provision of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, for providing and taking care of their aged and disabled members. The annual dues paid into the treasury of the order by the membership constitute the fund from which this institution is supported. It is the only secret society (so-called) here at this city, that has made this provision for its membership; and this fact attests in the very highest and effective way the benefits and brotherhood merits of this fraternal order.

The grand lodge of the order took the necessary steps in 1883 to establish this home near the village of Fairview, some fifteen miles east of this city. And after erecting a building on the tract of land owned at that place by the order, it was never used or occupied as a home. Its inaccessibility, and distance from the city, rendered the selection inappropriate, and it had to be abandoned, and the land sold to found the present home in the southeast part of East Portland.

In carrying this benevolent work through to success, the late Richard Scott of Milwaukie (sic), and Dr. Williamson, trustees for this purpose, rendered most efficient service. The ladies connected with the order — Mrs. Mary Tomlinson, vice-president ; Mrs. Emma Galloway, of McMinnville, secretary, and Mrs. Lizzie Howell of Oregon City, treasurer, together with Robert Andrews, president, have the care and management of the institution. The corner stone of the home, which is a substantial brick structure, was laid May 25, 1907, and the building completed and dedicated on January 4, 1908. At last report, there were eleven men, four women and thirteen children, beneficiaries of the institution, of which Mrs. Viola Crawford, was superintendent and matron, and Miss Irene Bemar, governess. They have ample funds, and do not solicit aid.

THE BOYS' AND GIRLS' AID SOCIETY.

In the early part of April, 1885, Dr. T. L. Eliot of the First Unitarian church, Dr. A. L. Lindsley, of the First Presbyterian church, and Harvey W. Scott, editor of the Oregonian, met in the office of the last named gentleman and spoke of the needs of a society whose duty it would be to care for dependent and delinquent children of Portland. A letter framed by these three appeared in the Oregonian on April 6, 1885, setting forth the needs of such a society, and inviting those who were interested in the uplifting of children to formulate some plan of organization, and on July 3, 1885, a meeting was called to consider organization in the office of the Hon. W. B. Gilbert, and there were present at that

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MRS. ANNA MARY LEWIS MANN
Builder of Old People's Home — President of Women's Union and Children's Home

meeting, W. S. Ladd, William Wadhams, Miss Helen F. Spaulding, F. K. Arnold, C. E. Sitton, L. L. Hawkins, W. B. Gilbert, Dr. P. T. Keene, Rev. T. L. Eliot, F. E. Beach, F. B. Pettingill, H. W. Scott, H. W. Corbett and Dr. Chance.

A committee of five was then appointed to perfect organization. W. S. Ladd was elected chairman of the meeting and F. E. Beach, secretary.

The first meeting of the board of trustees of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society of Oregon was held on the 7th day of October, 1885, and consisted of the following: L W. Pratt, Miss Helen F. Spaulding, F. E. Beach, H. W. Corbett, W. S. Ladd, L F. Powers, W. B. Gilbert, P. T. Keene, and L. L. Hawkins.

The first officers elected were H. W. Corbett, president; F. E. Beach, secretary and L. L. Hawkins, treasurer.

During the first ten years of the life of the society, Mr. Ira F. Powers, acted as superintendent, without compensation, and did a large amount of good work for the organization.

The present board of trustees consists of W. B, Gilbert, president; F. E. Beach, secretary; J. C. Ainsworth, treasurer; Dr. T. L. Eliot, Robt. S. Farrell, Chas. E. Wolverton, Fredk. H. Strong, Wm. F. Woodward and Mrs. Levi White.

The Boys' and Girls' Aid Society was organized for the care and disposition of homeless, neglected and abused children and to receive first offenders, caring for them until suitable homes or employment was found for them, and thereafter to continue systematic attention to their condition and treatment. The society at that time was entirely supported by voluntary contributions, and the first bequest made to the society was in 1889, by Miss Ella M. Smith, who left the society the handsome sum of $40,000.00. This was of course an irreducible fund and was loaned out on note and mortgage.

The first appropriation made by the state of Oregon was in the year 1895, to the amount of $2,500.00. Then followed other bequests from friends of the society until the society had received as bequests the following:

Miss Ella M. Smith $40,000.00
Levi C. Millard 5,000.00
Lindsley Estate 2,134.55
Mrs. Rosa F. Burrell 9,000.00
H. W. Corbett 10,000.00
Mrs. Amanda W. Reed 1,000.00
Henry W. Weinhard, 1,000.00

Making a total of $63,134.55

Besides which a farmer named W. L. Justice, residing in Fox valley. Grant County, Oregon, recently died leaving all his real and personal property to the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, which will in all probability amount to about $2,000.00 after the debts outstanding against the estate are liquidated.

As may be seen by the present names of the board of trustees, there are still three of its organizers members of the board. While Dr. T. L. Eliot was not a member of the first board of trustees, yet, he always took an active interest in the work, and was instrumental in raising the funds for the erection of the present receiving home, which is built on a beautiful site donated by Mrs. Rachael Hawthorne, on the corner of East 29th and Irving streets, one block from the line of the Rose City Park cars.

In addition to the donations for the site the Ladd estate donated nine lots at the back and immediately adjoining the grounds of the receiving home and the society purchased the next nine lots adjoining these, making the grounds four hundred and fifty feet long by three hundred and thirty feet wide. These grounds are beautifully laid out with roses and ornamental trees. The children's play ground in the back is situated in a beautiful grove where all kinds of children's games can be indulged in.

Since its organization the society has appointed three superintendents, the first being Mr. E. T. Dooley, who served for about one year from 1891 to 1892. Mr. Dooley was for twenty years preceding his appointment, superintendent of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society of California, situated in San Francisco. During his incumbancy he organized this work and formulated methods for its prosecution and opened books in which was entered the history of the children coming under the care of the society. Mr. Dooley was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Misner, who served from February, 1893, at which time the present superintendent, W. T. Gardner, was appointed, and who has served ever since in this capacity.

The present assistant, Mrs. Mary J. Graham, was the first matron employed, to which position she was appointed in February, 1892.

The work of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society is state wide. Children are committed to the society from every county in the state. Since its organization it has received and cared for three thousand, seven hundred and twenty-three children and deducting those who have become of age, children adopted, and those sent to relatives or discharged for other causes, they have now upwards of five hundred children under the direct care of the society. About fifty-five of this number are at the Receiving Home awaiting placement and the balance are placed in family homes throughout the state of Oregon. One hundred and fifty of this number being for the most part girls between the age of ten and eighteen years, are placed in family homes within the corporate limits of the city of Portland. The younger ones are attending school and receiving their board and clothing in return for service rendered while the older ones are working in families at regular wages.

Mrs. Mary J. Graham acts as city visitor and has in charge girls whom she visits at regular intervals and pays particular attention to their conditions and treatment.

The southern Oregon district is under the care and supervision of Miss Myrtle E. Pease, while the eastern Oregon district is looked after by Mr. J. C. Kilpack, thus, all the wards of the society are systematically cared for after being placed in family homes.

The result of the work can be seen throughout the entire state of Oregon and it is hard to find a better equipped child placing agency than the Boys' and GirlsAid Society in the United States.


THE BABY HOME.

Portland's home for deserted orphaned babies, located at East 36th and Ellsworth streets, was organized in 1888. The first officers being: Mrs. Mary D. Halsey, president; Mrs. Kate Mendenhall, vice-president; Mrs. R. N. Robb, secretary; Mrs. Jane Abraham, treasurer.

The institution was incorporated in 1889, with a capital stock of one thousand dollars, divided into one hundred shares of ten dollars each. And of this incorporation Mrs. Sarah Kern was president; Mrs. J. C. Warner, vice-president; Mrs. A. J. Wells, secretary; Mrs. A. L. Keenan, treasurer; and Mrs. E. R. Harbin, each being a member of the board of five directors.

A block of eight city lots was donated to the institution by Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Kern, for a building site, and opened a house for the little charges then at hand, and commenced business with ten children.

In May, 1910, in order to enlist a larger circle of interest, senior and junior auxiliaries were added to the board of directors, consisting of, for the seniors: Mrs. Walter Burrell, president; Mrs. Frank Ransom, vice-president; Mrs. Whitney L. Boise, secretary; Mrs. W. J. Van Schuyver, treasurer, with seventy-five lay members. And for the juniors, Miss Maida Hart, president; Miss Marguerita Hume, vice-president; Miss May Coon, secretary; Miss Ruth Beach, treasurer; and fifty lay members.

MISS ELLA M. SMITH Built City Library Building and gave forty thousand dollars to

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1 — Boys' and Girls' Aid Society Home. 2 — Odd Fellows Home. 3 — St. Joseph's Home for

Aged Persons. 4 — Home of the Good Shepherd. 5 — The Children's Home. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/645 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/646 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/647 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/648 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/649 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/650 THESE LABORED TO SAVE THE YOUTH Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/653 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/654 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/655 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/656 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/657 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/658 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/659 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/660 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/661 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/662

MRS. W. J. HONEYMAN President of the Y. W. C. A. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/665 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/666 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/667 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/668 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/669 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/670 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/671 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/672 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/673 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/674 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/675 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/676 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/677 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/678 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/679 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/680 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/681 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/682 Builders of the Oregonian.png

BUILDERS OF THE OREGONIAN

  1. Thomas J. Dryer, First Editor
  2. Harry L. Pittock, Founder of Daily
  3. Harvey W. Scott, "The" Editor Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/685 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/686 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/687 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/688 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/689 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/690 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/691 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/692 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/693 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/694 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/695 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/696 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/697 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/698 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/699 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/700 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/701 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/702 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/703 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/704
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FOUNDERS OF PORTLAND BANKS 1— Benjamin I. Cohen— Portland Trust Company. 2— William S. Ladd (portrait of 1851) — Ladd and Tilton Bank. 3 — Julius Lowenberg — ^Merchant's National Bank. 4 — Henry

Failing — First National Bank. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/707 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/708 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/709 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/710 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/711 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/712 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/713 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/714 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/715 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/716 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/717 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/718 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/719 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/720 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/721 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/722 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/723 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/724

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PIONEER PHYSICIANS 1 — Dr. Mary Thompson, first woman physician at Portland. 2 — Dr. R. B. Glisan. 3 — Dr.

William H. Watkins. 4 — Dr. R. Glisan. 5 — Dr. Henry INIeKinnell. first homeopath Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/727 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/728 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/729 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/730 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/731 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/732 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/733 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/734 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/735 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/736 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/737 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/738 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/739 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/740

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DAVID LOGAN

Great Advocate — Brilliant Lawyer — "Master of the Twelve" Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/743 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/744 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/746

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WILLIAM STRONG

Justice of the Supreme Courts of Oregon and Washington Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/749 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/750

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ERASMUS D. SHATTUCK

A greatly iKUKjred and trusted judge for twenty-five years

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/753 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/754

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THE CODE MAKERS 1— Matthew P. Deady. allies K. Ivellv. ?, — Charles 1j lou Ijelliiiger. 4 — ^^'illianl Lair

Hill. 5— William P. Lord Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/757 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/758 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/759 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/760 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/761 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/762 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/763 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/764 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/765 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/766

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WILLIAM S. U'REN

Advocate of District Legislation Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/769 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/770 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/771 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/772

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REPRESENTATIVE OREGON INDIANS Left hand above — Joseph. Chief of the Nez Perces, Statesman and General. Right hand above — Fish Hawk, war chief and fierce fighter of the Cayuses. Below — Paul Show-

a-Way, the dandy. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/775 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/777 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/778

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WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON MYERS Commander of Indian War Veterans JABEZ WILKES

Vice Commander of Indian War Veterans Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/781 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/782

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ADDISON C. GIBBS

War Governor of Oregon

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CAPTAIN JAMES P. SHAW

Past Commander Grand Army Veterans, State of Oregon Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/787 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/788

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BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES F. BEEBE Organized Oregon Brigade

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BRIGADIER GENERAL STEPHEN COFFIN

Organized Union men of Oregon to maintain the Union in 1860 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/793 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/794 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/795 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/796

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OREGON OFFICERS IN PHILIPPINE WAR Owen Summers.png

BRIGADIER GENERAL OWEN SUMMERS Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/801 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/802 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/803 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/804

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GENERAL THOMAS M. ANDERSON Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/807 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/808 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/809 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/810

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DANIEL McALLEN

Father of Lewis aud Clark Expedition

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THE FOUR MEN THAT MADE THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPOSITION A POSSIBILITY

1— Henry W. Corbett. 2— Lewis B. Cox. 3— Henry E. Dosch. 4 -Henry L. Pittock Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/815 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/816

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United States Government Building Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/825

CHAPTER XXIX.

The Benefactors—The Literary People—Historians, Poets and Story Tellers.

Persons are mentioned in this chapter not for the purpose of praise or compliment, but to show what the city produced, and what was the influence of such persons on society. If a given community or people produce murderers, thieves, swindlers and bribers, that may show one thing. If another community produces divorces, brothels, illegitimacy and proverty or crime, that may show something else. And if a community produces self sacrificing men and women, who give their time to caring for orphan children, to furnishing means of education, to housing the poor and unfortunate and curing the sick, that shows another phase of humanity—a wide difference from the supposed cases. And in just so far as any community produces any or all of these examples of human conduct, just that far it shows not only the character of the people, but also the moral or immoral and educational influences which combined to produce the good or evil state of society. "Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?"

The far reaching influence of such men as Jason Lee, Marcus Whitman and John McLoughlin, can never be estimated or described. As this world goes now in the year 1910, neither of these men would be considered a success. They heaped up no riches, they gathered no worldly honors and they tasted but little of the price of power or place. They were the product of another age than ours, of other ideas than those of 1910, and of principles of thought and action that is but an historical reminiscence. And yet their lives, their ideas and ideals, and their examples are insensibly exercising a greater power on society for good than any one hundred Oregonians who have lived and died since their day. If history is to teach us anything it should show who were the teachers, and what it was they taught.

Some men and women are continually in the public eye, and yet their lives are mere bubbles, flotsam and jetsam on the stream of time, to be picked up or dashed down by any wind of circumstance. Of others we get only a glimpse from some noble act or work, and touch them only at one point or trait in their lives. Portland can boast the names of many noble men and women who have shown from unselfish lives and deeds their real character. It is to this class a page should be devoted, that their example might not only lead to emulation, but also show by what root of thought or training they came to bless the world.

The first three men that gave anything to the city were Coffin, Couch and Chapman who donated the row of parks between East and West Park streets. Their great beauty, and their blessing to the little children is only now becoming fully appreciated. As time goes on and the trees attain a larger size the attractions of these little parks will be such as to greatly increase the value of the residential property in the vicinity and make them the most delightful resting places to be found. Captain Couch gave also 10 blocks for a railroad depot, and on which the Union depot is erected.

General Coffin gave also two blocks at the south end of the city for a "Public Levee," a tract fronting on the river 600 feet and 200 feet in depth. The legislature afterwards by special act gave the railroad terminal rights thereon along with use by the public in general. The river frontage on that tract is open to free dockage to all boats and ships. The city afterwards paid General Coffin $2,500 to extinguish a ferry franchise he had reserved on Jefferson street adjacent to the levee. This is the only free boat landing right on either side of the river. This levee property is now worth $200,000; and General Coffin stands at the head of the list of public benefactors.

In addition to this. Coffin and Chapman gave the park blocks between Third and Fourth streets; and General Coffin gave the site for the Harrison street school now called the Shattuck School. In reviewing the history of the Portland public schools, Superintendent Thomas H. Crawford says on page 62 of his review: "There are on file several newspaper items praising a few citizens for their liberal donations of lots and blocks for school purposes. It certainly will not harm any one to say that in all my researches I have found but one-half block owned by the district that came into its possession as a free gift. The north half of block 134 was a donation from Stephen Coffin, and he afterwards gave the present site (a half-block) of Harrison street school in exchange for it. Every lot the district owns, aside from this half block, has been paid for in gold coin raised by a district tax."

The city has now many public schools and many persons that never did anything for the public, have been complimented with the names of the schools, while the only man that gave a foundation for a school house and a most worthy patriotic and public spirited citizen, has been wholly ignored. But the little souls who could perpetrate such injustice may rest assured, that the name of Stephen Coffin will be remembered and honored long after they are put away and forgotten in their little coffins.

In connection with this notice of Captain Couch it may be stated that his children have well maintained the good examples of liberality to every good cause which was set by their parent. Bishop Scott grammar school with its spacious grounds was erected on lands donated by the Couch family. The Good Samaritan hospital, if not erected on lands donated by the Couch family has been largely built by Mrs. C. H. Lewis, and other members of the Couch family.

Among those whose names will always be perpetuated by the growth and beauty of the city is that of Donald MacLeay. Of foreign birth, a naturalized citizen, a "canny Scot" who made his fortune in Portland, he gave almost one-third of all the park ground the city is the owner of. MacLeay Park is already a "thing of beauty," and will be "a joy forever" to all lovers of nature. So situated that it cannot be marred by the professional landscaper, or "cut up" by the speculating real estate agent, its native wildness abounding with hiding places almost in the heart of the city will make it the wonder of little children, the trysting place for lovers, and the attraction of those tired of sky-scrapers and automobiles, for a few hours of rest and repose among the giant firs and umbrageous maples.

Akin to the work of men who gave of their lands to make free space and play grounds in the heart of a great city for the millions who may come after them, is the work of the man who planned the roads and cut the trails that this MacLeay Park and the hills around Portland might become accessible, and their grand elevations, outlook, and scenic beauties be made known and appreciated. That was the work to which L. L. Hawkins devoted his time for years. And not content with opening the way and telling people to go and see, he provided a tally-ho coach and four, and took out visitors to the city from abroad and enabled them to see the wondrous beauties of Portland's matchless location. The first advertising Portland got as a scenic city was given it by Mr. Hawkins. Whenever the name of Mr. Hawkins is mentioned as a man that has done something for the city the remark is made. "Oh yes, Mr. Hawkins started the city museum." But while the museum is a very gem in its way, and unique and hard to excel among all the museums from the Atlantic to the Pacific, it is still but a small affair compared with Mr. Hawkins' greater work of exploiting the natural beauties and grand mountain landscapes spreading out from the city in all directions.

Next to the men who gave the land and pointed out the beauties of the scenes by roads and trails, comes the man who sought to improve upon nature by cultivation of flowers and fruits. The leader among this class of men is Dr. J. R. Cardwell still a resident of the city. Dr. Cardwell was probably the first to spend his money in testing the climate and soil of this region for the production of exotic fruits and flowers. He imported from France and Germany all the varieties of the prunes that offered promise of success in this state; and out of his importations, after years of trial established a great prune orchard on a beautiful farm near to the south boundary of the city. In addition to the practical work of testing varieties of fruit, and cultivation of the same on different soils, Dr. Cardwell has served as the president and executive officer of the Oregon Horticultural Association for nearly twenty years, giving his services without salary or compensation; and in this way rendering a great service not only to fruit growing in this immediate vicinity, but also to the great fruit industry of the state, of which Portland is the business center and greatly profited by the business.

There is another class of men who have taken the lead in unselfish service to the city where there was little glory to be had and no money to be made; but which nevertheless has been of estimable value to thousands of people and especially young people, in affording not only refined pleasures, but great mental profit and improvement.

There is no public institution in the city that has been so generally patronized and for so many years, and that has given so much of both pleasure and benefit to both old and young as the Portland library. The initial movement to found the library came from a man little suspected at the time of having at heart the mental improvement of the people of the city. Starting in business while yet a boy, and in Portland as a dealer in farm produce, and then engaging his savings in establishing the first shoe and leather store in the little city, Joseph A. Strowbridge established an enviable reputation for integrity and business success. To him is due the honor of raising the money to purchase the first books, a few thousand volumes, in New York city, as a commencement for the library. Mr. W. S. Ladd put down the first subscription, on the condition that the library should be kept out of politics; and it is about the only thing in Portland that has always been kept out of politics.

Along the same lines of service to the public was the gratuitous service to the library of Judge Matthew P. Deady as president of the library association for a quarter of a century.

Fully half of the eighty thousand volumes now in the library must have been selected and ordered by Judge Deady, and the painstaking thought and labor of this work must have altogether taken years and years of precious time of the great justice constantly called upon to decide all manner of serious questions in the highest court in the state.

Forever connected with the Portland library will be the name of John Wilson. Commencing like Strowbridge, with a little store near the corner of Third and Morrison streets, Mr. Wilson labored patiently and persistently for many long years before fortune brought respite and ease to enjoy the precious books his taste and judgment had been slowly accumulating in a private library of his own. His collection of books was rare and valuable beyond anything to be found in any private library on the Pacific coast. Sometimes a whole year would be used up in correspondence with foreign collectors to secure a rare and coveted volume. And all the time he was laying securely the foundations of a great commercial enterprise. John Wilson was one of the founders of the great

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JOHN WILSON

Bequeathed large private library to the city

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LEVI ANDERSON
Devised an estate of three hundred thousand dollars to provide a manual labor school, farm and home for boys

department store of Olds, Wortman and King. And when done with business, and could use the library no longer he gave the precious books to the Portland library, where they will remain as long as the city stands, safely preserved for the use of all people in the "John Wilson room."

Another public spirited citizen must be remembered in connection with the library, and that is Henry Failing. While Mr. Failing was always a liberal supporter of the library, and all other public institutions of the city all his life, and serving the city for four terms as mayor, without salary, he did not forget in making up his final accounts to remember the people who have not money to spare for rare and useful books, and put in a gift of ten thousand dollars for the free public library.

Last but not least in connection with the Portland library is the name of Miss Ella M. Smith. Inheriting a fortune from her father, and desiring to put it to the best use possible, her judgment led her to choose for her monument, when time for her should be no more, a fireproof building to house and protect the library for all time. The beautiful stone building on Stark street is the gift to the city of this noble woman. It was not all of her gifts to the use of humanity, but it was the largest. It befits her noble and gracious spirit, her modest and useful life, excepting only the gift of the Reed institute—and that came from a vastly greater fortune—the gift of Miss Smith has been the largest the city has ever received.

Two of the most worthy people that ever blessed the city of Portland with their honest pure lives were Levi Anderson and his wife. "Squire" Anderson was a familiar and beloved neighbor to all the old Portlanders. For many years he faithfully discharged the duty of justice of the peace. When this worthy pair passed away, they devoted all their fortune to the welfare of orphan boys, as a memorial to their own son who passed away in his youth.

The plans have been drawn for the Levi Anderson Industrial Home, provided for by the wills of the late Mr. and Mrs. Anderson. This home will be an industrial and trade training school for boys and will be built on the ground recently purchased by Archbishop Christie, near the property of St. Mary's orphanage for boys at Beaverton, on the Oregon Electric Company's railway. Three hundred acres will be set aside for the school farm.

Mr. Simeon G. Reed and wife came to Portland as poor as anybody else; and they worked long and patiently together and died childless and left a great fortune (after suitably providing for relatives), to found a school or college embracing all the technical knowledge of the arts and sciences together with academic learning. It was a grand and noble inspiration; and the city of Portland was the recipient of the great gift. Few cities in the United States has ever received so great a bounty. The monetary foundation of the gift, amounting to about three million dollars, will be ample to erect all needed buildings and endow a teaching force equal to all the demands of this northwest upon the most liberal and comprehensive lines of study. It is something for a city to be proud of to have produced such people and to have been the theatre of their successful labors, to have secured their affection and final benediction in this great gift for the welfare of humanity.

Every degree and condition of misfortune appeals to the heart of the charitable, and taxes the generosity of the benevolent in every city in the land. If one stops to think he wonders whether poverty and distress is the punishment of wrong doing or the inevitable lot of the weak and helpless. But for the good or ill,_ the race of man must rise or fall by the average standard of life and industrious honesty. To neglect the aged or infirm, or abandon the infantile weak or deformed in mind or body, would be to substitute brutal force and heartless selfishness for thoughtful selfishness and christian charity, and retrograde to even a lower position than the native red man. But charity for the weak, the sick, the aged, or the poverty stricken, seldom starts from the strong in the full vigor of manhood. It is generally after the man or woman have had their battle with the world, that they come to feel and appreciate to the full, the condition of the fellow being that needs their kindly aid. And this lesson is quite as apparent in Portland as in any other city.

Quite a number of most worthy people early took notice of the duty and necessity of taking care of the aged and infirm. Prominent among these are the names of Mrs. Mary A. Knox, first president of the Patton Home, Mr. Matthew Patton, one of the founders of the home, and Peter John 'Mann and his widow, Mrs. Anna Mary Mann, founders and builders of the home for old people. These people have all labored for a common purpose in their self-sacrifice to promote the comfort of helpless aged people.

The work of Mrs. Knox, and the kind hearted women (Mary Agnes Foster, Edith F. DeLay, Mary H. Evans, and Eva Cline Smith) who have worked with her, is a great inspiration to others to go and do likewise. Commencing with nothing but willing hands to carry out the impulse of kind hearts, and the uncleared land given by "Father Patton," they have built up a home that now shelters and provides for more than eighty aged people. How much of comfort and happiness these noble women have conferred on the aged, the infirm and the helpless that have sought and found a hospitable home under the roof that they have erected can never be known or estimated.

And in the same line to the same purpose, and with the same spirit to help the helpless did John Mann and his noble wife dedicate a large fortune to the erection of the Old Peoples Home, and make provision for its sustenance and comfort. As we write the concluding pages of this history this home, a noble building worthy of its builders and noble purpose, is being furnished for occupancy, and will stand for all the future years of this city the enduring monument to honor the names of John and Anna Mary Mann.

And in the same spirit of self sacrifice, putting aside the fashions and attractions of society for the higher and greater purpose of doing good, the names of Mrs. Mary H. Holbrook, Mrs. Rosa Burrell, Mrs. Emeline Wakeman, Mrs. Susanna Wood, and the gentle Sisters of St. Vincent's Hospital, all of Portland, must ever be held in the greatest respect and highest honor. What pain, sorrow, grief and suffering these noble women have relieved by their daily round of ministration, not for a day—but for years and years. Their names should not be forgotten; they will not be forgotten. It was the Catholic sisters of St. Mary's academy on Fourth street that rendered the first of Christian charities to the poor and sick of the. little village of Portland. Let them be held in greatest veneration.

Mrs. Wakeman served as matron of the Good Samaritan hospital for nearly twenty years and only laid down the great work when her own health gave way under the long continued strain. Mrs. Susanna Woods (familiarly called "Aunty Woods") served nearly as long as the matron and foster mother of forty or fifty orphan children at the children's home in South Portland, and laid down the great load of care and labor when her own strength was well nigh exhausted. Mrs. Holbrook and Mrs. Burrell gave their lives and money to the work of doing good whenever duty called, and it called them everywhere all over the city. As managers and executive officers they were each rare examples of satisfaction to all contributors to the charities and to all their co-workers.

Another name stands out as prominent in every good work, and as a most liberal giver whenever his gifts would alleviate human suffering. Henry W. Corbett's gift to the Homeopathic hospital made that institution a possibility. Without his aid it must have waited for many years, and might never have been built. And it is a great satisfaction not only to the friends of this real philanthropist, but to the recipients of his benefactions, that no man was ever oppressed or harrassed or distressed or injured in any way to contribute to the fortune from which the gifts of Mr. Corbett were made. It is a noble record, and well may his friends be proud of it.

There are two more persons that must not be overlooked in this roll of honor. Upon reflection it would seem to be a vile slander on the white man residents of

DONALD MACLEAY
(Gave Macleay Park of one hundred and thirty acres)

Portland and Oregon, that the legislature of the state had been compelled to pass laws, and kind hearted people had been compelled to raise money and appoint officers to protect little children and dumb brutes from the savage cruelties of the fathers of children and the worse than brutal violence of owners and drivers of the noblest of man's dumb animal friends—the horse. For almost an equal length of time—twenty years or more, W. T. Gardner has as superintendent of the Boys and Girls Aid Society had to fight a continuous battle with debased wretches of delinquent husbands and fathers to protect and provide for their neglected or cruelly treated children. While at the same, time W. T. Shanahan waged a similar warfare against the inhuman owners or drivers of horses, and owners of dairy cattle. It is an awful indictment of men raised in a civilized community that such preventives of cruelty are necessary. And the execution of the law in these cases, more or less fraught with personal danger to those who enforced the law, has been and must be one of the most irksome and unpleasant duties that could be laid on any man. And yet Messrs. Shanahan and Gardner never failed nor halted in their noble work in all these years; until now a public sentiment has been created by the persistent and courageous course of these men, that supports, vindicates and honors the enforcement of the law in these cases.

There are many other noble men and women well worth of remembrance on these pages if space would permit. But these names have been the pioneers and leaders in a great work to humanize and spiritualize the public sentiment of a pushing, rushing population intent on building a great city, and piling up a lot of money.

One More Name. But where does "Joe Buchtel" come in? Or rather, the question should be, where does he not come in? For ever since the town was anything much more than a streak of mud holes from Stark street up to Jefferson, and a lot of heterogeneous cabins and frame shanties along the west side thereof, Mr. Joseph Buchtel has been the general utility man of the town and city agitating, pushing, boosting, and never letting up on anything and everything that would help and benefit Portland. And how much did he get for it? Not a red cent. When Buchtel had got the town built up, and it had realized a little cash over and above every day running expenses, and had got railroads to California and Idaho and as far north as the village of Seattle, then the inflated aristocrats imported a booster to work on a big flat salary. It was easy sailing for him. Buchtel had laid the foundation, built the house, put on the roof—and the imported man could put on, the paint. Now over eighty years of age, Mr. Buchtel is still hard at work for more bridges and better ones—more of everything to improve the city. There has not been any citizen of Portland who has worked so long, so faithfully and so successfully for the upbuilding of the city as Joseph Buchtel—and this is the record that will go down to posterity.


THE HISTORIANS, EDITORS, POETS AND SOME STORY TELLERS.

It has been remarked by somebody that it takes all sorts of people to make a world. And from that standpoint it may be said that it takes all sorts of people to make the history of any community. Without the people who take the trouble to record the progress of events, to write down the recollection of things past and gone forever, and to treasure up the accomplished works of the men and women of a country or a city, the past would be as much of a blank to us as is the history of the native Indian to all the world. To imagine a relapse into such a state is to take a look into barbarism. Without the light and teachings of history, the human race would be no better than barbarians today. So the men and women who have taken the trouble to preserve the history of the past generations of Oregon are people who deserve to be gratefully remembered, along with all others in the field of effort and progress, by the people of this city of today, and all future generations.

The first formal contribution to the history of Oregon, including the history of this city, are the works of Rev. Gustavus Hines, one of the early Methodist missionaries to Oregon. His first book "Oregon, Its History, Condition and Prospects," was published in 1846; and his second work entitled "Oregon and Its Institutions" was published in 1868. This last volume is largely devoted to the history of the Willamette university. Mr. Hines was born in Herkimer County, New York, September 16, 1809; commenced preaching in 1832; appointed to the Oregon mission in 1839, and died at Oregon City, December 9, 1873.

The next volume of Oregon history to attract attention was that of William H. Gray, published in 1870. This work is highly characteristic of its author, and has provoked more discussion than any other book published about Oregon. Gray was among the first to come to Oregon with the missionaries, coming out with Whitman and Spalding in 1836 as an aid to the missions in building the necessary houses. He was a quick, bright man, with great energy and invincible courage; readily took in the whole condition of affairs in the wilderness of the northwest, and was not backward in offering his suggestions as to the relative importance of missions and politics; and early arrayed himself as the leader of the movement to hold in check the growing influence of the Catholic missions. His history is written from the standpoint of his own observations; and the fact that it has provoked much unfriendly criticism only proves the author to have been in a position to know whereof he speaks. Of the work, Bancroft's history says: "As an exhibition of the feeling entertained by certain persons in Oregon, 64 years ago, towards the subjects of Great Britain, and professors of the Catholic faith, it is striking, though perhaps somewhat overdrawn, and all the more impressive, in that the writer speaks as if those past days were still present to him."

William H. Gray was born at Fairfield, New York, in 1810, came to Oregon in 1836, settled at Astoria in 1852, and died at the residence of his son-in-law, Jacob Kamm in Portland, November 4, 1889, and was buried at Astoria.

The next Oregon history to appear was that brought out by Mr. George H. Himes in the year 1885. Of this work Mr. Himes was both publisher and author, notwithstanding another gentleman appears as editor. This is a work of 900 pages and about 600 biographical sketches and a very fine portrait of Oregon's great friend—Thomas H. Benton. This was practically the commencement of the great work done by Mr. Himes to preserve the history of Oregon. Mr. Himes has followed up the difficult and laborious work of a collector of materials for writing history for more than a quarter of a century. His work in this direction far exceeds the labors of all other historians of the northwest. A visit to the rooms of the Oregon Historical Society in the city hall will confirm the observer in the truth of this statement. He has had special advantages to aid him in his ardent attachment to this patriotic duty, in being for many years not only the assistant secretary of the Oregon Historical Society, but also the secretary of the Oregon Pioneer Association. His acquaintance with the pioneers, and the descendants of pioneers exceeds that of any other forty persons in the whole country. And all the historians, poets, and story writers in the long generations to come will be delving into the work of George H. Himes for their themes, and the divine afflatus to portray the glories of the old pioneers, and sing the Georgics of their sons and daughters.

The most pretentious history of Oregon was published in 1888 by the Bancroft History Company of San Francisco, making two volumes of 800 pages each. With ample financial resources Mr. Hubert Howe Bancroft of San Francisco, set himself to work in producing histories of the Pacific coast states and territories, including Mexico, The Central American States, British Columbia, Alaska, Utah, and New Mexico. It was one of the most ambitious projects in book making ever attempted, in which all the great libraries of the old world were ransacked, and the histories of the native races traced back into oblivion and the realms of imagination. On this work Mr. Bancroft expended a fortune of a quarter of a million dollars, doing scarcely any of the work himself, but

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HISTORIANS OF OREGON 1— Frances Fuller Victor. 2 — William H. Gray. S^George H. Himes. 4 — J. Henry Brown. 5 — Horace Lyman. 6 — Harvey K. Hines working for an eternity of fame through the brains of other men and women hired to do the literary labor of producing forty—four octavo volumes of 800 pages each. The Oregon part of this great history was prepared, compared and written by Mrs. Frances Fuller Victor. For many years prior to the issuance of this history of Oregon, Mrs. Victor had been gathering materials all over Oregon and Washington to write a history of these two states. And when Mr. Bancroft decided to undertake this great history work, hearing that Mrs. Victor had gathered up this material he sought her out offering her employment for a term of years, working on his books on condition that she turn over all her gleanings to him as his property; and if she would not do so, he would anticipate her work by bringing out a history of Oregon in advance and thus ruin her prospects. It was what would be called in modern parlance, a "hold up;" and it succeeded; and Mrs. Victor gave all her collections and brain work for twenty-five years to the Bancroft History Company for stated employment as a writer on Bancroft's books for six years. The Bancroft histories are the most complete and valuable on the subject they cover of any of the main works on Pacific coast history; although the same information might have been well set forth in one— half the space they cover.

Following the Bancroft work the next year came the voluminous history of the North Pacific History Company, edited by Mr. Elwood Evans, of Olympia, Washington. This is a large work of two quarto volumes of 650 pages each; and is planned to cover the entire history of Oregon and Washington from the discovery of the country by the Spaniards in 1603 down to the year 1889. The work is especially valuable for the portraits of the pioneers it contains, numbering altogether 670 of very good wood-cut engravings, which will greatly increase in value as the years roll by.

The last formal work of history relating to Portland or Oregon, is that of the city of Portland, by Mr. H. W. Scott. issued in the year 1890. This was the first work specially devoted to the history of this city; and considering the fact that Mr. Scott had on his hands at the same time the editorial management and the leading part in the editorial work of the daily and weekly Oregonian, it is a convincing proof of his immense capacity for mental labor, and his remarkable talent for unexcelled literary composition. But aside from this volume of 600 pages, Mr. Scott was for more than twenty years the most fruitful contributor to the history of the state, and of the northwest in the form of lectures and addresses before literary societies, clubs, associations, and colleges, as well as to the Oregon Historical Quarterly. He had the rare talent of a discriminating judgment as to the facts of history, as well as the philosophical acumen to discern and point out the principles of thought and action which the analysis of co-relating facts establish. And his great service to Oregon, and to mankind in this regard will not be fully apprehended and appreciated until the lapse of time has enabled men to compare and estimate the influence of his mental personality on the political and social movements of his age.

In the line of biography as related to the history of Portland, the work of Mr. Frederick V. Holman in his exhaustive study of the life of Dr. John McLoughlin, seems to stand alone. No just or complete idea of the life work and real character of McLoughlin can be obtained without reading Mr. Holman's book. The monograph in this history furnished by Mr. Holman on McLoughlin's "The Father of Oregon." while it is a masterly statement of a great matter in the fewest possible words, does not fully set forth the great work of McLoughlin, and only gives the reader a desire to hear the whole story, which they can find in Mr. Holman's completed biography of Dr. McLoughlin.

Many other men have devoted much time and patient research to the history of Portland and Oregon, and have made permanent record in the Oregon Historical Quarterly of their studies. Among these should be mentioned Mr. F. G. Young, secretary of the Oregon Historical Society, and professor of history in the State university. Mr. Young also put in one summer vacation in tracing out the old Oregon trail through the Rocky mountains, his means of transportation- being a bicycle, and his quartermasters accommodations such as he could get from an occasional camper, or mover, or the warm side of an overhanging cliff.

Hon. W. D. Fenton, formerly president of the Historical Society, has also contributed to the Quarterly some of its most valuable papers. His review of the life of "Father Wilbur," is a work of the highest value both in historical research, and literary excellence. His articles on the political history of the state fill a long felt want of an accurate and complete history of that important element of the civic life of Oregon.

And John Minto, one of the real pioneers, cutting hoop poles on Portland townsite before there was any town, and now over eighty years of age, has made Oregon history mighty good reading by his modest, straightforward accounts of the pioneer days. Mr. Minto is a veritable storehouse of informa- tion about the pioneers and their experiences. And he tells the story with all the freshness and interest of a man who has just got in from a trip rowing and pushing a boat up the Columbia river for Dr. John McLoughlin last week. Pioneer history does not get old and stale with this veteran who has seen Ore- gon grow up from a few scattered settlements to a great state booming with ships, railroads, factories, wealth on every hand and nearly a million people. Mr. Minto has spent 66 years in Oregon, and is as fresh as ever. He would not be suspected of "dropping into poetry" like Silas Wegg, but the old pioneer is a poet of no mean ability. His "Rhymes of Life" in Oregon, covering i6 pages, are not only original and very interesting, but show a keen insight into the moral and spiritual natures of men. The following stanza is taken from his "Farmer's Song:"

"To stand for justice, truth, and right, against oppression, fraud and wrong, And by your power, your legal right, succor the weak against the strong; The seed of knowledge deeply plant, restrain ambition, pride and greed ; That all shall labor, and none shall want in time of need."

Mr. Horace S. Lyman, son of the first Congregational minister at Portland, was also for many years of his life an earnest worker on the history of Port- land and Oregon. His work ran through a great deal of Scott's history of Port- land, and is most generously accredited by Mr. Scott in the preface. Mr. Lyman also contributed many valuable articles to the Historical Quarterly.

The work of Ezra Meeker, the "Trail Marker," in perfecting and perpetuat- ing the history of Portland and the northwest is original and unique beyond that of anything of its kind west of the Ohio river. Mr. Meeker started for Oregon from Eddyville, Iowa, in April, 1852, and with his first born child only a month old. He crossed the plains with an ox team, passing through the terrible scourge of Asiatic cholera, when hundreds of people were dying every day. Meeker with famished wife and baby reached Portland some time in the month of September, 1852, with only $2.75 in his pocket, being five months on the way. Shortly afterwards he made his way to Puget Sound, settled as a farmer near Tacoma, and afterwards introduced hop growing into the state of Washington. His great work, that which has given him a national reputation, consists in his marking the old Oregon trail from the Missouri river to the Columbia river at The Dalles. To accomplish this work Mr. Meeker returned over the trail in the summer of 1906 with an ox team, erecting stone markers along the trail at convenient stations ; and finally interesting President Roosevelt to help him get an appropriation from the U. S. treasury of $40,000 to be expended in markers all along the trail from Kansas City to Portland, Oregon.


THE POETS AND PLAYERS.

Edwin Markham, the poet, writer and lecturer, was born in Oregon City,

Oregon, in 1852. In 1867 he went to California, where he worked at farming,

John Minto from Gaston book.png

JOHN MINTO
Coal miner, farmer, fine wool sheep importer, mountain explorer and road builder, legislator, historian and poet.

blacksmithing, herding cattle and sheep, and earned his way through the pubHc

schools at Suisun, CaHfornia, San Jose normal school and Santa Rosa college. His boyhood poems were published in California papers.

We claim him for Oregon City and Oregon. His best known poem is "The Man with the Hoe." The following lines, entitled "The Menace of the Tower," is appropriate to the times :

In storied Venice, down whose rippling streets The stars go hurrying, and the white moon beats. Stood the great Bell Tower, fronting seas and skies, Fronting the ages, drawing all men's eyes ; Rooted like Teneriffe, aloft and proud, Taunting the lightning, tearing the flying cloud. It marked the hours of Venice; all men said, Time cannot reach to bow that lofty head ; Time, that shall touch all else with ruin, must Forbear to make this shaft confess its dust; Yet all the while, in secret, without sound, The fat worms gnawed the timbers underground. The twisting worm, whose epoch is an hour, Caverned its way into the mighty tower; And suddenly it shook, it swayed, it broke, And fell in darkening thunder at one strogke. The strong shaft, with an angel on the crown. Fell ruining; a thousand years went down! And so I fear, my country, not the hand That shall hurl night and whirlwind on the land ; I fear not Titan traitors who shall rise To stride like Brocken shadows on our skies — Not giants who shall come to overthrow , And send on Earth an Illiad of woe, I fear the vermin that shall undermine Senate and citadel and school and shrine — The Worm of Greed, the fated Worm of Ease, And all the crawling progeny of these — The vermin that shall honeycomb the towers And walls of state in unsuspecting hours.

Samuel L. Simpson is the Poet Laureate of Oregon. He is emphatically an Oregon production. He was born in Missouri and came to Oregon with his parents in 1846, and was educated at the Willamette university. Studied law but took to literature and newspaper work in preference. His poems are fugitive pieces rather than serious study. And the force and beauty of them establish a claim to great talent as a poet. His works have recently, fifteen or more years after his death, been gathered up by a sister and published in an elegant volume. His best known poem is entitled "Ad Willametam," an apostrophe to the river he loved so well. We print the whole poem.

From the Cascade's frozen gorges. Leaping like a child at play. Winding, widening through the Valley, Bright Willamette glides away. Onward ever Lovely river. Softly calling to the sea; Time that scars us, Maims and mars us, Leaves no track or trench on thee.

Spring's green witchery is weaving Braid and border for thy side; Grace forever haunts thy journey, Beauty dimples on thy tide. Through the purple gates of morning Now thy roseate ripples dance ; Golden, then when, day departing, On thy waters trails his lance. Waltzing, flashing, Tinkling, plashing, Limpid, volatile and free — Always hurried To be buried In the bitter moon-mad sea.

In thy crystal deeps, inverted Swings a picture of the sky; Like those wavering hopes of Aiden Dimly in our dreams that lie; Clouded often, drowned in turmoil. Faint and lovely far away. Wreathing sunshine on the morrow, Breathing fragrance 'round today. Love would wander Here and ponder — Hither Poetry would dream; Life's old questions. Sad suggestions, "Whence and wither?" throng thy stream,

On the roaring wastes of Ocean Shall thy scattered waves be tossed ; 'Mid the surge's rythmic thunder Shall thy silver tongues be lost. Oh ! thy glimmering rush of gladness Mocks this turbid life of mine. Racing to the wild Forever Down the sloping paths of time ! Onward ever. Lovely river. Softly calling to the sea ; Time that scars us. Maims and mars us, Leaves no track or trench on thee.

Frances Fuller Victor already noticed as the historian of Oregon, was also distinguished as a writer of verses of rare merit; her poems were collected and published ten years ago, two years before her death in this city, and cover 109 pages and 42 subjects.

As related to the great future of the city, with a coloring distinctly Oregon and Columbian, her poem—"Sunset at the Mouth of the Columbia," written one evening in 1865 while sitting on the hill back of Astoria—is here given in full.


There sinks the sun; like cavalier of old,
Servant of crafty Spain.
He flaunts his banner, barred with blood and gold
Wide o'er the western main;
A thousand spearheads glint beyond the trees
In columns bright and long.
While kindling fancy hears upon the breeze
The swell of shout and song.


And yet, not here Spain's gay, adventurous host
Dipped sword or planted cross;
The treasures guarded by this rock bound coast,
Counted them gain nor loss,
The Blue Columbia, sired by the eternal hills.
And wedded with the sea.
O'er golden sands, tithes from a thousand rills,
Rolled in lone majesty.


Through deep ravine, through burning barren plain.
Through wild and rocky strait.
Through forests dark, and mountains rent in twain.
Toward the sunset gate,
While curious eyes, keen with the lust of gold,
Caught not the informing gleam.
These mighty breakers, age on age have rolled
To meet the mighty stream.


Age after age these noble hills have kept,
The same majestic lines;
Age after age the horizon's edge been swept
By fringe of pointed pines.
Summers and Winter's circling came and went
Bringing no change of scene;
Unresting, and unhasting, and unspent,
Dwelt nature here serene.


Till God's own time to plant of Freedom's seed.
In this selected soil.
Denied forever unto blood and greed,
But blest to honest toil.
There sinks the sun! Gay cavalier no more
His banners trail the sea.
And all his legions shining on the shore
Fade into mystery.


The swelling tide laps on the shingly beach
Like any starving thing,
And hungry breakers, white with wrath upreach.
In a vain clamoring.
The shadows fall; just level with mine eye
Sweet Hesper stands and shines,
And shines beneath an arc of golden sky.
Pinked round with pointed pines.

A noble scene, all breadth, deep tone and power
Suggesting glorious themes.
Shaming the idler who would fill the hour
With unsubstantial dreams.
Be mine the dreams prophetic, shadowing forth
The things that yet shall be,
As through this gate the treasures of the north
Flow outward to the sea.


Frances Fuller Victor, "The Historian of the Northwest," was born in Rome, New York, in 1826, came to Oregon in 1865, died in Portland, November 14, 1902, and is buried in Riverview cemetery. She was the author of the following books:

Poems, 1851; Florence Fane Sketches, 1853-65; The River of the West, 1870; All Over Oregon and Washington, 1872; Woman's War Against Whisky, 1874; The New Penelope, 1877; Bancroft History of Oregon, 2 vols. 1886; Bancroft History of Washington, Idaho and Montana; Bancroft History of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming; Bancroft History of California, vols. 6 and 7; History of Early Indian Wars in Oregon, 1893; Atlantis Arisen; Poems, 1900.


A poet, native to the heath, is Mrs. June MacMillan Ordway of East Portland. The MacMillans are pioneers; and the subject of this notice is the daughter of Capt. J. H. MacMillan, and Tirzah Barton-MacMillan, who crossed the plains to Oregon in 1845. June MacMillan was born near Reedville, in Washington County, ten miles west of the city of Portland. J. H. MacMillan earned his title of "Captain" fighting the Indians after the Whitman massacre; and in later life laid out MacMillan's addition to East Portland, and soon after became president of the North Pacific History Company that issued the quarto history of Oregon and Washington already noticed.

Mrs, Ordway commenced writing verses while yet a girl, and influenced by her pioneer antecedents has written much, illustrative of pioneer life. A single verse from her poem on "Our Honored Pioneer," shows the drift of her thought:


With hopes of men, with women's sobs and tears,
No storms could chill their strong, brave hearts,
Nor e'er their courage dim
Through all the many untold trying years.


Her latest and most impressive composition, is the "Memoriam of Julia Ward Howe"—October 28, 1910.


Now, "her eyes have seen the glory"
Of the heavenly mansions fair.
She who won the hearts of people
Shall find sweet contentment there.

She hath builded well an altar
Of sweet charity and peace,
She who broke the chains asunder
That all wars and strife should cease.


SOME OREGON POETS Upper left hand — June MacMillan Ordway. Upper right hand — Samuel L. Simpson. Lower left hand — Mrs. M. L. T. Hidden. Lower right hand — Ella Higginson She hath heard dear voices calling,
She who never knew retreat,
Now hath found reward and blessing
At the Master's judgment seat.


"In the beauty of the lilies,"
Far across the calmest sea
There 'mid joys she shall awaken,
She who sang to set men free.


TWO POET SISTERS.

Another widely-known poet whom Portland may well claim is Ella Higginson. Mrs. Higginson, was an infant when brought to Oregon by her parents. Here she grew up into girlhood, was educated, married and wrote her most famous poems. In England as well as America one of her lyrics is a household word. Who has not read or heard sung the dainty lines, "Four-Leaf Clover?"

I know a place where the sun is like gold.
And the cherry blooms burst with snow.
And down underneath is the lovliest nook
Where the four-leaf clovers grow.


One leaf is for hope, and one for faith,
And one is for love, you know;
And God put another in for luck—
If you search you will find where they grow.


But you muit have hope, and you must have faith.
You must love and be strong—and so—
If you work, if you wait, you will find the place
Where the four-leaf clovers grow.


It is said no poet has written of the west with greater strength and feeling. Her work is lofty in character and deeply tender. Not in English verse is there a more exquisite example of word painting than "The New West," or a poem charged with a finer, nobler sentiment, more grandly clothed, than her "God's Creed." In recent years Mrs. Higginson has lived in Bellingham, Washington.

Carrie Blake Morgan, until two years ago a resident of this city, is a sister of Ella Higginson. Hers is a graceful talent and her thoughts are often tinged with a gentle melancholy, as will be seen by the following poem entitled, "Growing Old."


To feel the failing power; to sit and note
The slipping cogs within the mental wheel;
To strive to hold a thought, and see it steal
Away; to watch each golden fancy float
Beyond our reach. To be no longer bold,
And sure, and free; to falter and to grope;
Yet still to strive, and still to feebly hope,
Until the struggle ends, and we are old.


MRS. M. L. T. HIDDEN.

The president of the State "Woman's Press Club of Oregon," would be a distinguished and forceful character in any community. Her work in the cause of temperance reform in our sister state of Washington has distinguished her as a leader in a work where none but those of marked abilities can accomplish results. Mrs. Hidden combines with literary ability not only a desire but a talent to both serve and lead in every good work for the aid and improvement of women. Willing to work for the church, for the cause of temperance and for equality of civil rights before the law, the work has been put upon her for many years. Commencing by writing and reporting for the press, she has been called to serve the cause of temperance reform as vice-president of the W. C. T. U., both in the state of Vermont and the state of Washington; and as state superintendent of Sunday school work in Washington; and as state organizer and lecturer of the W. C. T. U., in Washington, and as commissioner to the World's Fair at Buffalo, from Washington. In the equal suffrage movement Mrs. Hidden organized the Vermont Equal Suffrage Association and was a co-worker with the brilliant coterie of talented women composed of Julia Ward Howe, Lucy Stone, and others in 1875; and last but not least served the city of Vancouver ably and well as a director of its public schools; besides other honors and services too numerous to mention.

In her verses of welcome to the delegates to the 25th anniversary of the W. C, T. U., of Oregon, she pays a noble compliment to the distinguished woman (Miss Willard) who founded the union:

Our chieftain marked a consecrated way
Of truth, temperance and light;
And she is with us still; her magic sway
Inspires our hearts, and courage gives tonight.


Long years have passed, yet still that voice so clear
Rings out with power in accents sweet and strong.
And woman's life is in a broader sphere,
And woman's place is where there is a wrong.


She leads us yet from heights of power sublime;
She sees her cause triumphant wins its way;
Her message still goes out to every clime.
And heralds forth, a coming temperance day.


O, Loyal hearts, on such as you is laid
The burden of the world's vast need and woe;
The Master sends you forth, be not afraid;
Your faith and strength will overcome the foe.


Maria Louisa Trenholm Hidden was born in Trenholm, Kingsey, province of Quebec, Canada; moved to the state of Vermont in early life; from thence to Vancouver, state of Washington, and is now resident of the city of Portland. Her poem read at the last Pioneers Association meeting has been greatly admired and widely copied.


While Joaquin Miller is not strictly of Portland origin, yet as he is an Oregonian with troops of friends and acquaintances in Portland, and has more than once given the city, very friendly notice, it is but just to return the compliment here. Mr. Miller came to Oregon in infancy, settled at Eugene City, studied law, went to Grant County, then took to verse writing, went to London, England, attracted great attention among literary people, attained a national reputation and settled at Oakland California. The following lines descriptive of the men who pioneered the settlement of America from Plymouth Rock to Portland, Oregon, fairly illustrates Joaquin Miller's forceful style of writing.

What strong uncommon men were these—
These settlers hewing to the seas!
Great horny-handed men, and tan,
Men blown from many a barren land
Beyond the sea, men red of hand.
And men in love, and men in debt.
Like David's men in battle set;
And men whose very hearts had died,
Who only sought these woods to hide
Their wretchedness, held in the van.
Yet every man among them stood
Alone, along that sounding wood.
And every man somehow a MAN.


They pushed the matted wood aside,
They tossed the forest like a toy;
That grand, forgotten race of men—
The boldest band that yet has been
Together, since the siege of Troy!


Another Miller, of a different cast of thought, is Mrs. Lischen M. Miller, the wife of Joaquin Miller's brother. Mrs. Miller was a Miss Cogswell, the daughter of a Lane County farmer, and heretofore noticed as one of the founders of the Pacific Monthly. Mrs. Miller has marked ability for poetry as well as prose composition, and has produced many poems that have been sought for by eastern magazines. The following taken from Putnam's Monthly of December, 1907, is a fair sample of her verse, entitled "Sea-Drift."

Once in a twelvemonth given.
At midnight of the year,
To rise from their graves as vapor
That shadows the face of fear,
And up through the green of surges,
A sweep to the headlands base,
Like a white mist blown to landward.
They come to this lofty place —


Pale as the heart of sorrow
Dim as a dream might be—
The souls of ship wrecked sailors,
And them that are drowned at sea.
In swift and silent procession
Circle the lonely sweep,
Where the wild wind faints before them,
And hushed is the roar of the deep.


Another poet of great promise, whose beautiful verse was known to but few readers when death silenced her lyre forever, was Mrs. Marion Cook Stow.

Born in Sandusky, Ohio, June 7, 1875, Marion Cook came to Oregon when a child. She received her education in the public schools and early evinced an apitude for verse-making. She was particularly a student and lover of the outdoor life, and the major portions of poems that have emanated from her facile pen breathes the spirits of the wild woods and a love for green things-a-growing.

Perhaps the best known of her longer poems is "Where Flows Hood River," which was given to the public in 1907. This was followed by a prose story for children, "The Child and the Dream," which won enconiums from press and public. A bound collection of shorter verse is called "Nature Sonnets." Last year Mrs. Stow published her well-known "Voices of the City," which she dedicated to Portland, and which was received with highest praise. From these "voices," we copy the following:

What is this tumult borne upon the air,
This clamorous strife? O city, nearly great!
The benedictions of a knowing Fate.
Have been but whispered, yet the inevitable care
Of each day's toil, where competition bare
Invigorates the fray, doth still await
They every hour; and all too passionate
Doth rule the courage that would win and dare.


Yet this thy call; this ceaseless, restless strain,
These hands outstretched for more—nor pity sought
For calmer moments.—Evermore, I think,
Wilt thou be calling, evermore for gain!
But O, beware, lest gold and fame be bought
With thy heart's blood; Thou standest at the brink!


For many years as a part of the editorial staff of the Daily, Sunday and Weekly Oregonian, Mrs. C. A. Coburn has served the cause of justice, clean living and moral reform in a forceful and effectual way. Few writers in Oregon have had the opportunity to preach righteousness in life, and fellowship with humanity, as has Mrs. Coburn through the great circulation of Oregon's greatest journal. And this opportunity she has improved with that judgment, discretion and wisdom as entitles her name to a high rank among those who have not only rare literary ability, but who also use that talent for the highest welfare of the reading public. Seeking no public notice, notority or reward, above that of doing good, she has year after year pressed home the common sense reasons for justice to all without regard to age, sex or social position; and is entitled to be remembered as one who used their talents, and strength for the welfare of humanity.


Akin to the work of Mrs. Coburn, but on a larger scale, in the thick of the battle, and wherever the battle for justice called the leader, has been the work of her distinguished sister, Abigail Scott Duniway. Early called upon, from widowhood to be the breadwinner for a large family, as well as to push the cause of equal suffrage which she had espoused early in life, Mrs. Duniway became one of the most interesting and influential characters produced among the long list of distinguished women of the northwest. It is forty-five years since the author of this book met Mrs. Duniway in the editorial room of the Oregon Statesman at Salem. She was vigorously advocating equal suffrage then, when there were not a thousand persons in Oregon that would give her courteous hearing. She started the "New Northwest" journal with no capital but faith in her cause, and her own industry, and successfully published it for twenty years and sold the property for a handsome price. She has edited newspapers, written books, stories, travels, poetry, and leaflet arguments by the hundreds. She has been president of the Oregon State Women Suffrage Association repeatedly and often a delegate to the National Association meetings; and attained a national reputation and national influence in the cause which has been her life work. And last, and greatest of all her honors, she is mother of, and has reared and educated five worthy and distinguished sons. One of these sons, is the first honest state printer the state has had since Henry L. Pittock's term of forty years ago, and has just been re-elected to the office by a majority of 12,500. Another son is a prominent attorney of the Multnomah bar, and the most distinguished lawyer in the state in his special fine of practice. Another son is a distinguished scholar, historian and teacher, and now president of the university of the state of

Abigail Scott Duniway in later years, from Gaston book.png

ABIGAIL SCOTT DUNIWAY
Editor, Reformer and leader of the equal suffrage movement on the Pacific coast

Chapter 29

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WILLIAM MacMASTER

President of Chamber of Commerce Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/865 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/866 SCENES IN PORTLAND HARBOR— 1910

SOME FOUNDERS OF BIG BUSINESS IN PORTLAND

1 — S. W. King, of Olds, Wortman & King — Department Store. 2 — C. H. Lewis, of Allen & Lewis — Wholesale Grocers. 3 — Adolphe Wolfe, of Lipman. Wolfe & Company — Depart- ment Store. 4 — Louis Fleischner — Wholesale Dry Goods. 5 — Aaron Meier, of Meier &

Frank Company — Department Store. G — Josiah Failing — Wholesale Hardware trade. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/871 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/872 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/875 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/876

WASHINOTON STREET, LOOKING WEST FROM THIRD—1910

THIRD STREET, LOOKING NORTH FROM MORRISON —1910 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/881 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/882 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/885 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/886

THE COMING SUPREMACY ON THE PACIFIC

PORTLAND ON THE DIRECT MAIN ROUTE AROUND THE WORLD CONNECTING ALL THE GREAT COMMERCIAL CITIES AND NATIONS

Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/889 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/890 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/891 The next morning the two Myers, Blossom, Pickett, Davis and ourself

mounted our riding horses and started for the summit at four o'clock. After five hours' "beating" as sailors would term it, we attained an altitude much higher than we were able to do on horseback last year, in consequence of the large quantity of snow yet on the mountain. We left our horses under the lee of a large ledge of rock and commenced the ascent on foot. At twelve and a half o'clock we had all reached the extreme summit in good condition, save somewhat jaded. The party partook of the lunch which each had brought with him, with a relish seldom enjoyed by the most fastidious epicure. After feasting our eyes for an hour or more upon the world below, until all were satisfied that no man who has never been on this mountain's top, can form the remotest idea of the grandeur and sublimity of the scene, and that no man can by language describe it intelligently to another, we resolved to return to camp. The descent for a portion of the way was far more difficult than the ascent. We were compelled to come down the main peak by the aid of a rope looped over the crags of rock. When all were down to a standpoint the rope was overhauled and again fastened, when one after another descended until finally we regained the snow where every man adopted his own way and pursued his own course in descending. Some of the party took it into their heads, after we had got down to where the snow was smoother and the angle about 45 or 50 degrees, to try another mode, to-wit: place the "seat of honor" on the snow, a mountain stafif in each hand drawn up closely under the arm as a drag, hoist your heels, and away you go with a speed equal to a locomotive. Thus several descended for a couple of miles in double-quick time. We reached our horses in safety and regained our camp, just as the sun was sinking into the Pacific ocean.

After a good supper, a good smoke, and listening to a great variety of opinions in relation to Mt. Hood, and a universal surprise expressed that people did not have a more correct idea about it, we retired to our blankets and were soon sound asleep, dreaming of towering mountains, fearful chasms, tumbling rocks, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc., etc."

Mountain exploration and climbing was reduced to a science later on by Mr. W. G. Steel who organized the society of the "Mazamas" — from "Mazame" — the 'Mexican for mountain goat. Through the efforts of Mr. Steel, and the organization of the Mazamas, headquarters at Portland, Oregon, nearly all the great mountains of Oregon and Washington have been ascended, explored and mapped, adding largely to the stock of knowledge of animal and vegetable life on these lofty uplands. Many young and even middle aged women have become members of the Mazama organization, and make enthusiastic and successful mountain climbers ; although it is a most severe trial of physical strength and endurance to ascend a rugged mountain to the height of two and a half miles above sea level, covered with ice and snow, bearing immense glaciers, seamed with awful crevices, threatening life at every turn.

THE ROSE FESTIVAL.

Portland has the most unique annual festival of any city in the United States, lasting an entire week, with the opening of the roses in June of each year. One hundred thousand dollars was spent in producing this week of festivity in 1910. More than one-quarter of a million visitors were entertained at this jubilee in 1910. More than 5,000,000 beautiful roses were used in decoration. Portland has a thousand miles of roses. If set side by side, they would reach to Los Angeles.

Tokio is noted for its cherry blossom parades. Florence, Naples, Venice and Nice are famous for their floral carnivals, and New Orleans for its Mardi Gras. Portland with her peerless floral pageants has won world-wide renown as "The rose city."

W. G. Steel, president of the Mazamas, and an ascent of Mt. Hood.png

W. G. STEEL, PRESIDENT OF THE MAZAMAS.—ASCENDING MOUNT HOOD

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THE GLASGOW VOTER

(Scotland)

My city is governed by the Council and my ballot contains just the single office Councilor from my ward. I have one man to choose and it's so easy for me to itnow what I'm voting for that I never get buncoed. That's why Glas- gow is the best governed city In the world.

THE DES MOIXES (IOWA) VOTER

My city is governed by a commission of Five, and my ballot contains just those five offices. I have just five men to choose and you can't fool me into voting for a man I don't really want. No long ready-made tickets for me — I'm boss myself witli this Sliort Bal- lot, and the politicians in this town are out of jobs.

THE PORTLAND. OREGON VOTER. ^^T:TH a BALLOT THREE FEET LONG

My city, county and state are gov- erned by hundreds of elective officers and my ballot is so long with seventy- five candidates and thirty-two initiative laws, that no one but a professional politician can vote it intelligently. I'm voting half the time for men I wouldn't vote for if I could find out about them. My ballot is designed to favor the ex- pert politicians and befudge the plain voter, and it succeeds. That's why I liave government by politicians instead

of government by the people. Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/909 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/910 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/911 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/912 OLD HUDSON BAY COMPANY, FORT VANCOUVER, 1827 HUDSON BAY COMPANY FORT AND VILLAGE OF VANCOUVER-1854 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/917 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/918

FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH BUILDING ERECTED IN OLD OREGON AT

VANCOUVER Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/921 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/922 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/923 Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/924

UPPER VIEW— STREET SCENE IN VANCOUVER IN 191] LOWER VIEW— GREAT STEEL BRIDGE ACROSS THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT VANCOUVER Page:Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.djvu/927

Chapter 33