Sacred Books of the East/Volume 15/Katha-upanishad

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1. Vâgasravasa[1], desirous (of heavenly rewards), surrendered (at a sacrifice) all that he possessed. He had a son of the name of Nakiketas.

2. When the (promised) presents were being given (to the priests), faith entered into the heart of Nakiketas, who was still a boy, and he thought:

3. "Unblessed[2], surely, are the worlds to which a man goes by giving (as his promised present at a sacrifice) cows which have drunk water, eaten hay, given their milk[3], and are barren."

4. He (knowing that his father had promised to give up all that he possessed, and therefore his son also) said to his father: "Dear father, to whom wilt thou give me?"
He said it a second and a third time. Then the father replied (angrily):
"I shall give thee[4] unto Death."
(The father, having once said so, though in haste, had to be true to his word and to sacrifice his son.)

5. The son said: "I go as the first, at the head of many (who have still to die); I go in the midst of many (who are now dying). What will be the work of Yama (the ruler of the departed) which to-day he has to do unto me[5]?

6. Look back how it was with those who came before, look forward how it will be with those who come hereafter. A mortal ripens like corn, like corn he springs up again[6]."

(Nakiketas enters into the abode of Yama Vaivasvata, and there is no one to receive him. Thereupon one of the attendants of Yama is supposed to say:) 7. "Fire enters into the houses, when a Brâhmana enters as a guest[7]. That fire is quenched by this peace-offering; — bring water, O Vaivasvata[8]!

8. A Brâhmana that dwells in the house of a foolish man without receiving food to eat, destroys his hopes and expectations, his possessions, his righteousness, his sacred and his good deeds, and all his sons and cattle[9]."
(Yama, returning to his house after an absence of three nights, during which time Nakiketas had received no hospitality from him, says:)

9. "O Brâhmana, as thou, a venerable guest, hast dwelt in my house three nights without eating, therefore choose now three boons. Hail to thee! and welfare to me!"

10. Nakiketas said: "O Death, as the first of the three boons I choose that Gautama, my father, be pacified, kind, and free from anger towards me; and that he may know me and greet me, when I shall have been dismissed by thee."

11. Yama said: "Through my favour Auddâlaki Âruni, thy father, will know thee, and be again towards thee as he was before. He shall sleep peacefully through the night, and free from anger, after having seen thee freed from the mouth of death."

12. Nakiketas said: "In the heaven-world there is no fear; thou art not there, O Death, and no one is afraid on account of old age. Leaving behind both hunger and thirst, and out of the reach of sorrow, all rejoice in the world of heaven.

13. Thou knowest, O Death, the fire-sacrificef which leads us to heaven; tell it to me, for I am full of faith. Those who live in the heaven-world reach immortality,- this I ask as my second boon."

14. Yama said: "I tell it thee, learn it from me, and when thou understandest that fire-sacrifice which leads to heaven, know, O Nakiketas, that it is the attainment of the endless worlds, and their firm support, hidden in darkness[10]."

15. Yama then told him that fire-sacrifice, the beginning of all the worlds[11], and what bricks are required for the altar, and how many, and how they are to be placed. And Nakiketas repeated all as it had been told to him. Then Mrityu, being pleased with him, said again:

16. The generous[12], being satisfied, said to him: "I give thee now another boon; that fire-sacrifice shall be named after thee, take also this many-coloured chain[13].

17. He who has three times performed this Nâkiketa-rite and has been united with the three (father, mother, and teacher), and has performed the three duties (study, sacrifice, almsgiving) overcomes birth and death. When he has learnt and understood this fire, which knows (or makes us know) all that is born of Brahman[14], which is venerable and divine, then he obtains everlasting peace.

18. He who knows the three Nâkiketa fires, and knowing the three, piles up the Nâkiketa sacrifice, he, having first, thrown off the chains of death, rejoices in the world of heaven, beyond the reach of grief.

19. This, O Nakiketa, is thy fire which leads to heaven, and which thou hast chosen as thy second boon. That fire all men will proclaim[15]. Choose now, O Nakiketa, thy third boon."

20. Nakiketa said: "There is that doubt, when a man is dead, — some saying, he is; others, he is not. This I should like to know, taught by thee; this is the third of my boons."

21. Death said: "On this point even the gods have doubted formerly; it is not easy to understand. That subject is subtle. Choose another boon, O Nakiketas, do not press me, and let me off that boon."

22. Nakiketas said: "On this point even the gods have doubted indeed, and thou, Death, hast declared it to be not easy to understand, and another teacher like thee is not to be found: — surely no other boon is like unto this."

23. Death said: "Choose sons and grandsons who shall live a hundred years, herds of cattle, elephants, gold, and horses. Choose the wide abode of the earth, and live thyself as many harvests as thou desirest.

24. If you can think of any boon equal to that, choose wealth, and long life. Be (king), Nakiketas, on the wide earth[16]. I make thee the enjoyer of all desires.

25. Whatever desires are difficult to attain among mortals, ask for them according to thy wish; — these fair maidens with their chariots and musical instruments, — such are indeed not to be obtained by men, — be waited on by them whom I give to thee, but do not ask me about dying."

26. Nakiketas said: "These things last till tomorrow, O Death, for they wear out this vigour of all the senses. Even the whole of life is short. Keep thou thy horses, keep dance and song for thyself.

27. No man can be made happy by wealth. Shall we possess wealth, when we see thee? Shall we live, as long as thou rulest? Only that boon (which I have chosen) is to be chosen by me.

28. What mortal, slowly decaying here below, and knowing, after having approached them, the freedom from decay enjoyed by the immortals, would delight in a long life, after he has pondered on the pleasures which arise from beauty and love[17]?

29. No, that on which there is this doubt, O Death, tell us what there is in that great Hereafter. Nakiketas does not choose another boon but that which enters into the hidden world."


1. Death said: "The good is one thing, the pleasant another; these two, having different objects, chain a man. It is well with him who clings to the good; he who chooses the pleasant, misses his end.

2. The good and the pleasant approach man: the wise goes round about them and distinguishes them. Yea, the wise prefers the good to the pleasant, but the fool chooses the pleasant through greed and avarice.

3. Thou, O Nakiketas, after pondering all pleasures that are or seem delightful, hast dismissed them all. Thou hast not gone into the road[18] that leadeth to wealth, in which many men perish.

4. Wide apart and leading to different points are these two, ignorance, and what is known as wisdom. I believe Nakiketas to be one who desires knowledge, for even many pleasures did not tear thee away[19].

5. Fools dwelling in darkness, wise in their own conceit, and puffed up with vain knowledge, go round and round, staggering to and fro, like blind men led by the blind[20].

6. The Hereafter never rises before the eyes of the careless child, deluded by the delusion of wealth. "This is the world," he thinks, "there is no other;" — thus he falls again and again under my sway.

7. He (the Self) of whom many are not even able to hear, whom many, even when they hear of him, do not comprehend; wonderful is a man, when found, who is able to teach him (the Self); wonderful is he who comprehends him, when taught by an able teacher[21].

8. That (Self), when taught by an inferior man, is not easy to be known, even though often thought upon[22]; unless it be taught by another, there is no way to it, for it is inconceivably smaller than what is small[23].

9. That doctrine is not to be obtained[24] by argument, but when it is declared by another, then, O dearest, it is easy to understand. Thou hast obtained it now[25]; thou art truly a man of true resolve. May we have always an inquirer like thee[26]!"

10. Nakiketas said: "I know that what is called a treasure is transient, for that eternal is not obtained by things which are not eternal. Hence the Nâkiketa fire(sacrifice) has been laid by me (first); then by means of transient things, I have obtained what is not transient (the teaching of Yama)[27]."

11. Yama said: "Though thou hadst seen the fulfilment of all desires, the foundation of the world, the endless rewards of good deeds, the shore where there is no fear, that which is magnified by praise, the wide abode, the rest[28], yet being wise thou hast with firm resolve dismissed it all.

12. The wise who, by means of meditation on his Self, recognises the Ancient, who is difficult to be seen, who has entered into the dark, who is hidden in the cave, who dwells in the abyss, as God, he indeed leaves joy and sorrow far behind[29]."

13. A mortal who has heard this and embraced it, who has separated from it all qualities, and has thus reached the subtle Being, rejoices, because he has obtained what is a cause for rejoicing. The house (of Brahman) is open, I believe, O Nakiketas."

14. Nakiketas said: "That which thou seest as neither this nor that, as neither effect nor cause, as neither past nor future, tell me that."

15. Yama said: "That word (or place) which all - the Vedas record, which all penances proclaim, which men desire when they live as religious students, that word I tell thee briefly, it is Om[30].

16. That (imperishable) syllable means Brahman, that syllable means the highest (Brahman); he who knows that syllable, whatever he desires,is his.

17. This is the best support, this is the highest support; he who knows that support is magnified in the world of Brahmâ.

18. The knowing (Self) is not born, it dies not; it sprang from nothing, nothing sprang from it. The Ancient is unborn, eternal, everlasting; he is not killed, though the body is killed[31].

19. If the killer thinks that he kills, if the killed thinks that he is killed, they do not understand; for this one does not kill, nor is that one killed.

20. The Self[32], smaller than small, greater than great, is hidden in the heart of that creature. A man who is free from desires and free from grief, sees the majesty of the Self by the grace of the Creator[33].

21. Though sitting still, he walks far; though lying down, he goes everywhere[34]. Who, save myself, is able to know that God who rejoices and rejoices not?

22. The wise who knows the Self as bodiless within the bodies, as unchanging among changing things, as great and omnipresent, does never grieve.

23. That Self[35] cannot be gained by the Veda, nor by understanding, nor by much learning. He whom the Self chooses, by him the Self can be can gained. The Self chooses him (his body) as his own.

24. But he who has not first turned away from his wickedness, who is not tranquil, and subdued, or whose mind is not at rest, he can never obtain the Self (even) by knowledge.

25. Who then knows where He is, He to whom the Brahmans and Kshatriyas are (as it were) but food[36], and death itself a condiment?"


1. "There are the two[37], drinking their reward in the world of their own works, entered into the cave (of the heart), dwelling on the highest summit (the ether in the heart). Those who know Brahman call them shade and light; likewise, those householders who perform the Trinâkiketa sacrifice.

2. May we be able to master that Nâkiketa rite which is a bridge for sacrificers; also that which is the highest, imperishable Brahman for those who wish to cross over to the fearless shore[38].

3. Know the Self to be sitting in the chariot, the body to be the chariot, the intellect (buddhi) the charioteer, and the mind the reins[39].

4. The senses they call the horses, the objects of the senses their roads. When he (the Highest Self) is in union with the body, the senses, and the mind, then wise people call him the Enjoyer.

5. He who has no understanding and whose mind (the reins) is never firmly held, his senses (horses) are unmanageable, like vicious horses of a charioteer.

6. But he who has understanding and whose mind is always firmly held, his senses are under control, like good horses of a charioteer.

7. He who has no understanding, who is unmindful and always impure, never reaches that place, but enters into the round of births.

8. But he who has understanding, who is mindful and always pure, reaches indeed that place; from whence he is not born again.

9. But he who has understanding for his charioteer, and who holds the reins of the mind, he reaches the end of his journey, and that is the highest place of Vishnu.

10. Beyond the senses there are the objects, beyond the objects there is the mind, beyond the mind there is the intellect, the Great Self is beyond the intellect.

11. Beyond the Great there is the Undeveloped, beyond the Undeveloped there is the Person (purusha). Beyond the Person there is nothing — this is the goal, the highest road.

12. That Self is hidden in all beings and does not shine forth, but it is seen by subtle seers through their sharp and subtle intellect.

13. A wise man should keep down speech and mind[40]; he should keep them within the Self which is knowledge; he should keep knowledge within the Self whichs is the Great; and he should keep that (the Great) within the Self which is the Quiet.

14. Rise, awake! having obtained your boons[41], understand them! The sharp edge of a razor is difficult to pass over; thus the wise say the path (to the Self) is hard.

18. He who has perceived that which is without sound, without touch, without form, without decay, without taste, eternal, without smell, without beginning, without end, beyond the Great, and unchangeable, is freed from the jaws of death.

19. A wise man who has repeated or heard the ancient story of Nakiketas told by Death, is magnified in the world of Brahman.

20. And he who repeats this greatest mystery in an assembly of Brâhmans, or full of devotion at the time of the Srâddha sacrifice, obtains thereby infinite rewards."



1. Death said: "The Self-existent pierced the openings (of the senses) so that they turn forward; therefore man looks forward, not backward into himself. Some wise man, however, with his eyes closed and wishing for immortality, saw the Self behind.

2. Children follow after outward pleasures, and fall into the snare of wide-spread death. Wise men only, knowing the nature of what is immortal, do not look for anything stable here among things unstable.

3. That by which we know form, taste, smell, sounds, and loving touches, by that also we know what exists besides. This is that (which thou hast asked for).

4. The wise, when he knows that that by which he perceives all objects in sleep or in waking is the great omnipresent Self, grieves no more.

5. He who knows this living soul, which eats honey (perceives objects) as being the Self, always near, the Lord of the past and the future, henceforward fears no more. This is that.

6. He who (knows) him[42] who was born first from the brooding heat[43] (for he was born before the water), who, entering into the heart, abides therein, and was perceived from the elements. This is that.

7. (He who knows) Aditi also, who is one with all deities, who arises with Prâna (breath or Hiranyagarbha), who, entering into the heart, abides therein, and was born from the elements. This is that.

8. There is Agni (fire), the all-seeing, hidden in the two fire-sticks, well-guarded like a child (in the womb) by the mother, day after day to be adored by men when they awake and bring oblations. This is that.

9. And that whence the sun rises, and whither it goes to set, there all the Devas are contained, and no one goes beyond. This is that[44].

10. What is here (visible in the world), the same is there (invisible in Brahman); and what is there, the same is here. He who sees any difference here (between Brahman and the world), goes from death to death.

11. Even by the mind this (Brahman) is to be obtained, and then there is no difference whatsoever. He goes from death to death who sees any difference here.

12. The person (purusha), of the size of a thumb[45], stands in the middle of the Self (body ?), as lord of the past and the future, and henceforward fears no more. This is that.

13. That person, of the size of a thumb, is like a light without smoke, lord of the past and the future, he is the same to-day and to-morrow. This is that.

14. As rain-water that has fallen on a mountain-ridge runs down the rocks on all sides, thus does he, who sees a difference between qualities, run after them on all sides.

15. As pure water poured into pure water remains the same, thus, O Gautama, is the Self of a thinker who knows."


1. "There is a town with eleven[46] gates belonging to the Unborn (Brahman), whose thoughts are never crooked. He who approaches it, grieves no more, and liberated (from all bonds of ignorance) becomes free. This is that.

2. He (Brahman)[47] is the swan (sun), dwelling in the bright heaven; he is the Vasu (air), dwelling in the sky; he is the sacrificer (fire), dwelling on the hearth; he is the guest (Soma), dwelling in the sacrificial jar; he dwells in men, in gods (vara), in the sacrifice (rita), in heaven; he is born in the water, on earth, in the sacrifice (rita), on the mountains; he is the True and the Great.

3. He (Brahman) it is who sends up the breath (prâna), and who throws back the breath (apâna). All the Devas (senses) worship him, the adorable (or the dwarf), who sits in the centre.

4. When that incorporated (Brahman), who dwells in the body, is torn away and freed from the body, what remains then? This is that.

5. No mortal lives by the breath that goes up and by the breath that goes down. We live by another, in whom these two repose.

6. Well then, O Gautama, I shall tell thee this mystery, the old Brahman, and what happens to the Self, after reaching death.

7. Some enter the womb in order to have a body, as organic beings, others go into inorganic matter, according to their work and according to their knowledge[48].

8. He, the highest Person, who is awake in us while we are asleep, shaping one lovely sight after another, that indeed is the Bright, that is Brahman, that alone is called the Immortal. All worlds are contained in it, and no one goes beyond. This is that[49].

9. As the one fire, after it has entered the world, though one, becomes different according to whatever it burns, thus the one Self within all things becomes different, according to whatever it enters, and exists also without[50].

10. As the one air, after it has entered the world, though one, becomes different according to whatever it enters, thus the one Self within all things becomes different, according to whatever it enters, and exists also without.

11. As the sun, the eye of the whole world, is not contaminated by the external impurities seen by the eyes, thus the one Self within all things is never contaminated by the misery of the world, being himself without[51].

12. There is one ruler, the Self within all things, who makes the one form manifold. The wise who perceive him within their Self, to them belongs eternal happiness, not to others[52].

13. There is one eternal thinker, thinking non-eternal thoughts, who, though one, fulfils the desires of many. The wise who perceive him within their Self, to them belongs eternal peace, not to others[53].

14. They perceive that highest indescribable pleasure, saying, This is that. How then can I understand it? Has it its own light, or does it reflect light?

15. The sun does not shine there, nor the moon and the stars, nor these lightnings, and much less this fire. When he shines, everything shines after him; by his light all this is lighted[54]."


1. "There is that ancient tree[55], whose roots grow upward and whose branches grow downward; — that[56] indeed is called the Bright[57] that is called Brahman, that alone is called the Immortal[58]. All worlds are contained in it, and no one goes beyond. This is that.

2. Whatever there is, the whole world, when gone forth (from the Brahman), trembles in its breath[59]. That Brahman is a great terror, like a drawn sword. Those who know it become immortal.

3. From terror of Brahman fire burns, from terror the sun burns, from terror Indra and Vâyu, and Death, as the fifth, run away[60].

4. If a man could not understand it before the falling asunder of his body, then he has to take body again in the worlds of creation[61].

5. As in a mirror, so (Brahman may be seen clearly) here in this body; as in a dream, in the world of the Fathers; as in the water, he is seen about in the world of the Gandharvas; as in light and shade[62] in the world of Brahmâ.

6. Having understood that the senses are distinct[63] (from the Âtman), and that their rising and setting (their waking and sleeping) belongs to them in their distinct existence (and not to the Âtman), a wise man grieves no more.

7. Beyond the senses is the mind, beyond the mind is the highest (created) Being[64], higher than that Being is the Great Self, higher than the Great, the highest Undeveloped.

8. Beyond the Undeveloped is the Person, the all-pervading and entirely imperceptible. Every creature that knows him is liberated, and obtains immortality.

9. His form is not to be seen, no one beholds him with the eye. He is imagined by the heart, by wisdom, by the mind. Those who know this, are immortal[65].

10. When the five instruments of knowledge stand still together with the mind, and when the intellect does not move, that is called the highest state.

11. This, the firm holding back of the senses, is what is called Yoga. He must be free from thoughtlessness then, for Yoga comes and goes[66].

12. He (the Self) cannot be reached by speech, by mind, or by the eye. How can it be apprehended except by him who says: "He is?"

13. By the words "He is," is he to be apprehended, and by (admitting) the reality of both (the invisible Brahman and the visible world, as coming from Brahman). When he has been apprehended by the words "He is," then his reality reveals itself.

14. When all desires that dwell in his heart cease, then the mortal becomes immortal, and obtains Brahman.

15. Whean all the ties[67] of the heart are severed here on earth, then the mortal becomes immortal — here ends the teaching[68].

16. There are a hundred and one arteries of the heart[69], one of them penetrates the crown of the head[70]. Moving upwards by it, a man (at his death) reaches the Immortal[71]; the other arteries serve for departing in different directions.

17. The Person not larger than a thumb, the inner Self, is always settled in the heart of men[72]. Let a man draw that Self forth from his body with steadiness, as one draws the pith from a reed[73]. Let him know that Self as the Bright, as the Immortal; yes, as the Bright, as the Immortal[74].

18. Having received this knowledge taught by Death and the whole rule of Yoga (meditation), Nakiketa became free from passion[75] and death, and obtained Brahman. Thus it will be with another also who knows thus what relates to the Self.

19. May He protect us both! May He enjoy us both! May we acquire strength together! May our knowledge become bright! May we never quarrel[76]! Om! Peace! peace! peace! Harih, Om!"

  1. Vâgasravasa is called Âruni Auddâlaki Gautama, the father of Nakiketas. The father of Svetaketu, another enlightened pupil (see Khând. Up. VI, 1,1), is also called Âruni (Uddâlaka, comm. Kaush. Up. 1, 1) Gautama. Svetaketu himself is called Âruneya, i.e. the son of Âruni, the grandson of Aruna, and likewise Auddâlaki. Auddâlaki is a son of Uddâlaka, but Sankara (Kâth.Up. I, 11) takes Auddâlaki as possibly the same as Uddâlaka. See Brih. Âr. Up. III, 6, 1.
  2. As to ânanda, unblessed, see Brih. Âr. Up. IV, 4, 1 1 ; Vâgas. Samh. Up. 3 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, p. 311).
  3. Ânandagiri explains that the cows meant here are cows no longer able to drink, to eat, to give milk, and to calve.
  4. Dadâmi, I give, with the meaning of the future. Some MSS. write dâsyâmi.
  5. I translate these verses freely, i.e. independently of the commentator, not that I ever despise the traditional interpretation which the commentators have preserved to us, but because I think that, after having examined it, we have a right to judge for ourselves. Sankara says that the son, having been addressed by his father full of anger, was sad, and said to himself: "Among many pupils I am the first, among many middling pupils I am the middlemost, but nowhere am I the last. Yet though I am such a good pupil, my father has said that he will consign me unto death. What duty has he to fulfil toward Yama which he means to fulfil to-day by giving me to him? There may be no duty, he may only have spoken in haste. Yet a father's word must not be broken." Having considered this, the son comforted his father, and exhorted him to behave like his forefathers, and to keep his word. I do not think this view of Sankara's could have been the view of the old poet. He might have made the son say that he was the best or one of the best of his father's pupils, but hardly that he was also one of his middling pupils, thus implying that he never was among the worst. That would be out of keeping with the character of Nakiketas, as drawn by the poet himself. Nakiketas is full of faith and wishes to die, he would be the last to think of excuses why he should not die. The second half of the verse may be more doubtful. It may mean what Sankara thinks it means, only that we should get thus again an implied complaint of Nakiketas against his father, and this is not in keeping with his character. The mind of Nakiketas is bent on what is to come, on what he will see after death, and on what Yama will do unto him. "What has Yama to do," he asks, "what can he do, what is it that he will to-day do unto me?" This seems to me consistent with the - ancient story, while Sankara's interpretations and interpolations savour too much of the middle ages of India.
  6. Sasya, corn rather than grass; -, -, Benfey; Welsh haidd, according to Rhys; different from sash-pa, ces-pes, Benfey.
  7. Cf. Vasishtha XI, 13; Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. 51.
  8. Vaivasvata, a name of Yama, the ruler of the departed. Water is the first gift to be offered to a stranger who claims hospitality.
  9. Here again some words are translated differently from Sankara. He explains âsâ as asking for a wished-for object, pratikshâ as looking forward with a view to obtaining an unknown object. Sangata he takes as reward for intercourse with good people; sûnritâ, as usual, as good and kind speech; ishta as rewards for sacrifices; pûrta as rewards for public benefits.
  10. The commentator translates: "I tell it thee, attend to me who knows the heavenly fire." Here the nom. sing. of the participle would be very irregular, as we can hardly refer it to bravîmi. Then "Know this fire as a means of obtaining the heavenly world, know that fire as the rest or support of the world, when it assumes the form of Virâg, and as hidden in the heart of men."
  11. Sankara: the first embodied, in the shape of Virâg.
  12. Verses 16-18 seem a later addition.
  13. This arises probably from a misunderstanding of verse II, 3.
  14. Gâtavedas.
  15. Tavaiva is a later addition, caused by the interpolation of verses 15-18.
  16. Mahâbhûmau, on the great earth, has been explained also by mahâ bhûmau, be great on the earth. It is doubtful, however, whether mahâ for mahân could be admitted in the Upanishads, and whether it would not be easier to write mahân bhûmau.
  17. A very obscure verse. Sankara gives a various reading kva tadâsthah for kvadhahsthah, in the sense of "given to these pleasures," which looks like an emendation. I have changed agîryatâm into agâryatâm, and take it for an acc. sing., instead of a gen. plur., which could hardly be governed by upetya.
  18. Cf. I, 16.
  19. The commentator explains lolupantah by vikkhedam kritavantah. Some MSS. read lolupante and lolupanti, but one expects either lolupyante or lolupati.
  20. Cf. Mund. Up. II, 8.
  21. Cf. Bhag Gîtâ II, 29.
  22. Cf. Mund. Up, II, 4.
  23. I read anupramânât. Other interpretations: If it is taught by one who is identified with the Self, then there is no uncertainty. If it has been taught as identical with ourselves, then there is no perception of anything else. If it has been taught by one who is identified with it, then there is no failure in understanding it (agati).
  24. Âpaneyâ; should it be âpanâya, as afterwards suânâya?
  25. Because you insist on my teaching it to thee.
  26. Unless no is negative, for Yama, at first, does not like to communicate his knowledge.
  27. The words in parentheses have been added in order to remove the otherwise contradictory character of the two lines.
  28. Cf. Khând. Up. VII, 12, 2.
  29. Yama seems here to propound the lower Brahman only, not yet the highest. Deva, God, can only be that as what the Old, i.e. the Self in the heart, is to be recognised. It would therefore mean, he who finds God or the Self in his heart. See afterwards, verse 21.
  30. Cf. Svet. Up. IV, 9; Bhag. Gitâ VIII, 11.
  31. As to verses 18 and 19, see Bhag. Gîtâ II, 19, 20.
  32. Cf. Svet. Up. III, 20; Taitt. Âr. X, 12, 1.
  33. The commentator translates "through the tranquillity of the senses" i.e. dhâtuprasâdât, taking prasâda in the technical sense of samprasâda. As to kratu, desire, or rather, will, see Brih. Âr. IV, 4, 5.
  34. Cf. Tal. Up. 5.
  35. Cf. I, 7-9; Mund. Up. III, 2, 3; Bhag. Gîtâ I, 53.
  36. In whom all disappears, and in whom even death is swallowed up.
  37. The two are explained as the higher and lower Brahman, the former being the light, the latter the shadow. Rita is explained as reward, and connected with sukrita, lit. good deeds, but frequently used in the sense of svakrita, one's own good and evil deeds. The difficulty is, how the highest Brahman can be said to drink the reward (ritapa) of former deeds, as it is above all works and above all rewards. The commentator explains it away as a metaphorical expression, as we often speak of many, when we mean one. (Cf. Mund. Up. III, 1, 1.) I have joined sukritasya with loke, loka meaning the world, i.e. the state, the environment, which we made to ourselves by our former deeds.
  38. These two verses may be later additions.
  39. The simile of the chariot has some points of similarity with the well-known passage in Plato's Phaedros, but Plato did not borrow this simile from the Brahmans, as little as Xenophon need have consulted our Upanishad (II, 2) in writing his prologue of Prodikos.
  40. Sankara interprets, he should keep down speech in the mind.
  41. Comm., excellent teachers.
  42. The first manifestation of Brahman, commonly called Hiranyagarbha, which springs from the tapas of Brahman. Afterwards only water and the rest of the elements become manifested. The text of these verses is abrupt, possibly corrupt. The two accusatives, tishthantam and tishthantîm, seem to me to require veda to be supplied from verse 4.
  43. Cf. srishtikrama.
  44. Cf. V, 8.
  45. Svet. Up. III, 13.
  46. Seven apertures in the head, the navel, two below, and the one at the top of the head through which the Self escapes. Cf. Svet. Up. III, 18; Bhag. Gîtâ V, 13.
  47. Cf. Rig-veda IV, 40, 5.
  48. Cf. Brih. Âr. II, 2, 13.
  49. Cf. IV, 9; VI, 1.
  50. Cf. Brih. Âr. II, 5, 19.
  51. Cf. Bhag. Gîtâ XIII, 52.
  52. Cf. Svet. Up. VI, 12.
  53. Cf. SVet. Up.VI, 13.
  54. Cf. Svet. Up. VI, 14; Mund. Up. II, 2, 10; Bhag. Gîtâ XV, 6.
  55. The fig-tree which sends down its branches so that they strike root and form new stems, one tree growing into a complete forest.
  56. Cf. Bhag. Gîtâ XV, 1-3.
  57. Cf. V, 8.
  58. The commentator says that the tree is the world, and its root is Brahman, but there is nothing to support this view in the original, where tree, roots, and branches are taken together as representing the Brahman in its various manifestations.
  59. According to the commentator, in the highest Brahman.
  60. Cf. Taitt. Up. II, 8, 1.
  61. The commentator translates: "If a man is able to understand (Brahman), then even before the decay of his body, he is liberated. If he is not able to understand it, then he has to take body again in the created worlds." I doubt whether it is possible to supply so much, and should prefer to read iha ken nâsakad, though I find it difficult to explain how so simple a text should have been misunderstood and corrupted.
  62. Roer: "As in a picture and in the sunshine."
  63. They arise from the elements, ether, &c.
  64. Buddhi or intellect, cf. III, 10.
  65. Much better in Svet. Up. IV, 20: "Those who know him by the heart as being in the heart, and by the mind, are immortal."
  66. Sankara explains apyaya by apâya.
  67. Ignorance, passion, &c. Cf. Mund. Up. II, 1, 10; II, 2, 9.
  68. The teaching of the Vedânta extends so far and no farther. (Cf. Prasna Up. VI, 7.) What follows has reference, according to the commentator, not to him who knows the highest Brahman; for he becomes Brahman at once and migrates no more; but to him who does not know the highest Brahman fully, and therefore migrates to the Brahmaloka, receiving there the reward for his partial knowledge and for his good works.
  69. Cf. Khând. Up. VIII, 6, 6.
  70. It passes out by the head.
  71. The commentator says: He rises through the sun {Mund. Up. I, 2, 11) to a world in which he enjoys some kind of immortality.
  72. Svet. Up. III, 13.
  73. Roer: "As from a painter's brush a fibre."
  74. This repetition marks, as usual, the end of a chapter.
  75. Viraga, free from vice and virtue. It may have been vigara, free from old age. See, however, Mund. Up. I, 2, 11.
  76. Cf. Taitt. Up. III, 1; III, io, note.