The Jewish Manual/Chapter IV

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Meat and Poultry.


Boiling is the most simple manner of cooking, the great art in this process is to boil the article sufficiently, without its being overdone, the necessity of slow boiling cannot be too strongly impressed upon the cook, as the contrary, renders it hard and of a bad color; the average time of boiling for fresh meat is half an hour to every pound, salt meat requires half as long again, and smoked meat still longer; the lid of the saucepan should only be removed for skimming, which is an essential process. Roasting chiefly depends on the skilful management of the fire, it is considered that a joint of eight pounds requires two hours roasting; when first put down it should be basted with fresh dripping, and afterwards with its own dripping, it should be sprinkled with salt, and repeatedly dredged with flour, which browns and makes it look rich and frothy.

Broiling requires a steady clear fire, free from flame and smoke, the gridiron should be quite hot before the article is placed on it, and the bars should be rubbed with fat, or if the article is thin-skinned and delicate, with chalk; the gridiron should be held aslant to prevent the fat dripping into the fire; the bars of a gridiron should be close and fine. Frying is easier than broiling, the fat, oil or butter in which the article is fried must be boiling, but have ceased to bubble before it is put in the pan, or it will be greasy and black: there is now a new description of fryingpan, called a sauté pan, and which will be found extremely convenient for flying small cutlets or collops.

Stewing is a more elaborate mode of boiling; a gentle heat with frequent skimmings, are the points to be observed.

Glazing is done by brushing melted jelly over the article to be glazed and letting it cool, and then adding another coat, or in some cases two or three, this makes any cold meats or poultry have an elegant appearance.

Blanching makes the article plump and white. It should be set on the fire in cold water, boil up and then be immersed in cold water, where it should remain some little time. Larding (the French term is Piqué, which the inexperienced Jewish cook may not be acquainted with, we therefore use the term in common use) is a term, given to a certain mode of garnishing the surface of meat, or poultry: it is inserting small pieces of the fat of smoked meats, truffles, or tongue, which are trimmed into slips of equal length and size, into the flesh of the article at regular distances, and is effected by means of larding pins.

Poelée and Blanc, are terms used in modern cookery for a very expensive mode of stewing: it is done by stewing the article with meat, vegetables, and fat of smoked meats, all well seasoned; instead of placing it to stew in water it is placed on slices of meat covered with slices of fat and the vegetables and seasoning added, then water enough to cover the whole is added.

Blanc differs from Poelée, in having a quantity of suet added, and being boiled down before the article is placed to stew in it.

Braising is a similar process to Poelée, but less meat and vegetable is used.


Melt down with care fine fresh suet, either beef or veal, put it into a jar, and set it in a stew-pan of water to boil, putting in a sprig of rosemary, or a little orange flower water while melting, this is a very useful preparation and will be found, if adopted in English kitchens, to answer the purpose of lard and is far more delicate and wholesome: it should be well beaten till quite light with a wooden fork.


Put eight pounds of beef in sufficient water to cover it, when the water boils take out the meat, skim off the fat, and then return the meat to the stew-pan, adding at the same time two fine white cabbages without any of the stalk or hard parts; season with pepper, salt, and a tea-spoonful of white sugar, let it simmer on a slow fire for about five hours, about an hour before serving, add half a pound of chorisa, which greatly improves the flavor.


Chop fine a large onion, four bay leaves, and a little parsley, add to these half an ounce of ground ginger, a tea-spoonful of salt, a blade of mace, a little ground allspice, some lemon sliced, and some of the peel grated; rub all these ingredients well into the meat, then place it into a stew-pan with three parts of a cup of vinegar, a calf's-foot cut in small pieces and a pint of water, stew gently till tender, when the fat must be carefully skimmed off the gravy, which must be strained and poured over the meat.


Cover a piece of the ribs of beef boned and filletted, or a piece of the round with vinegar diluted with water, season with onions, pepper, salt, whole allspice, and three or four bay leaves, add a cup full of raspings, and let the whole stew gently for three or four hours, according to the weight of the meat; this dish is excellent when cold. A rump steak stewed in the same way will be found exceedingly fine.


Place a small piece of the rump of beef, or the under cut of a sirloin in a deep pan with three pints of vinegar, two ounces of carraway seeds tied in a muslin bag, salt, pepper, and spices, cover it down tight, and bake thoroughly in a slow oven. This is a fine relish for luncheons.


Take a piece of brisket of beef, cover it with water, when boiling skim off the fat, add one quartern of French beans cut small, two onions cut in quarters, season with pepper and salt, and when nearly done take a dessert-spoonful of flour, one of coarse brown sugar, and a large tea-cup full of vinegar, mix them together and stir in with the beans, and continue stewing for about half an hour longer.


Soak one pint of Spanish peas and one pint of Spanish beans all night in three pints of water; take two marrow bones, a calf's-foot, and three pounds of fine gravy-beef, crack the bones and tie them to prevent the marrow escaping, and put all together into a pan; then take one pound of flour, half a pound of shred suet, a little grated nutmeg and ground ginger, cloves and allspice, one pound of coarse brown sugar, and the crumb of a slice of bread, first soaked in water and pressed dry, mix all these ingredients together into a paste, grease a quart basin and put it in, covering the basin with a plate set in the middle of the pan with the beans, meat, &c. Cover the pan lightly down with coarse brown paper, and let it remain all the night and the next day, (until required) in a baker's oven, when done, take out the basin containing the pudding, and skim the fat from the gravy which must be served as soup; the meat, &c., is extremely savory and nutritious, but is not a very seemly dish for table. The pudding must be turned out of the basin, and a sweet sauce flavored with lemon and brandy is a fine addition.


Boil about seven or eight pounds of beef, either brisket or a fillet off the shoulder,in enough water to cover it, when it has boiled for one hour, add as much sauer kraut, which is a German preparation, as may be approved, it should then stew gently for four hours and be served in a deep dish. The Germans are not very particular in removing the fat, but it is more delicate by so doing.


Soak for twelve hours one pint of dried white peas, and half a pint of the same kind of beans, they must be well soaked, and if very dry, may require longer than twelve hours, put a nice piece of brisket of about eight pounds weight in a stew-pan with the peas and beans, and three heads of celery cut in small pieces, put water enough to cover, and season with pepper and salt only, let it all stew slowly till the meat is extremely tender and the peas and beans quite soft, then add four large lumps of sugar and nearly a tea-cup of vinegar; this is a very fine stew.


Cut thin slices off from any tender part, divide them into pieces of the size of a wine biscuit, flatten and flour them, and lightly fry in clarified fat, lay them in a stew-pan with good stock, season to taste, have pickled gherkins chopped small, and add to the gravy a few minutes before serving.


Cut it in slices, also slice some beetroot or cucumber and put them in a saucepan with a little gravy which need not be strong, two table-spoonsful of vinegar, one of oil, pepper, salt, a little chopped lettuce and a few peas, simmer till the vegetables and meat are sufficiently dressed.


The meat should be put on the fire in a little broth or gravy, with a little fried onion, pepper, salt, and a spoonful of ketchup, or any other sauce at hand, let it simmer for about ten minutes, then mix in a cup a little flour with a little of the gravy, and pour it into the stewpan to thicken the rest; sippets of toast should be served with hashes, a little port wine, a pinch of saffron, or a piece chorisa may be considered great improvements.


Take a fine thick steak, half fry it, then flour and place it in a stewpan with a little good beef gravy, season with cayenne pepper and salt, when it has simmered for about ten minutes, add a quarter of a hundred good chesnuts, peeled and the inner skin scraped off, let them stew with the steak till well done, this is a very nice dish, a little Espagnole sauce heightens the flavor.


Put a fine steak in a stewpan with a large piece of clarified suet or fat, and a couple of onions sliced, let the steak fry for a few minutes, turning it several times; then cover the steak with gravy, or even water will answer the purpose, with a tea-cup full of button onions, or a Spanish onion sliced, a little lemon peel, pepper, salt, and a little allspice; simmer till the steak is done, when the steak must be removed and the gravy be carefully skimmed, then add to it a little browning and a spoonful of mushroom ketchup; the steak must be kept on a hot stove or returned to the stewpan to warm up. If the gravy is not thick enough, stir in a little flour.


Stew about five pounds of brisket of beef in sufficient water to cover, season with allspice, pepper, salt, and nutmeg, and when nearly done, add four large onions cut in pieces and half a pound of raisins stoned, let them remain simmering till well done; and just before serving, stir in a tea-spoonful of brown sugar and a table spoonful of flour.


Take about six or seven pounds of brisket of beef, place it in a stewpan with only enough water to cover it, season with a little spice tied in a bag; when the meat is tender and the spices sufficiently extracted to make the gravy rich and strong, part of it must be removed to another saucepan; have ready a variety of vegetables cut into small shapes, such as turnips, carrots, mushrooms, cauliflowers, or whatever may be in season; stew them gently till tender in the gravy, the meat must then be glazed and the gravy poured in the dish, and the vegetables arranged round.


Take a small well cut piece of lean beef, lard it with the fat of smoked beef, and stew it with good gravy, highly seasoned with allspice, cloves, pepper and salt; when the meat is well done remove it from the gravy, which skim carefully and free from every particle of fat, and add to it a glass of port wine, the juice of a lemon, half a tea-spoonful of cayenne pepper, and a little mushroom ketchup; the beef should be glazed when required to have an elegant appearance.

A few very small forcemeat balls must be poached in the gravy, which must be poured over the meat, and the balls arranged round the dish; this is a very savoury and pretty dish.


This may be done by mixing a pound of common salt, half an ounce of saltpetre and one ounce of coarse brown sugar, and rubbing the meat well with it, daily for a fortnight or less, according to the weather, and the degree of salt that the meat is required to have. Or by boiling eight ounces of salt, eight ounces of sugar, and half an ounce of saltpetre in two quarts of water, and pouring it over the meat, and letting it stand in it for eight or ten days.


Take a fine thick piece of brisket of beef not fat, let it lay three days in a pickle, as above, take it out and rub in a mixture of spices consisting of equal quantities of ground all-spice, black pepper, cloves, ginger and nutmegs, and a little brown sugar, repeat this daily for a week, then cover it with pounded dried sweet herbs, roll or tie it tightly, put it into a pan with very little water, and bake slowly for eight hours, then take it out, untie it and put a heavy weight upon it; this it a fine relish when eaten cold.


As there are seldom conveniences in private kitchens for smoking meats, it will generally be the best and cheapest plan to have them ready prepared for cooking. All kinds of meats smoked and salted, are to be met with in great perfection at all the Hebrew butchers.

Chorisa, that most refined and savoury of all sausages, is to be also procured at the same places. It is not only excellent fried in slices with poached eggs or stewed with rice, but imparts a delicious flavor to stews, soups, and sauces, and is one of the most useful resources of the Jewish kitchen.


Take four or five pounds of breast of veal, or fillet from the shoulder; stuff it with a finely flavoured veal stuffing and put it into a stewpan with water sufficient to cover it, a calf's-foot cut in pieces is sometimes added, season with one onion, a blade of mace, white pepper and salt, and a sprig of parsley, stew the whole gently until the meat is quite tender, then skim and strain the gravy and stir in the beaten yolks of four eggs, and the juice of two lemons previously mixed smoothly with a portion of the gravy, button mushrooms, or pieces of celery stewed with the veal are sometimes added by way of varying the flavor, egg and forcemeat balls garnish the dish. When required to look elegant it should be piqué.


Cut a breast of veal in pieces, fry them lightly and put them into a stewpan with a good beef gravy, seasoned with white pepper, salt, a couple of sliced onions (previously browned in a little oil), and a piece of whole ginger, let it simmer very slowly for two hours taking care to remove the scum or fat, have ready some rich forcemeat and spread it about an inch thick over three cold hard boiled eggs, fry these for a few moments and put them in the saucepan with the veal; before serving, these balls should be cut in quarters, and the gravy rendered more savory by the addition of lemon juice and half a glass of white wine, or a table-spoonful of walnut liquor, if the gravy is not sufficiently thick by long stewing, a little browned flour may be stirred in.


Clean and soak the head till the cheek-bone can be easily removed, then parboil it and cut it into pieces of moderate size, and place them in about a quart of stock made from shin of beef, the gravy must be seasoned highly with eschalots, a small head of celery, a small bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, a carrot, a little mace, a dozen cloves, a piece of lemon peel, and a sprig of parsley, salt and pepper; it must be strained before the head is added, fine forcemeat balls rolled in egg and fried are served in the dish, as well as small fritters made with the brains; when ready for serving, a glass and half of white wine and the juice of a lemon are added to the gravy.


Having cleaned, boiled and split two fine feet, dip them into egg and bread crumbs mixed with chopped parsley and chalot, a few ground cloves, a little nutmeg, pepper and salt, fry them a fine brown, arrange them in the dish and pour the sauce over. Make the sauce in the following manner: slice two fine Spanish onions, put them in a saucepan, with some chopped truffles or mushrooms, a little suet, cayenne and white pepper, salt, one or two small lumps of white sugar, and let all simmer in some good strong stock till the gravy has nearly boiled away, then stir in a wine glass of Madeira wine, and a little lemon juice; it should then be returned to the saucepan, to be made thoroughly hot before serving.


Simmer them for four hours in water till the meat can be taken easily from the bone, then cut them in handsome pieces, season with pepper and salt, dip them in egg, and sprinkle thickly with grated bread crumbs, and fry of a fine even brown; they may be served dry or with any sauce that may be approved.

The liquor should continue to stew with the bones, and can be used for jelly.


Clean and soak a fine foot, put it on in very little water, let it simmer till tender, then cut it in pieces, without removing the bone, and continue stewing for three hours, till they become perfectly soft; if the liquor boils away, add a little more water, but there should not be more liquor than can be served in the dish with the foot; the only seasoning requisite is a little salt and white pepper, and a sprig of parsley, or a pinch of saffron to improve the appearance; a little delicately-made thin egg sauce, with a flavor of lemon juice, may be served in a sauce-tureen if approved; sippets of toast or well boiled rice to garnish the dish, may also be added, and will not be an unacceptable addition.


This is a very fine and nutritious dish; cut from the bones of a breast of veal the tendons which are round the front, trim and blanch them, put them with slices of smoked beef into a stewpan with some shavings of veal, a few herbs, a little sliced lemon, two or three onions, and a little broth; they must simmer for seven or eight hours; when done, thicken the gravy and add white wine and mushrooms and egg-balls; a few peas with the tendons will be found excellent, a piece of mint and a little white sugar will then be requisite.


Take a piece from the shoulder, about three to four pounds, trim it and form it into a well shaped even piece, the surface of which should be quite smooth; piqué it thickly, put it into a stewpan with a couple of onions, a carrot sliced, sweet herbs, two or three bay leaves, a large piece of chorissa or a slice of the root of a tongue smoked, a little whole pepper and salt; cover it with a gravy made from the trimmings of the veal, and stew till extremely tender, which can be proved by probing it with a fine skewer, then reduce part of the gravy to a glaze, glaze the meat with it and serve on a pureé of vegetables.


Remove the bones, gristle, &c., from a nice piece of veal, the breast is the best part for the purpose; season the meat well with chopped herbs, mace, pepper, and salt, then lay between the veal slices of smoked tongue variegated with beetroot, chopped parsley, and hard yolks of eggs, roll it up tightly in a cloth, simmer for some hours till tender; when done, it should have a weight laid on it to press out the liquor.


Cut a breast of veal into pieces, fry lightly with a chopped onion, then rub the veal over with currie powder, put it into a good gravy of veal and beef, season simply with pepper, salt, and lemon juice.

Fowls curried are prepared in the same way.


Cut them into proper shape and beat them with a roller until the fibre of the meat is entirely broken; if this is not done, they will be hard; they must then be covered with egg and sprinkled with flour, or a preparation for cutlets may be spread over them, and then fry them of a fine brown, remove the cutlets to a hot dish, and add to the fat in which the cutlets have been fried, a spoonful of flour, a small cup of gravy, salt, pepper, and a little lemon juice or lemon pickle.


French cooks cut them thinner than the English, and trim them into rounds of the size of a tea-cup; they must be brushed over with egg, and sprinkled with salt, white pepper, mushroom powder, and grated lemon peel; put them into a sauté pan and fry of a very light brown; pieces of bread, smoked meat or tongue cut of the same size as the cutlets, and prepared in the same manner, are laid alternately in the dish with them; they should be served without sauce and with a purée of mushrooms or spinach in the centre of the dish.


Cut them in proper shapes, put them in a veal gravy made with the trimmings enough to cover them; season delicately, and let them simmer till quite tender, but not long enough to lose their shape; fresh button mushrooms and a piece of lemon peel are essential to this dish; when the meat is done remove it, take all fat from the gravy, and thicken it with the yolks of two beaten eggs; small balls of forcemeat in which mushrooms must be minced should be poached in the gravy when about to be served; the meat must be returned to the saucepan to be made hot, and when placed in the dish, garnish with thin slices of lemon.


They must be trimmed as above, fried slightly and stewed in beef gravy, and seasoned according to the directions given for a brown fricassee of veal; balls or fritters are always an improvement to the appearance of this dish.


Cut into thin pieces of the size of shillings and half crowns, cold veal or poultry, lay it in a small saucepan with a handful of fresh well cleaned button mushrooms, pour over a little veal gravy, only enough to cover them, with a piece of clarified veal fat about the size of the yolk of a hard boiled egg; flavor with a piece of lemon peel, very little white pepper and salt, one small lump of white sugar, and a little nutmeg, stew all together for fifteen minutes, then pour over a sauce prepared in a separate saucepan, made with veal gravy, a little lemon juice, but not much, and the beaten yolks of two eggs, let it simmer for an instant and then serve it up in the centre of a dish prepared with a wall of mashed potatoes, delicately browned; a few truffles renders this dish more elegant.


Cut in small square pieces about the size of dice, cold dressed veal, put it into a saucepan with a little water or gravy, season simply with salt, pepper, and grated or minced lemon peel, the mince should be garnished with sippets of toast.


Mince finely some cold veal or poultry, add a little grated tongue, or smoked beef, a few crumbs of bread, sweet herbs, pepper, salt, parsley, and if approved, essence of lemon, mix all well with two or three eggs, and a very small quantity of good gravy; grease a mould, put in the above ingredients and bake for three-quarters of an hour; turn out with care, and serve with mushroom sauce.

Prepare cold veal or poultry as in the last receipt, add instead of crumbs of bread, a French roll soaked in white gravy, mix with it the same ingredients, and form it into two shapes to imitate small chickens or sweetbreads; sprinkle with crumbs of bread, and place in a frying-pan as deep as a shallow saucepan; when they have fried enough to become set, pour enough weak gravy in the pan to cover the fricondelles, and let them stew in it gently, place them both in the same dish, and pour over any well thickened sauce that may be selected.


Prepare four small pieces of veal to serve in one dish, according to the directions given for fricandeau of veal; these form a very pretty entrée; the pieces of veal should be about the size of pigeons.


Take a fine fat thick breast of veal, bone it, lay it in pickle, according to the receipt to salt meat, hang it for three or four weeks in wood-smoke, and it will prove a very fine savoury relish, either boiled and eaten cold, or fried as required.


First soak them in warm water, and then blanch them; in whatever manner they are to be dressed, this is essential; they may be prepared in a variety of ways, the simplest is to roast them; for this they have only to be covered with egg and bread crumbs, seasoned with salt and pepper, and finished in a Dutch oven or cradle spit, frequently basting with clarified veal suet; they may be served either dry with a purée of vegetables, or with a brown gravy.


After soaking and blanching, stew them in veal gravy, and season with celery, pepper, salt, nutmeg, a little mace, and a piece of lemon peel, they should be served with a fine white sauce, the gravy in which they are stewed will form the basis for it, with the addition of yolks of eggs and mushroom essence; French cooks would adopt the velouté or bechamél sauce; Jerusalem artichokes cut the size of button mushrooms, are a suitable accompaniment as a garnish.


After soaking and blanching, fry them till brown, then simmer gently in beef gravy seasoned highly with smoked meat, nutmeg, pepper, salt, a small onion stuck with cloves, and a very little whole allspice; the gravy must be slightly thickened, and morels and truffles are generally added; small balls of delicate forcemeat are also an improvement. The above receipts are adapted for sweetbreads fricasseed, except that they must be cut in pieces for fricassees, and pieces of meat or poultry are added to them; sweetbreads when dressed whole look better piqués.


Put the joint in a saucepan, cover it with cold water, let it boil for half an hour, have the spit and fire quite ready, and remove the meat from the saucepan, and place it immediately down to roast, baste it well, dredge it repeatedly with flour, and sprinkle with salt; this mode of roasting mutton removes the strong flavor that is so disagreeable to some tastes.


Take the best end of a neck of mutton, or a fillet taken from the leg or shoulder, place it in a stewpan with just enough water to cover it, throw in a carrot and turnip, and season, but not too highly; when nearly done remove the meat and strain off the gravy, then return both to the stewpan with forcemeat balls and some fine celery cut in small pieces; let all stew gently till perfectly done, then stir in the yolks of two eggs, a little flour, and the juice of half a lemon, which must be mixed with a little of the gravy before pouring in the stewpan, and care must be taken to prevent curdling.


Take the fillet off a small leg or shoulder of mutton, rub it well over with egg and seasoning, and partly roast it, then place it in a stewpan with a little strong gravy, and stew gently till thoroughly done; this dish is simple, but exceedingly nice; a few balls or fritters to garnish will improve it.


This is merely broiling or frying cutlets in a greased paper, after having spread on them a seasoning prepared as follows: make a paste of bread crumbs, chopped parsley, nutmeg, pepper, salt, grated lemon peel, and thyme, with a couple of beaten eggs; a piquante sauce should be served in a tureen.


Cut off the best end of a neck of mutton into chops, flour and partly fry them, then lay them in a stewpan with carrots, sliced turnips cut in small round balls, some button onions, and cover with water; skim frequently, season with pepper and salt to taste, color the gravy with a little browning and a spoonful of mushroom powder.


Is the same as above, excepting that the meat is not previously fried, and that potatoes are used instead of turnips and carrots.


Take a small piece of mutton, either part of a shoulder or a fillet of the leg, partly roast it, then put it in a stewpan with beef gravy enough to cover it, previously seasoned with herbs, a carrot and turnip; cut in quarters three large Spanish onions, and place in the stewpan round the meat; a stuffing will improve it, and care must be taken to free the gravy from every particle of fat.


Take from a fine knuckle a couple of slices, cut and trim them in collops the size of a tea cup, flatten them and spread over each side a forcemeat for cutlets, and fry them; potatoe or Jerusalem artichokes cut in slices of the same size and thickness, or pieces of bread cut with a fluted cutter, prepared as the collops and fried, must be placed alternately in the dish with them; they may be served with a pure simple gravy, or very hot and dry on a napkin, garnished with fried parsley and slices of lemon.

The knuckle may be used in the following manner: put it on with sufficient water to cover it, season it and simmer till thoroughly done, thicken the gravy with prepared barley, and flavor it with lemon pickle, or capers; it should be slightly colored with saffron, and celery sauce may be served as an accompaniment, or the mutton may be served on a fine purée of turnips.


Have a neck of mutton, cut the bones short, and remove the chine bone completely; cut chops off so thin that every other one shall be without bone, trim them carefully, that all the chops shall bear the same appearance, then flatten them well; cover them with a cutlet preparation, and fry of a delicate brown; a fine purée of any vegetable that may be approved, or any sauce that may be selected, should be served with them; they may be arranged in various ways in the dish, either round the dish or in a circle in the centre, so that the small part of the cutlets shall almost meet; if the latter, the purée should garnish round them instead of being in the centre of the dish.


Choose a fine leg of mutton, rub it in daily with a mixture of three ounces of brown sugar, two ounces of common salt, and half an ounce of saltpetre, continue this process for a fortnight, then hang it to dry in wood smoke for ten days longer.


Take a fine neck or breast of lamb, put it in stewpan with as much water as will cover it, add to it a bundle of sprew cut in pieces of two inches in length, a small head of celery cut small, and one onion, pepper, salt, and a sprig of parsley, let it simmer gently till the meat and sprew are tender; a couple of lumps of sugar improves the flavor; there should not be too much liquor, and all fat must be removed; the sprew should surround the meat when served, and also be thickly laid over it.


Take the best end of a neck of lamb, either keep it whole or divide it into chops as may be preferred, put it into a saucepan with a little chopped onion, pepper, salt, and a small quantity of water; when half done add half a peck of peas, half a lettuce cut fine, a little mint, and a few lumps of sugar, and let it stew thoroughly; when done, there must not be too much liquor; cutlets of veal or beef are also excellent dressed as above. Although this is a spring dish it may be almost equally well dressed in winter, by substituting small mutton cutlets and preserved peas, which may be met with at any of the best Italian warehouses; a breast or neck of lamb may also be stewed whole in the same manner.


Take two fine cucumbers, peel and cut them lengthways, lay them in vinegar for an hour, then stew them in good stock till tender, when stir in the yolks of two or three eggs, a little flour and essence of lemon, which must all be first mixed up together with a little of the stock, have ready some cutlets trimmed and fried a light brown, arrange them round the dish and pour the cucumbers in the centre.


Half boil it, score it and squeeze over lemon juice, and cover with grated bread crumbs, egg and parsley, broil it over a clear fire and put it to brown in a Dutch oven, or grill and serve with a sauce seasoned with lemon pickle and chopped mint.


Take two pounds of lamb chops, or mutton may be substituted, place them in a stewpan, cover with water or gravy, season only with pepper and salt, when the chops are half done, carefully skim off the fat and add two table spoonsful of cassereet, stir it in the gravy which should not be thickened, and finish stewing gently till done enough; rice should accompany this dish.


A turkey thus prepared may be either boiled or roasted; there are directions for boning poultry which might be given, but it is always better to let the poulterer do it; when boned it must be filled with a fine forcemeat, which may be varied in several ways, the basis should be according to the receipt given for veal stuffings, forcemeats, sausage meat, tongue, and mushrooms added as approved. When boiled it is served with any fine white sauce, French cooks use the velouté or béchamel. When roasted, a cradle spit is very convenient, but if there is not one the turkey must be carefully tied to the spit.


The above directions serve also for fowls.


Fill it with a fine seasoning, and just before it is ready for serving, baste it well with clarified veal suet, and sprinkle it thickly with very dry crumbs of bread, repeat this two or three times; then place it in the dish, and serve with a fine brown gravy well flavored with lemon juice; delicate forcemeat fritters should be also served in the dish.


Are served with a fine white sauce, and are often garnished with pieces of white cauliflower, or vegetable marrow, the chief object is to keep them white; it is best to select white legged poultry for boiling, as they prove whiter when dressed.


Stew gently one pint of rice in one quart of strong gravy till it begins to swell, then add an onion stuck with cloves, a bunch of sweet herbs, and a chicken stuffed with forcemeat, let it stew with the rice till thoroughly done, then take it up and stir in the rice, the yolks of four eggs, and the juice of a lemon; serve the fowl in the same dish with the rice, which should be colored to a fine yellow with saffron.


Boil a fowl in sufficient water or gravy to cover it, when boiling for ten minutes, skim off the fat and add half a pound of rice, and one pound of chorisa cut in about four pieces, season with a little white pepper, salt, and a pinch of saffron to color it, and then stew till the rice is thoroughly tender; there should be no gravy when served, but the rice ought to be perfectly moist.


See curried veal. Undressed chicken is considered best for a curry, it must be cut in small joints, the directions for curried veal are equally adapted for fowls.


Take a fowl and blanch it, also a fine sweet bread, parboil them, then cut off in smooth well shaped slices, all the white part of the fowl, and slice the sweetbread in similar pieces, place them together in a fine well-flavoured veal gravy; when done, serve neatly in the dish, and pour over a fine white sauce, any that may be approved, the remainder of the fowl must be cut up in small joints or pieces, not separated from the bone, and fried to become brown, then place them in a stew-pan with forcemeat balls, truffles, and morels; pour over half or three quarters of a pint of beef gravy, and simmer till finished; a little mushroom ketchup, or lemon-pickle may be added; in this manner two very nice entrées may be formed.


See blankette of veal.


Stuff and half roast a duck, then put it into a stew-pan with an onion sliced, a little mint and about one pint of beef gravy, add after it has simmered half an hour, a quart of green peas, and simmer another half hour; a little lump sugar is requisite.


Cut up the pieces required to be dressed, spread over them a seasoning as for cutlets, and fry them; pour over a little good gravy, and garnish with sippets of toast and sliced lemon, or place them in an edging of rice or mashed potatoes.


Truss a fine fowl as if for boiling, split it down the back, and broil gently; when nearly done, put it in a stewpan with a good gravy, add a pint of fresh button mushrooms, season to taste; a little mushroom powder and lemon juice improve the flavour.


To have a good appearance they should be larded and stuffed; glazing is also an improvement, they form a nice entrée; they may be stewed in a strong gravy; when done enough, remove the pigeons, thicken the gravy, add a few forcemeat and egg balls, and serve in the dish with the pigeons. Or they may be split down the back, broiled, and then finished in the stew-pan.


Scald one or more sets of giblets, set them on the fire with a little veal or chicken, or both, in a good gravy; season to taste, thicken the gravy, and color it with browning, flavor with mushroom powder and lemon-juice and one glass of white wine; forcemeat balls should be added a few minutes before serving, and garnish with thin slices of hard boiled eggs.


Take the remains of any cold poultry or meat, mince it and season highly; add to it any cold dressed vegetable, mix it up with one or more eggs, and let it simmer till hot in a little gravy; have ready a square of toast, and serve it on it; squeeze over a little lemon-juice, and sprinkle with white pepper. Vegetables prepared in this way are excellent; cauliflower simmered in chicken broth, seasoned delicately and minced on toast, is a nutritive good luncheon for an invalid.


This is a very pretty dish. The maccaroni must be boiled in water till it slightly swells, and is soft enough to cut; it must be cut into short pieces about two inches in length. Grease a mould, and stick the maccaroni closely together all over the mould; when this is done, and which will require some patience, fill up the space with friccassee of chicken, sweetbreads, or whatever may be liked; close the mould carefully, and boil. Rich white sauce is usually served with it, but not poured over the timbale, as it would spoil the effect of the honeycomb appearance, which is very pretty.


Cut up fowl and sweetbread, lay in the dish in alternate layers with meat, jelly, and the yolks of hard-boiled eggs without the whites, and flavor with lemon-juice, white pepper, and salt; cover with rice prepared as follows: boil half a pound of rice in sufficient water to permit it to swell; when tender beat it up to a thick paste with the yolk of one or two eggs, season with a little salt, and spread it over the dish thickly. The fowl and sweetbread should have been previously simmered till half done in a little weak broth; the pie must be baked in a gentle oven, and if the rice will not brown sufficiently, finish with a salamander.


Take the livers of chickens or any other poultry; stew it gently in a little good gravy seasoned with a little onion, mushroom essence, pepper, and salt; when tender, remove the livers, place them on a paste board, and mince them; return them to the saucepan, and stir in the yolks of one or two eggs, according to the quantity of liver, until the gravy becomes thick; have a round of toast ready on a hot plate, and serve it on the toast; this is a very nice luncheon or supper dish.