The New International Encyclopædia/Tewfik (Mohammed) Pasha
TEWFIK (Mohammed) PASHA, tū′fĭk pȧ-shä′ (1852-02). Khedive of Egypt from 1879 to 1892. He was the eldest son of Ismail Pasha, who secured from the Sultan a firman decreeing the khedival succession to Tewfik instead of his brother Halim, who would have become Khedive under the order of succession then in force. Tewfik was fond of country life, and spent most of his time before his accession on his estates. He was interested in educational matters and founded several schools. In February, 1879, when the Ministry of Nubar Pasha was dismissed (see Egypt), Prince Tewfik became president of the Council, but he, like Nubar, showed too much sympathy with Egypt's European creditors and soon retired. On June 26, 1879, the Sultan deposed Ismail and Tewfik became Khedive, at a time when Egypt was deeply embarrassed financially and the power of the Khedive was much curtailed. His general policy was modern and European, and the year 1880 witnessed the establishment of the dual control of Egypt by England and France. Tewfik soon had to face the rebellion of the Nationalists under Arabi Pasha (q.v.), and Egypt was rescued from anarchy by the intervention of England, which thereby established a controlling influence in the country. The conquest of the Sudan by the Mahdi occurred during Tewfik's reign and its recovery was not begun till after his death, which took place near Cairo, January 7, 1892. Consult Penfield, Present Day Egypt (New York, 1899).