The Political Anatomy of Ireland (1899)/Chapter I

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THE

Political Anatomy

OF

IRELAND.

1672[1].

 

 

[CHAPTER I.][2]

Of the Lands of Ireland.

 
THERE are in Ireland of Acres of Land, Irish Measure (whereof 121 Acres makes 196 English Measure) near about[3] M. Ac.
10,500
Whereof there is of Rivers, Highways, Loughs, unpassable Bogs, Rocks and Shrubs, about M.
1,500
Of very course Land, commonly call'd unprofitable 1,500
Consequently of good Meadow, Arrable and Pasture 7,500
  10,500 |2|
Of which Anno 1641, there did belong to Papists and Sequestred Protestants 5,200
To the Church, viz. Bishops, Deans, Chapters and Glebes 300
To the Protestants planted by Queen Elizabeth and King James 2,000
Of the 5,200 belonging to Papists and Sequestred Protestants Anno 1641.
There was restored to 26 that proved their constant good Affection, per est. 40 210
To His Grace the D. of Ormond[4]. 130
To the Lord Inchiquine, Lord Roscommon, and others 40
To innocent Papists, near 1,200
To the Church, near 20 140
To the Duke of York[5], near 120
To Letterees and Nominees Irish-men 60 420 |3|
To Papists, per proviso with Collonel Vernon 360
Left in the Common-Stock of Course-
Land
800 470
To Adventurers 390
To Soldiers since 49. 1,440 [6]
To the 49 Officers 280 550
To Protestants per proviso 280
Upon Transplantation Decrees 700
Restored to Mortgagees Protestants, about 100 [7]
5,200 [8]

So that of all the Lands seiz'd by the Usurpers, the Papists have recovered about M.
2,340
The new[9] Protestants and. Churches Additions 2,400
Of a more indifferent Nature, ut supra 460
 
  5200 [10]
Mem. That Protestants in Connaught purchased
of the Transplantees per estimate. M.
60 [11]
Wherefore of the whole 7500 M. of good Land,
the English, and Protestants and Church have this
Christmas 1672.
5,140 [12]
And the Irish have near ½ as much, viz. 2,280 [13]

7,500 [14]|4|
Remains in the Common-Stock[15], near 80
M.
The said 7,500 Acres of good, and the 1,500 of
course, making together 9000 M. is worth per
Annum[16].
M.l.
900,000
Out of which the King's Quit-rents, Old-rents
and Composition[17],
90,000
Rests 810,000
The Tythes whereof are one fifth[18], viz. 162,000
Rests 648,000
The benefit of Leases, and the value of Tenants Improvements upon the said Lands[19], is ⅓ viz. 216,000
For the Landlords 432,000
If the whole 75000 be clearly worth but
43 2000 1. per Ann. then the 2,520 gain'd by the
Rebellion[20], is worth but about ⅓ thereof (the 80 M. in the Common Stock being worth very little), viz.[21]
144,000 [22]
And the Adventurers and Soldiers Lands, who
served since 1649. worth about ¾ of the same, viz.
108,000 |5|
  M.
And the said Soldiers alone 35 of the whole,
viz.
86,400
per An.
Mem. That by the Successes of the Army, who serv'd since 1649. and who have 85400[23] l. per An. for their labour. His Majesty hath received the several Advantages following, viz.
1. Augmented the Church, the Duke of York, and by Provisoes. 770 M.
Acres.
2. Hath paid the Adventurers, and 49 Officers, besides Housing in Walled Towns 670 M.
Acres.
3. Gain'd a Revenue worth above 80000 1. per Ann. and 15 Years Purchase l.
1200,000
4. Gain'd the Years value, &c. worth 300,000
5. Hath freed himself from the 1648. Articles with the Irish.
6. Restored many of his Friends to their own Estates[24].
The value of the said Army's Lands at ten Years Purchase, is 854000[25] l. Out of which deduct a years value and charge, there remains now but l.
700,000
For all their Pay and Hazard.|6|
Mem.
That whereas until Anno [26] England always sent Money and other Supplies into Ireland, now the Revenue is 200,000 1. and the charge Civil and Military but 170,0001. which is the gain or ease of England.
The Debentures of Commission Officers, who serv'd eight years till about December 1649. comes to l.
1,800,000
 
Wherefore the Pay of private Soldiers to 5,400,000
7,200,000
——————
The 18 whereof is 900,000 l. The one half whereof being for Foot, was, 450,0001. per Ann. which, at 15 l. each, maintains 30,000 Foot, and the rest 15000 Horse, General Officers, and Train of Artillery included; so as there was a British Army, for eight Years, of at least 45000 Men[27].
The Army who reduced the Rebellion, did Anno 1652, consist of near 35000 Men, as per Debentures. |7|
The Irish transported into Foreign parts, between 1651 and 1654. were 34,000 Men.
The Irish Army could not but be more than double to the English.
The Claymants of Land, or the number of Proprietors before the War was.
Of all that claimed innocency 7 in 8. obtained it.
The restored Persons by innocence and proviso have more than what was their own. Anno 1641. by at least 15.
They have gotten by forg'd Feofments of what was more than their own, at least 13.
Of those adjudged Innocents, not 120 were really so.
[28]The King's Revenue in Ireland Anno 1641.
The yearly charge of the Army for 20 years last past.
 

  1. This caption occupies the title-page of S.
  2. It was, apparently, Petty's intention to divide his book into chapters. Cf. p. 201. Accordingly the Chapter division made by the editor of the second edition is here adopted for convenience of reference.
  3. In 1719 is a note, 'A Perch or Pole, Irish measure, is 21 Foot; the Acres are measured by that Perch, as the Acres in England are measured by a Perch of 16 Foot and half.' Cf. p. 172.
  4. A 'list of lands granted to the Duke of Ormond by the Act of Settlement and Court of Claims' is given by Carte, Ormond, Appendix, pp. 132 — 133.
  5. By the Act of Settlement the lands lately held by the Regicides were given to the Duke of York.
  6. 1719, '1,410,000.'
  7. Upon this entry Sir Richard Cox comments in his letter to Southwell, 'The redemption of Mortgages being given to ye 49 how comes 100000a to be restored to Prot Mgees.'
  8. The true total is 5,230,000. The source of the error is not made obvious by the following marginal calculation in S,
    '40
    130 210 5200'
    40
    1200
    20 140
    120
    60 420
    360
    80 470
     
    390
    1830
     
    1440
    280 550
    270
    700
    100

    5200 '

    The editor of the 1719 ed. corrects Petty's blunder by the simple method of subtracting 30,000 acres from the largest single item. See note 3, p. 136.

  9. S, 'now.'
  10. In the margin of S, opposite this footing, occur the following three notes, to which I have made certain additions in brackets:
    'Irish  
    40 [to the 26 for constant good affection.]
    180 -20
    60 [to the letterees and nominees.]
    360 [to papists per proviso.]
    700 [upon transplantation decrees.]

    2340 .' [The true sum is 1340.]
    'Church
    20 -20 [to the Church.]
    390 -10 [to the adventurers.]
    1440 -10 [to the '49 soldiers.]
    280 [to the '49 officers.]
    270 [to protestants per proviso.]

    2400 .'
    [Also]
    '2340
    2400
    460

    5200 D. of Ormond, &c. 160
    D. Yorke 120
    Com Stock 80
    Morgages 100

    460 .'

    These marginal calculations give Ormond 30,000 acres more than the text allows him, and introduce an item of 180,000 acres which cannot be identified with anything preceding. On the other hand they do not include 1,200,000 acres to the Innocents nor 40,000 to Lord Inchiquin, Lord Roscommon, and others. A grouping in accordance with Petty's probable meaning would be :

    Papists recovered. Protestants recovered. Indifferent.
    40 to the 26 20 to the Church 130 to Ormond
    1200 to the Innocents 390 to the adventurers 40 to Inchiquin
    60 to letterees 1440 to the '49 soldiers 120 to the Duke of York
    360 per proviso 280 to the '49 officers 80 in the common stock
    700 transplantation decrees 270 per proviso 100 to mortgagees



    2360 2400 470

    or in all 5,230,000 acres.

  11. 1719, '80,000.'
  12. The 5,140,000 acres are found by adding to the 2,300,000 acres held by the Church and the transplanted protestants in 1641 (see p. 136), the 2,400,000 acres of the "Protestants and Churches additions," the 60,000 acres purchased by protestants in Connaught and the 380,000 acres "Of a more indifferent Nature" remaining after the deduction of the 80,000 acres in the common stock from the total of 460,000 acres.
  13. The 2,280,000 acres are found by subtracting the transplantees' sales of 60,000 acres from the 2,340,000 acres which the Papists recovered.
  14. In S the total '7500' is written beneath the '80,' as it obviously should be.
  15. Cox, 'What or where are ye 80000a left in ye Common Stock and how comes it they are undisposed, many adventurers being deficient & many designd to be restord are still excluded for want of Previous reprizal.'
  16. Cox, 'ye computaċon of 9000000a to be worth yearly 900000l p ann which is but 2s a plantaċon acre is to low by ⅓.'
  17. Cox, 'ye quitrent &c he makes to be 90000l p ann but tis not near soe much.'
  18. Cox, 'That ye Tithe should be a fifth, seems a great paradox.'
  19. Cox, '& so tis ye leases and improvemts should be deducted out of ye Small value of 2s p acre.'
  20. Cox, 'And therefore notwithstanding his calculaċon yt ye 2520000a gaind by ye rebell is worth but 144000 p ann he should have said yt the [the words in Italics are cancelled, and Cox proceeds] they are at 2s p acre worth p ann 252000l & really worth more.'
  21. In the margin of S, 'Memd' that ye charge of the army from 1653 to 1673 communibus Annis far exceeds ye charge of ye Goverment 1641, and ye rent of the forfeited lands.'
  22. Beneath '144000' in S, 'wch is less than ye present charge of ye Army.'
  23. Apparently a mistake for '86400,' so corrected in the margin of S, but not in the text.
  24. Cox, 'he might add yt ye K gaind 12 Subsidyes, A great established revenew by hearthmoney excise and customs, from a flourishing Kingdome made soe by the Act of Setlemt, which else would not grant, and could not pay, those vast sumes.'
  25. Apparently should be '864000.'
  26. A blank in S.
  27. Cox, 'I doubt the 49 army was not 30000 foot and 15000 horse nor above half yt number at any one time. Neither was any footsouldier allowed 15l pann.'
  28. 1719 omits the last two paragraphs of the chapter.