The Syrian Churches

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THE SYRIAN CHURCHES:

THEIR

EARLY HISTORY, LITURGIES, AND LITERATURE.



WITH

A LITERAL TRANSLATION

OF

THE FOUR GOSPELS,

FROM THE PESCHITO,

OR

CANON OF HOLY SCRIPTURE IN USE AMONG THE ORIENTAL CHRISTIANS FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES.



BY J. W. ETHERIDGE, M.A.,

DOCTOR IN PHILOSOPHY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HEIDELBERG, AND MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF PARIS.




LONDON:

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.


MDCCCXLVI.

TO THE READER.



It did not occur to me till the following sheets had been committed to the press, that the present translation of the Gospels may possibly be considered in some quarters as an attempt to impugn the excellence of our authorized English version. Should such be the case, I would hereby earnestly disclaim any intention of the kind. My sole wish has been to offer in our own language an accurate representation of the evangelic canon, as read from the primeval days by the Christians of the East. The invaluable English version in ordinary use among us having been made from the Greek, and the following translation from a text extant in a tongue altogether different, a comparison like that now deprecated can only be instituted by a departure from the common principles of reason and equity.

At the same time I would suggest, that a collation of the one text with the other, for the purpose of ascertaining the verbal sameness or disagreement of the gospel testimony as given by two witnesses so perfectly impartial and independent, will form a profitable study to the Christian, and impart a profound conviction of the immutable integrity of the New-Testament record.

I have retained the titles of the sections for public reading, merely as illustrative of some points referred to in the preceding sketches of the Syrian communions. On every other account they would have been omitted; not only because, in certain instances, they betray a relationship to superstitions which are unworthy of the Christian name, but because they interfere with the continuity of the sacred discourse, and in some minds may tend to weaken the perception of that divine authority which reigns alone, and for ever, through the entire compass of the inspired writings.

London,
September, 1846.

CONTENTS.



THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

  1. Page.
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    2
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    12
  1. The Syrian Chronicle of Bar Hebræus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    15
  2. The Edessene Tables
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    16
  3. Sophronius of Jerusalem
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  4. Ebed Jesu of Soba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  5. Elias of Damascus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  6. The Syrian Canons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    20
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    35
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  1. 1. Origin of their doctrinal Error
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  2. 2. Nestorius
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  3. 3. Doctrine of the Incarnation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    58
  4. 4. Controversy. Council of Ephesus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  5. 5. Progress of the Schism
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  6. 6. Nestorianism takes a Church-status
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  7. 7. External Vicissitudes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    73
  8. 8. Missionary Zeal of the Nestorians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    80
  9. 9. Doctrine and Discipline
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  1. (1.) Rule of Faith
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  2. (2.) Doctrine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  3. (3.) Sacraments
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  4. (4.) Ministerial Orders
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    101
  5. (5.) Monastic Institutions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  6. (6.) Churches and Service
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  7. (7.) Ecclesiastical Calendar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    112
  8. (8.) Fasts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    116
  9. (9.) Schools
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117
  1. 10. Decadence
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    121
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    160
  1. Country of the Indo-Syrians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    164
  2. Their Places of Worship
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    165
  3. Their Estimation of the Peschito
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    166
  4. Their Clergy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    168
  5. Their Worship
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    169
  1. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    172
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    217
  6. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    221
  7. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    237
  8. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    239
  1. First Class.—Writers whose Times may be determined
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    ib.
  2. Second Class.—Authors of uncertain Dates
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    260
  3. Third Class.—Translations
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    262


  1. THE FOUR GOSPELS.

  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    271
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    347
  4. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    394
  5. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    476

This work was published before January 1, 1926, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.