The American Indian/Appendix

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The American Indian by Clark Wissler
Appendix

APPENDIX


LINGUISTIC TABLES AND

BIBLIOGRAPHY

LINGUISTIC STOCKS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA

After J. W. Powell

In this compilation we have thought best to be conservative. As noted in the text, claims have been put forward for the consolidation of several stocks, but since these are still under discussion, and some of the leading American linguists are not convinced, we think best to follow the old classification. The chief changes proposed are the consolidation of the Piman, Shoshonean, and Nahuatlan stocks; the transfer of Wishoskan (Wiyot) and Weitspekan (Yurok) to the Algonquian; the combination of Wintun (Copehan), Maidu (Pujunan), Yokuts (Mariposan), Moquelumnan (Miwok), and Costanoan under the name Penutian; and the grouping of Shasta, Chimariko, Quoratean (Karok), Pomo (Kulanapan), Esselenian, and Yuman under the name Hokan.

The last United States census compiled a statistical list of the Indians according to their stocks, from which, and the current reports of the Canadian government, we have taken the population numerals added to each stock designation in this list. The total population, as reported, is 383,151. The number of extinct stocks is six, leaving fifty stocks still spoken in the United States and Canada, though of these twelve are on the verge of extinction.

1. Algonquian, or Algonkin (90,975):

A. Blackfoot. 1. Piegan. 2. Blood. 3. North Blackfoot.

B. Cheyenne. 1. Northern and Southern Cheyenne. 2. Probably the Sutaio (extinct).

C. Arapaho. 1. Northern and Southern Arapaho. 2. Gros Ventre (Atsina).

D. Eastern-Central Division:

a. Cree-Montagnais Type. 1. Cree. 2. Montagnais. 3. Naskapi. 4. Menomini. 5. Sauk and Fox. 6. Kickapoo. 7. Shawnee. 8. Abnaki-Micmac Type (Abnaki, Pennacook, Micmac, Malecite, Passamaquoddy, and Penobscot).

b. Ojibway Type. 1. Ojibway. 2. Potawatomi. 3. Ottawa. 4. Algonkin. 5. Peoria. 6. Natick. 7. Delaware. 8. Illinois. 9. Miami.

c. Massachuset Type. 1. Massachuset. 2. Narraganset. 3. Wampanoag. 4. Nauset. 5. Montauk. 6. Nipmuk (possibly). 7. Connecticut River Indians (possibly).

d. Uncertain Type. 1. Unami. 2. Unalachtigo. 3. Munsee. 4. Wappinger. 5. Mahican. 6. Pequot.

e. Unclassified. 1. Nanticoke. 2. Conoy. 3. Powhatan. 4. Weapemeoc. 5. Secotan. 6. Pamunkey. 7. Piankashaw. 8. Mattapony. 9. Chickahominy.

2. Athapascan (53,212):

A. Northern Group:

a. Highland Tribes. 1. Loucheux. 2. Sekani. 3. Carrier. 4. Babine. 5. Nahane (Tahltan, Taku, Kaska). 6. Chilkotin.

b. Lower Yukon. 1. Kaiyuhkhotana. 2. Koyukukhotana. 3. Knaiakhotana. 4. Unakhotana.

c. Upper Yukon. 1. Tenankutchin. 2. Tennuthkutchin. 3. Kutchakutchin. 4. Natsitkutchin. 5. Vuntakutchin. 6. Tukkutchkutchin. 7. Hankutchin. 8. Tutchone Kutchin. 9. Tatlitkutchin. 10. Kwitchakutchin.

d. Mackenzie Tribes. 1. Slavey. 2. Chipewyan. 3. Dogrib. 4. Hares. 5. Yellow Knives.

e. Beaver.

f. Sarsi.

g. Ahtena.

B. Pacific Coast Group:

a. Hupa Type. 1. Hupa. 2. Whilkut.

b. Kato Type. 1. Kato. 2. Nongal (Saiaz). 3. Wailaki. 4. Sinkyone. 5. Metolle (?).

c. Tolowa Type. 1. Tolowa. 2. Shasta Costa. 3. Tututni. 4. Galise Creek.

d. Coquille.

e. Umpqua.

f. Tlatskanai.

C. Southern Group:

a. San Carlos Type. 1. San Carlos Apache. 2. White Mountain Apache. 3. Chiricahua Apache. 4. Tonto. 5. Coyotero. 6. Mescalero Apache. 7. Navajo.

b. Jicarilla Type. 1. Jicarilla Apache. 2. Kiowa Apache. 3. Lipan Apache.

3. Attacapan (extinct):

A. Eastern Dialect.

B. Western Dialect.

4. Beothukan (extinct; some reason for assuming it to be Algonquian).

5. Caddoan (1863):

A. Northern Group. 1. Arikara.

B. Middle Group:

a. Pawnee Type. 1. Skidi. 2. Chaui. 3. Kitkahaxki. 4. Pitahauirata.

C. Southern Group. 1. Caddo. 2. Wichita. 3. Kichai. 4. Tawakoni. 5. Waco.

6. Chimakuan (306):

A. Chimakum.

B. Quileute. 1. Hoh.

7. Chimarikan, or Chimariko (31):

Member of the proposed Hokan.

8. Chimmesyan (2155):

A. Tsimshian.

B. Kitksan.

C. Niska.

Chinookan (897):

A. Upper Chinook. 1. Wasco. 2. Wishram. 3. Kathlamet. 4. Klackamas.

B. Lower Chinook. 1. Clatsop. 2. Chinook proper.

10. Chitimachan, or Chitimacha (69).

11. Chumashan (38):

A. San Luis Obispo.

B. Central Group. 1. San Buenaventura. 2. Santa Barbara. 3. Santa Ynez.

C. Island Group. 1. Santa Cruz.

12. Coahuiltecan, or Carrizo (extinct):

A. Pakawa.

B. Comecrudo.

C. Cotoname.

13. Costanoan (17):

A. Northern Division. 1. San Francisco. 2. San Jose. 3. Santa Clara. 4. Santa Cruz.

B. Southern Division. 1. San Juan Bautista. 2. Soledad. 3. Monterey. (Members of the proposed Penutian.)

14. Eskimauan (30,000?):

A. Eastern Eskimo Dialects:

a. Greenland Eskimo. 1. Upernavik. 2. Disco Bay. 3. Ammassalik. 4. Oommannaq Fiord. 5. Smith Sound.

b. Baffin Land.

c. Labrador.

B. Probable Central Eskimo Dialects. 1. West shore of Hudson Bay. 2. Southampton Island. 3. Melville Peninsula. 4. Boothia Peninsula. 5. Part of Baffin Land. 6. Victoria Island.

C. Western Eskimo Dialects. 1. Kadiak Island. 2. Bristol Bay. 3. Mouth of Yukon River. 4. Norton Sound. 5. Kotzebue Sound. 6. Point Barrow. 7. Mouth of Mackenzie River.

D. Aleut. 1. Unalaska. 2. Atkans.

15. Esselenian (extinct):

Member of the proposed Hokan.

16. Haida (961):

A. Masset Dialect. 1. Howkan. 2. Klinkwan. 3. Kasaan.

B. Skidegate Dialect.

Hokan:

Proposed name for the combined Chimarikan, Esselenian, Shastan, Quoratean (Karok), Pomo (Kulanapan), and Yuman stocks.

17. Iroquoian (50,160):

A. Huron, or Wyandot.

B. Tionontati.

C. Attiwendaronk, or Neutrals.

D. Conkhandeenrhonon.

E. Iroquois. 1. Mohawk. 2. Oneida. 3. Onondaga. 4. Cayuga. 5. Seneca. 6. Tuscarora.

F. Conestoga, or Susquehanna.

G. Erie.

H. Nottaway.

I. Meherrin.

J. Cherokee. 1. Elati. 2. Middle Cherokee. 3. Atali.

K. Onnontioga.

18. Kalapooian (106):

A. Kalapooia, Santiam, Lakmiut, Ahantsayuk, Mary's River Che-)penafa?).

B. Yamhill, Atfalati.

C. Yonkalla.

D. Chelamela.

19. Karankawa (extinct).

20. Keresan (4027):

A. Western Villages. 1. Acoma. 2. Laguna.

B. Eastern Villages. 1. Cochiti. 2. Sia. 3. Santa Ana.4. San Felipe. 5. Santo Domingo.

21. Kiowan, or Kiowa (1126).

22. Klamath (978):

A. Modoc.

B. Klamath.

23. Kusan (93):

A. Melukitz.

B. Anasitch.

C. Mulluk.

D. Nasumi.

24. Kutenai (1091):

A. Upper Kutenai. 1. Akiskemikinik. 2. Akamnik. 3. Akanekunik. 4. Akiyenik.

B. Lower Kutenai.

25. Maidu, or Pujunan (1100):

Three dialects: Northwestern, Northeastern, Southern.

Members of the proposed Penutian.

26. Moquelumnan, or Miwok (699):

A. Coast Dialects. 1. Marin, or Southern Coast. 2. Bodega, or Western Coast. 3. Lake, or Northern Coast.

B. Interior Dialects:

a. Plains, or Northwestern.

b. Sierra Dialects. 1. Amador. 2. Tuolumne. 3. Ṃariposa. (Members of the proposed Penutian.)

27. Muskhogean (29,191):

A. Muskhogean Proper:

a. Southern Division: 1. Hitchiti Group: Hitchiti, Mikasauki, Sawokli. 2. Apalachee. 3. Yamasi (?). 4. Alabama Group: Alibamu, Koasati, Tuskegee. 5. Choctaw Group: Choctaw; Northern Choctaw, Sixtowns Choctaw; Chickasaw.

b. Northern Division. 1. Muskogee proper, or Creek: Upper Creek, Lower Creek, Seminole.

B. Natchez Dialects. 1. Avoyel, Taensa.

Penutian.

Proposed name for the combined Wintun (Copehan), Maidu (Pujunan), Yokuts (Mariposan), Moquelumnan (Miwok), and Costanoan stocks.

28. Piman (8607):

A. Pima.

B. Papago.

(Probably a member of the proposed Uto-Aztecan, or Nahuatlan family—see following table.)

29. Pomo, or Kulanapan (1193):

There are seven dialects designated as Northern, Central, Eastern, Southwestern, Southern, Southeastern, and Northeastern, all members of the proposed Hokan.

30. Quoratean, or Karok (775):

Member of the proposed Hokan.

31. Salinan (16):

A. San Antonio.

B. San Miguel.

32. Salishan (18,097):

A. Interior Dialects:

a. Lillooet.

b. Ntlakyapamuk (Thompson Indians).

c. Shuswap.

d. Okinagan. 1. Colville. 2. Nespelim, or Sanpoil. 3. Senijextee.

e. Flathead. 1. Spokan. 2. Kalispel, or Pend d'Oreille. 3. Salish, or Flathead.

f. Cœur d'Alêne.

g. Columbia Group. 1. Pisquow, or Wenatchi. 2. Sinkiuse. 3. Methow.

B. Coast Dialects:

a. Bella Coola.

b. Comox Group: (a) Comox: 1. Comox. 2. Eëksen. 3. Homalko. 4. Kaäke. 5. Kakekt. 6. Seechelt. 7. Sliammon. 8. Tatpoös; (b) Puntlatsh: 1. Hwahwatl. 2. Puntlatsh. 3. Saämen.

c. Cowichan Group. (a) Vancouver Island: 1. Clemclemalats. 2. Cowichan. 3. Hellelt. 4. Kenipsim. 5. Kilpanlus. 6. Koksilah. 7. Kulleets. 8. Lilmalche. 9. Malakut. 10. Nanaimo. 11. Kwantlin. 12. Penelakut. 13. Quamichan. 14. Siccameen. 15. Snonowas. 16. Somenos. 17. Tateke. 18. Yekoloas; (b) Fraser Valley: 1. Chehalis. 2. Chilliwack. 3. Coquitlam. 4. Ewawoos. 5. Katsey. 6. Kelatl. 7. Kwantlen. 8. Matsqui. 9. Musqueam. 10. Nehaltmoken. 11. Nicomen. 12. Ohamil. 13. Pilalt. 14. Popkum. 15. Samahquam. 16. Scowlitz. 17. Sewathen. 18. Siyita. 19. Skwawalooks. 20. Snonkweametl. 21. Squawtits. 22. Sumass. 23. Tsakuam.

d. Squawmish Group. 1. Squawmish. 2. Nooksak.

e. Songish Group. 1. Clallam. 2. Lummi. 3. Lkuñgen. 4. Samish. 5. Sanetch. 6. Semiahmoo. 7. Songish. 8. Sooke.

f. Nisqualli Group. (a) Nisqualli: 1. Dwamish. 2. Puyallup. 3. Skagit. 4. Snoqualmu, or Snoquamish. 5. Squaxon; (b) Snohomish.

g. Twana Group. 1. Twana. 2. Sailupsun.

h. Chehalis Group. I. Quinault. 2. Quaitso. 3. Humptulips. 4. Lower Chehalis. 5. Satsop. 6. Upper Chehalis. 7. Cowlitz.

i. Tillamook. 1. Tillamook, or Nestucca. 2. Siletz.

33. Shahaptin (4391):

A. Klikitat.

B. Nez Percé.

C. Paloos.

D. Topinish.

E. Umatilla.

F. Wallawalla.

G. Warm Springs.

H. Yakima.

34. Shastan (1578):

A. Shasta.

B. Konomihu.

C. New River.

D. Okwanuchu.

E. Achomawi. 1. Astakiwi. 2. Atuami. 3. Chumawi. 4. Hantiwi. 5. Humawhi. 6. Ilmawi.

F. Atsugewi (Pakamali).

(Members of the proposed Hokan.)

35. Shoshonean (16,842):

A. Pueblo Group. 1. Hopi.

B. Plateau Group:

a. Ute-Chemehuevi. 1. Ute. 2. Paiute of Southern Nevada. 3. Chemehuevi. 4. Kawaiisu. 5. Uintah Ute. 6. Southern Ute. 7. Uncompahgre.

b. Shoshoni-Comanche Group. 1. Shoshoni. 2. Comanche. 3. Koso (Panamint).

c. Mono-Paviotso. 1. Monachi, or Mono. 2. Northern Paiute, or Paviotso. 3. Snake. 4. Bannock.

C. Kern River Group. 1. Tübatulabal. 2. Bankalachi.

D. Southern California Group:

a. Serrano. 1. Serranos. 2. Gitanemuk.

b. Gabrielino. 1. Mission of San Gabriel. 2. Mission of San Fernando.

c. Luiseño-Cahuilla. 1. Luiseño. 2. Juaneño. 3. Cahuilla. 4. Agua Caliente.

(Probably a member of the proposed Uto-Aztecan, or Shoshonean-Nahuatlan family.)

36. Siouan (40,801):

A. Dakota-Assiniboin:

a. Eastern, or Santee Dakota. 1. Mdewakanton. 2. Wahpekute. 3. Sisseton. 4. Wahpeton.

b. Yankton.

c. Yanktonai.

d. Teton. 1. Brulé. 2. Oglala. 3. Sans Arc. 4. Blackfoot. 5. Miniconjou. 6. Two-Kettle. 7. Hunkpapa.

e. Assiniboin. 1. Stoney. 2. Turtle Mountain Sioux.

B. Dhegiha. 1. Kansa. 2. Omaha. 3. Osage. 4. Ponca. 5. Quapaw.

C. Chiwere. 1. Iowa. 2. Missouri. 3. Oto. 4. Winnebago.

D. Mandan.

E. Hidatsa. 1. Crow. 2. Hidatsa

F. Biloxi. 1. Biloxi. 2. Ofo.

G. Eastern. 1. Catawba. 2. Tutelo. 3. An infinite number of extinct tribes.

37. Siuslaw (7):

A. Siuslaw.

B. Lower Umpqua, or Kuite.

38. Takelma (1):

A. Takelma.

B. Upper Takelma.

39. Tanoan (3140):

A. Tiwa. 1. Taos. 2. Picuris. 3. Sandia. 4. Isleta. 5. Isleta del Sur. 6. Piro (extinct).

B. Towa. 1. Jemez 2. Pecos (extinct).

C. Tewa. 1. San Juan. 2. Santa Clara. 3. San Ildefonso. 4. Nambe. 5. Pojoaque. 6. Tesuque. 7. Hano.

40. Timucuan (extinct). 41. Tlingit, or Koluschan (4458):

A. Tlingit. 1. Auk. 2. Chilkat. 3. Henya. 4. Huna. 5. Kake. 6. Kuiu. 7. Sanyakoan. 8. Sitka. 9. Stikine. 10. Sumdum. 11. Taku. 12. Tongas. 13. Yakutat.

B. Tagish.

42. Tonkawa (42):

A. Tonkawa.

B. Ervipiame.

C. Mayeye.

D. Yojuane.

43. Tunican (43):

A. Tunica.

B. Koroa.

C. Yazoo.

D. Tioux.

E. Grigra.

44. Uchean (78):

A. Yuchi.

Uto-Aztecan:

Name proposed for the combined Nahuatlan, Piman, and Shoshonean stocks.

45. Waiilatpuan (329):

A. Cayuse. B. Molala.

46. Wakashan (4538):

A. Nootka.

B. Kwakiutl:

a. Haisla Dialect. 1. Kitamat. 2. Kitlope.

b. Heiltsuk Dialect. 1. Bellabella. 2. China Hat. 3. Nohuntsitk. 4. Somehulitk. 5. Wikeno.

c. Kwakiutl. (a) Koskimo: 1. Klaskino. 2. Koprino. 3. Koskimo. 4. Quatsino; (b) Nawiti: 1. Nakomgilisala. 2. Tlatlasikoala; (c) Kwakiutl: 1. Awaitlala. 2. Goasila. 3. Guauaenok. 4. Hahuamis. 5. Koeksotenok. 6. Kwakiutl. 7. Lekwiltok. 8. Mamalelekala. 9. Nakoatok. 10. Nimkish. 11. Tenaktak. 12. Tlauitsis. 13. Tsawatonok.

47. Washoan (819):

A. Washo.

48. Weitspekan, or Yurok (668):

A. River Dialects.

B. Coast Dialects.

49. Wintun, or Copehan (710):

A. Northern Division, or Wintun.

B. Southern Division, or Patwin.

(A member of the proposed Penutian.)

50. Wishoskan, or Wiyot (152):

(Possibly Algonquian.)

51. Yakona (55):

A. Yaquina.

B. Alsea.

52. Yanan (39):

A. Northern Yana.

B. Central Yana.

C. Southern Yana.

D. Yahi.

53. Yokuts, or Mariposan (533):

Yokuts:

(According to Kroeber there are seven dialectic groups with a total of about fifty tribes, all members of the proposed Penutian.)

54. Yukian (198):

A. Yuki proper.

B. Coast Yuki.

C. Huchnom.

D. Wappo.

55. Yuman (4279):

A. Eastern Group. 1. Havasupai. 2. Walapai. 3. Tonto. 4. Yavapai.

B. Central Group. 1. Mohave. 2. Yuma. 3. Maricopa. 4. Diegueño. 5. Cocopa.

C. Lower California Group. I. Kiliwi and Santo Thomás. 2. Cochimi. 3. Waikuru.

(Members of the proposed Hokan.)

56. Zuñian, or Zuñi (1667).


LINGUISTIC STOCKS OF MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA

The following tabulation has been compiled after Thomas and Swanton (Bulletin 44, Bureau of American Ethnology). As will be noted in the text of these authors, the place of many groups is far from certain so that this classification is not so definite as the preceding. It should rather be taken as the first preliminary lay-out of the subject.

1. Athapascan (See preceding Table):

A. Apache.

B. Toboso.

2. Chiapanecan:

A. Chiapaneco.

B. Mangue (Choluteca).

C. Dirian.

D. Orotinan.

3. Chibchan (See South American Table):

A. Guatuso.

B. Vota, or Boto.

C. Guetare.

D. Talamanca.

E. Guaymie.

F. Doraskean.

4. Chinantecan.

5. Cunan (See South American Table):

A. San Blas.

6. Huavean (probably Zoquean).

7. Janambrian:

A. Pisone (extinct).

B. Xanambre (extinct).

8. Jicaquean:

A. Xicaque.

9. Jincan:

A. Xinca.

B. Sinacanta.

C. Jupiltepeque.

D. Jutiapa.

10. Laguneros.

11. Lencan.

12. Mayan:

A. Huastec.

B. Maya. 1. Lacandone. 2. Itza (Peten). 3. Mopan.

C. Chontal.

D. Tzotzil.

E. Chol.

F. Chañabal.

G. Chicomucelteca.

H. Motozintleca.

I. Chuje.

J. Jacalteca.

K. Mam.

L. Ixil.

M. Aguacateca.

N. Kiche.

O. Cakchiquel.

P. Tzutuhil.

Q. Uspanteca.

R. Kekchi.

S. Pokonchi.

T. Pokomam.

U. Chorti.

13. Matagalpan:

A. Matagalpa.

B. Cacaopera.

C. Lislique.

14. Mosquitoan.

15. Nahuatlan:

A. Piman (See preceding Table).

1. Pima Alto. 2. Pima Bajo. 3. Pima Bamoa. 4. Potlapigua. 5. Tepehuane villages.

B. Opata. 1. Eudeve. 2. Jova, or Ova.

C. Tarahumare.

D. Seri.

E. Yaqui. 1. Mayo. 2. Tehuecco. 3. Yaqui.

F. Zoe, Baimena. 1. Tepehue and Tepehuane (extinct).

G. Acaxee (extinct?). 1. Acaxee. 2. Jijinæ (Xixime). 3. Sabaibo. 4. Teloca.

H. Cora.

I. Huichol.

J. Tepecano, Teule, Caxcan, Tecuexe.

K. Concho (extinct).

L. Zacateco.

M. Guachichile.

N. Nio (extinct).

O. Aztec.

P. Pipil.

Q. Niquiran.

R. Sigua.

16. Olivean.

17. Otomian:

A. Mazahua.

B. Otomi.

C. Pame.

D. Pirinda.

18. Pakawan (Coahuiltecan).

19. Payon.

20. Subtiaban (Maribi).

21. Tamulipecan.

22. Tarascan.

23. Tequistlatecan.

24. Totonacan:

A. Totonac.

B. Tepehua.

25. Ulvan.

26. Waïcurian:

A. Waïcuri.

B. Pericu.

27. Yuman (See preceding Table).

28. Zapotecan:

A. Amishgo.

B. Chatino.

C. Chocho.

D. Cuicateco.

E. Mazateco.

F. Mixteco.

G. Trike.

H. Zapoteco.

29. Zoquean:

A. Mixe.

B. Popoloco.

C. Tapachula.

D. Zoque.



LINGUISTIC STOCKS OF SOUTH AMERICA

The classification of South American linguistic groups cannot be so precisely summarized as in the preceding. The most comprehensive tabulation is offered by Chamberlain (American Anthropologist, Vol. XV, 236), whose nomenclature we have followed throughout. We have not attempted a full enumeration of the tribes under each stock because the chaotic state of the subject makes such an undertaking inadvisable. Therefore, the reader is referred to Brinton's American Race and Markham's List of Tribes in the Valley of the Amazon, etc. {Journal Anthrop. Inst., Vol. XXIV, pp. 236–284) for the names of tribal subdivisions. However, we have noted the stock affiliations for a few of the best known tribes.

1. Alikulufan:

Alikulufs, Karaikas.

2. Allentiacan (extinct):

Allentiac or Huarpes (Guarpes).

3. Andaquian, or Andaquis.

4. Apolistan.

5. Araucanian.

6. Arawakan:

A. Arawak of the Mainland. 1. Arawak. 2. Atorai (also Dauri or Tauri). 3. Baré. 4. Campas (also Anti or Ande). 5. Guaná (also Chuala, Chabacana, Echenoana, Echoaladi). 6. Ipurinas. 7. Kustenau. 8. Maipure. 9. Manaos. 10. Maopityan. 11. Moxos, or Mojos. 12. Paiconeca. 13. Paumari (also Paumary, Pamaouri, Pammary). 12. Saravéca (or Sarabéca). 13. Tarumá. 14. Wapisiana (also Wapiana, Wapityan). 15. Waurá. 16. Yamamadi (or Jamamadi). 17. Yumana (or Jumana).

B. Arawak in Haiti. 1. Taino.

C. Arawak in the Lesser Antilles. 1. Ineri (or Igneri, Inyeri).

D. Arawak in the Bahamas. 1. Lucayans.

7. Ardan (extinct).

8. Atacameñan, or Likananta.

9. Aymaran.

10. Barbacoan.

11. Betoyan.

12. Bororan.

13. Calchaquian (extinct, also Cacan, Diaguitas).

14. Cañarian (extinct).

15. Canichanan, or Canisiana.

16. Carayan, or Carajas.

17. Cariban:

A. Accauai, Apalais, Apiacas, Bakairis, Galibis, Guaques, Guaharibos, Ipuricotos, Kalinas, Macusis, Motilones, Nahuquas, Palmellas, Pimenteiras, Rocouyennes, Wayawai.

B. Caribs in the Orinoco Region. 1. Maquiritares.

18. Caririan.

19. Cayubaban (or Cayuváva, Cayuaba, Chacobos).

20. Changoan (extinct).

21. Chapacuran:

Chapacura (or Tapacura), Napeka, Pawumwa, Quitemocas.

22. Charruan (extinct?).

23. Chavantean.

24. Chibchan (See preceding Table):

Aruacs, Chibchas, Doraskeans, Guatusan, Guaymis, Guetare, Talamanca, Tunebos.

25. Chiquitan:

Manacicas.

26. Chocoan.

27. Cholonan.

28. Chonoan.

29. Coconucan:

Coconucos, Guanucos, Moguexes, Totoros.

30. Corabecan (extinct).

31. Cunan (Cunas or San Blas):

Cunas, San Blas Indians.

32. Curucanecan (extinct).

33. Enimagan (or Machicui, Muscovi, or Maskoi).

34. Esmeraldan.

35. Goyatacan.

36. Guahiban.

37. Guaraunan (Warraus).

38. Guatoan.

39. Guaycuruan:

Abipones, Guachis, Mbocobis, Tobas.

40. Itonaman.

41. Itucalean (extinct?).

Itucalé (also Uarina, or Urarina).

42. Jivaran. (This is Jebero or Xebero of the Mainan stock, q.v., according to Beuchat and Rivet.)

43. Jurian.

44. Lecan or Atenianos.

45. Lorenzan.

46. Lulean.

47. Mainan (See Jivaran).

48. Makuan.

49. Matacan.

50. Miranhan, or Maranha:

Boro, Witto.

51. Mocoan.

52. Mosatenan.

53. Moviman, or Mobima.

54. Muran.

55. Ocoronan.

56. Onan.

57. Otomacan.

58. Otuquian (extinct?).

59. Paniquitan:

Paezes, Panches, Paniquitas.

60. Panoan:

Cashibos, Conibos, Pacaguaras, Panos.

61. Peban.

62. Piaroan.

63. Puelchean:

Chechehets, Diuihets, Taluhets.

64. Puinavian.

65. Puquinan (extinct?).

66. Quechuan:

Canas, Incas, Kechuas, Quitus.

67. Salivan.

68. Samucan.

69. Sanavironan (extinct).

70. Tacanan:

Araunas, Cavinas, Maropas, Sapiboconas.

71. Tapuyan:

Botocudos, Gês, Puris, Suyas, Tapnya, Tucano.

72. Ticunan.

73. Timotean (extinct).

74. Trumaian.

75. Tsonekan (Tehuelchean).

76. Tupian:

Cocamas, Guaranis, Jacundas, Mundrucus, Muras, Omaguas, Tapes, Turas.

77. Uitotan (Kaimo).

78. Uran.

79. Yahganan.

80. Yaruran.

81. Ypurinan (Hypurinan).

82. Yuncan.

83. Yurucarean.

84. Zaparan.


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See also Boas, 1916. II.

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Hoffman, Walter James.

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1897. I. The Menomini Indians (Fourteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnologv, part 1, Washington, 1897).

Holmes, William H.

1886. I. Origin and Development of Form and Ornament in Ceramic Art (Fourth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1886).

1886. II. Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi Valley (Fourth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1886).

1888. I. A Study of Textile Art in its Relation to the Development of Form and Ornament (Sixth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1888).

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Hornbostel, Erich von.

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Hough, Walter.

1893. I. Primitive American Armor (Report, United States National Museum, Washington, 1893).

1907. I. Antiquities of the Upper Gila and Salt River Valleys in Arizona and New Mexico (Bulletin 35, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1907).

1915. I. The Hopi Indians. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1915.

Hrdlicka, A.

1906. I. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology of California (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 4, no. 2, Berkeley, 1906).

1907. I. Skeletal Remains suggesting or attributed to Early Man in North America (Bulletin 33, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1907).

1912. I. Early Man in South America (Bulletin 52, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1912).

1915. I. The Peopling of America (The Journal of Heredity, vol. 6, pp. 79-91, Washington, February, 1915).

1916. I. Physical Anthropology of the Lenape or Delawares, and of the Eastern Indians in General (Bulletin 62, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1916).

Hunter, John D.

1823. I. Memoirs of a Captivity among the Indians of North America. London, 1823.


Im Thurn, Everard F.

1883. I. Among the Indians of Guiana. London, 1883.


James, George Wharton.

1914. I. Indian Blankets and their Makers. Chicago, 1914.

Jenks, A. E.

1900. I. The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lakes (Nineteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, part 2, Washington, 1900).

1916. I. Indian-White Amalgamation, an Anthropometric Study (Studies in the Social Sciences, University of Minnesota, no. 6, Minneapolis, 1916).

Jochelson, Waldemar.

1908. I. Material Culture and Social Organization of the Koryak (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 10, part 2, Leiden and New York, 1908).

Jones, Charles C.

1873. I. Antiquities of the Southern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes. New York, 1873.

Jones, William.

1905. I. The Algonkin Manitou (Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 18, pp. 183-190, Lancaster, 1905).

1906. I. Central Algonkin (Annual Archæological Report, 1905, Appendix, Report, Minister of Education Ontario, Toronto, 1906).

Joyce, T. A.

1912. I. South American Archæology. New York, 1912.

1914. I. Mexican Archæology. An Introduction to the Archæology of the Mexican and Maya Civilizations of pre-Spanish America. New York and London, 1914.


Kalm, Peter.

1772. I. Travels into North America. 2 vols. London, 1772.

Kane, Paul.

1859. I. Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America. London, 1859.

Kean, A. H.

1896. I. Ethnology. Cambridge, 1896.

Kidder, A. V.

1915. I. Pottery of the Pajarito Plateau and of some Adjacent Regions in New Mexico (Memoirs, American Anthropological Association, vol. 2, part 6, Lancaster, 1915).

Kissell, Mary Lois.

1916. I. Basketry of the Pima and Papago Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 17, part 4, New York, 1916).

1916. II. A New Type of Spinning in North America (American Anthropologist, N. S., vol. 18, pp. 264-270, Lancaster, 1916).

Koch-Grünberg, Theodor.

1908. I. Zwei Jahre unter den Indianern—Reisen in Nordwest-Brasilien, 1903-1905. Band 1-2. Berlin, 1908.

Krause, A.

1885. I. Die Tlinkit Indianer, Ergebnisse einer Reise nach der Nordwestkuste von America und der Beringstrasse (Auftrage der Bremer geographischen Gesellschaft, 1880-1881. Jena, 1885).

Kroeber, A. L.

1900. I. Symbolism of the Arapaho Indians (Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 13, article 7, New York, 1900).

1902. I. The Arapaho (Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 18, part I, New York, 1902).

1904. I. Types of Indian Culture in California (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 2, no. 3, Berkeley, 1904).

1905. I. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 2, no. 4, Berkeley, 1905).

1908. I. Ethnography of the Cahuilla Indians (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 8, no. 2, Berkeley, 1908).

1908. II. Ethnology of the Gros Ventre (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 1, part 4, New York, 1908).

1909. I. The Archæology of California (Putnam Anniversary Volume, New York, 1909).

1911. I. Phonetic Constituents of the Native Languages of California (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 10, no. 1, Berkeley, 191 1).

1917. I. Zuñi Kin and Clan (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 18, part 2, New York, 1917).


See also Dixon and Kroeber, 1903. I and 1913. 1; Boas, 1916. II.


La Flesche, Francis. See Fletcher, Alice C, and La Flesche, Francis.

Laufer, Berthold.

1907. I. The Introduction of Maize into Eastern Asia (Congres International des Americanistes, XVe Session, part 1, Quebec, 1907).

1912. I. Jade. A Study in Chinese Archæology and Religion (Publications, Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, vol. 10, Chicago, 1912).

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1905. I. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (Thwaites Edition). New York, 1905.

Lewis, Theodore H. (Editor).

1907. I. The Narrative of the Expedition of Hernando de Soto by the Gentleman of Elvas. New York, 1907.

Locke, L. Leland.

1912. I. The Ancient Quipu, a Peruvian Knot Record (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 14, pp. 325-332, Lancaster, 1912).

Lowie, Robert H.

1908. I. The Test-Theme in North American Mythology (Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 21, pp. 97-148, Lancaster, 1908).

1909. I. The Northern Shoshone (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 2, part 2, New York, 1909).

1912. I. On the Principle of Convergence in Ethnology (Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 25, pp. 24-42, Lancaster, 1912).

1914. I. Social Organization (The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 68-97, Chicago, 1914).

1915. I. Exogamy and the Classificatory Systems of Relationship (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 17, pp. 223-239, Lancaster, 1915).

1916. I. Historical and Sociological Interpretations of Kinship Terminologies (Holmes Anniversary Volume, pp. 293-300, Washington, 1916).

1916. II. Plains Indian Age-Societies: Historical and Comparative Summary (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. II, part 13, New York, 1916).

Lumholtz, Carl.

1900. I. Symbolism of the Huichol Indians (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 3, part 1, New York, 1900).

1904. I. Decorative Art of the Huichol Indians (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 3, part 3, New York, 1904).

MacCauley, Clay.

1887. I. The Seminole Indians of Florida (Fifth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1887).

MacCurdy, George Grant.

1911. I. A Study of Chiriquian Antiquities (Memoirs, Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 3, New Haven 1911).

Mackenzie, Alexander.

1902. I. Voyages from Montreal through the Continent of North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans in 1789 and 1793. 2 vols. New York, 1902.

Mackenzie, A. S.

1911. I. The Evolution of Literature. New York, 1911.

Mallery, Garrick.

1886. I. Pictographs of the North American Indians. A Preliminary Paper (Fourth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1886).

Markham, Sir Clements R.

1910. I. The Incas of Peru. New York, 1910.

Marett, R. R.

19111. I. Anthropology. London, 1911.

Martin, Rudolph.

1914. I. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie; in systematischer Darstellung mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der anthropologischen Methoden. Jena, 1914.

Mason, Otis T.

1894. I. North American Bows, Arrows and Quivers (Smithsonian Report for 1893, United States National Museum, Washington, 1894).

1895 I. Origins of Invention. London and New York, 1895.

1896. I. Primitive Travel and Transportation (Report, United States National Museum for 1894, Washington, 1896).

1901. I. Pointed Bark Canoes of the Kutenai and Amur (Report, United States National Museum for 1899, Washington, 1901).

1904. I. Aboriginal American Basketry (Report, United States National Museum for 1902, Washington, 1904).

1907. I. Domestication (Handbook of American Indians, Bulletin 30, Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 397-399, Washington, 1907).

Matthew, W. D.

1915. I. Climate and Evolution (Annals, New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 24, pp. 171-238, New York, 1915).

Matthews, Washington.

1902. I. Night Chant, a Navaho Ceremony (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 6, New York, 1902).

1907. I. Navaho Myths, Prayers and Songs with Texts and Translations (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 5, no. 2, Berkeley, 1907).

Matthewson, C. H.

1915. I. A Metallographic Description of Some Ancient Peruvian Bronzes from Machu Picchu (The American Journal of Science, vol. 40, December, 1915).

Maudslay, A. P.

1889-1902. I. Biologia Centrali-Americana; or Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fauna and Flora of Mexico and Central America. Archæology, vols. 1-4. London, 1889-1902.

Maximilian, Prince of Wied.

1820. I. Travels in Brazil in the years 1815, 1816, 1817. London, 1820.

1843. I. Travels in the Interior of North America. Translated by H. Evans Lloyd. London, 1843.

McClintock, Walter.

1910. I. The Old North Trail, or Life, Legends and Religion of the Blackfoot Indians. London, 1910.

McGee, W. J.

1897. I. The Siouan Indians (Fifteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1897).

McGuire, Joseph D.

1899. I. Pipes and Smoking Customs of the American Aborigines (Report, United States National Museum for 1897, Washington, 1899).

Mead, Charles W.

1903. I. The Musical Instruments of the Incas (Guide Leaflet, American Museum of Natural History, no. 11, New York, 1903).

1906. I. The Six-Unit Design in Ancient Peruvian Cloth (Boas Anniversary Volume, New York, 1906).

1907. I. Technique of some South American Feather-work (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 1, part 1, New York, 1907).

1915. I. Prehistoric Bronze in South America (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 12, part 2, New York, 1915).

1916. I. Conventionalized Figures in Ancient Peruvian Art (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 12, part 5, New York, 1916).

Means, Philip Ainsworth.

1916. I. Some Objections to Mr. Elliot Smith's Theory (Science, N.S. vol. 44, pp. 533-534. October 13, 1916).

Merriam, C. Hart.

1905. I. The Indian Population of California (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 7, pp. 596-606, Lancaster, 1905).

Merriam, J. C.

1914. I. Preliminary Report on the Discovery of Human Remains in an Asphalt Deposit at Rancho La Brea (Science, N. S. vol. 40, pp. 198-203, August, 1914).

Meyer, H. A. H.

1898. I. Bows and Arrows in Central Brazil (Annual Report, Smithsonian Institution, 1896, Washington, 1898).

Michelson, Truman.

1912. I. Preliminary Report on the Linguistic Classification of Algonquian Tribes (Twenty-eighth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1912).

Mooney, James.

1896. I. The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 (Fourteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, part 2, Washington, 1896).

1898. I. Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians (Seventeenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, part 1, Washington, 1898).

1900. I. Myths of the Cherokee (Nineteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1900).

1907. I. The Cheyenne Indians (Memoirs, American Anthropological Association, vol. 1, part 6, Lancaster, 1907).

Moore, Clarence B.

1911. I. Some Aboriginal Sites on Mississippi River (Journal, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 14, Philadelphia, 1911).

1916. I. Some Aboriginal Sites on Greene River, Kentucky, etc. (Journal, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 16, Philadelphia, 1916).

Moorehead, Warren K.

1910. I. The Stone Age in North America. 2 vols. Boston and New York, 1910.

1913. I. The Red-Paint People of Maine (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 15, pp. 33-47. Lancaster, 1913).

1916. I. The Problem of the Red-Paint People (Holmes Anniversary Volume, Washington, 1916).

1917. I. Stone Ornaments used by Indians in the United States and Canada. Andover, 1917.

Morgan, Lewis H.

1870. I. Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family (Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. 17, article 2, Washington, 1870).

1878. I. Ancient Society or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization. New York, 1878.

1881. I. Houses.and House-Life of the American Aborigines (Contributions to North American Ethnology, vol. 4, Washington, 1881).

1904. I. League of the Ho-dé-no-sau-nee or Iroquois. Edited by Herbert M. Lloyd. New York, 1904.

Morice, A. G.

1890. I. The Western Dénés (Proceedings, Canadian Institute, third scries, vol. 7, Toronto, 1890).

1895. I. Notes on the Western Dénés (Transactions, Canadian Institute, vol. 4, Toronto, 1895).

1906. I. The Canadian Dénés (Annual Archæological Report, 1905, Appendix, Report, Minister of Education, Toronto, 1906).

Morley, Sylvanus Griswold.

1915. I. An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hieroglyphs (Bulletin 57, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1915).

Murie, James R.

1914. I. Pawnee Indian Societies (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 11, part 7, New York, 1914).


Nelson, E. W.

1899. I. The Eskimo about Bering Strait (Eighteenth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, part 1, Washington, 1899).

Nelson, N. C.

1909. I. Shellmounds of the San Francisco Bay Region (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 7, no. 4, Berkeley, 1909).

1910. I. The Ellis Landing Shellmound (University of California Publications in American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 7, no. 5, Berkeley, 1910.

1916. I. Chronology of the Tano Ruins, New Mexico (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 18, pp. 159-180, Lancaster, 1916).

1917. I. Archæology of Mammoth Cave and Vicinity; a Preliminary Report (Proceedings, National Academy of Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 192-195, March, 191 7).


Osborn, Henry Fairfield.

1910. I. The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North America. New York, 1910.

1915. I. Men of the Old Stone Age. Their Environment, Life and Art. New York, 1915.


Pain, B. H. See Duckworth, W. H. L., and Pain, B. H.

Parker, Arthur C.

1910. I. Iroquois Uses of Maize and other Food Plants (Bulletin 144, New York State Museum, Albany, 1910).

1916. I. The Constitution of the Five Nations (Bulletin 184, New York State Museum, Albany, 1916).

1916. II. The Origin of the Iroquois as suggested by their Archeology (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 18, pp. 479-507, Lancaster, 1916).
See also Wissler, 1915. II.

Pike, Warburton.

1892. I. The Barren Ground of Northern Canada. New York, 1892.

Posnansky, Arthur.

1916. I. Mongoloid Signs in Some Ethnic Types of the Andine Plateau (Science, N. S. vol. 43, pp. 904-905, June 23, 1916).

Powell, J. W.

1891. I. Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico (Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 1891).

Prescott, William H.

1843. I. History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a Preliminary View of the Ancient Mexican Civilization and the Life of Cortes. 3 vols. New York, 1843.

1847. I. History of the Conquest of Peru. With a Preliminary View of the Civilization of the Incas. 3 vols. New York, 1847.

Putnam, Frederick Ward.

1898. I. Early Man of the Delaware Valley, 1897 (Proceedings, American Association for the Advancement of Science, vol. 46, pp. 344348, Salem, 1898).

1905. I. Evidence of the Work of Man on Objects from the Quaternary Caves of California (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 8, pp. 229-235, Lancaster, 1906).


Radin, Paul.

1911. I. Some Aspects of Winnebago Archeology (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 13, pp. 517-538, Lancaster, 1911).

1914. I. Religion of the North American Indians (Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 27, pp. 335-373. Lancaster, 1914).

1914. II. A Sketch of the Peyote Cult of the Winnebago: a Study in Borrowing (Journal of Religious Psychology, vol. 3, pp. 1-22, 1914).

1915. I. Literary Aspects of North American Mythology (Bulletin 16, Anthropological Series, no. 6, Geological Survey, Canada, Ottawa, 1915).

Ratzel, Friedrich.

1896-1898. I. The History of Mankind. London and New York, 1896-1898.

Rau, Charles.

1873. I. North American Stone Implements (Smithsonian Report for , Washington, 1873).

1884. I. Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and North America (Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. 25, Washington, 1884).

Ripley, William Z.

1899. I. The Races of Europe. A Sociological Study. Accompanied by a Supplementary Bibliography. New York, 1899.

Rivers, W. H. R.

1914. I. Kinship and Social Organisation. London, 1914.

Robertson, A. W. D. See Berry, Richard A. J.

Roth, W. E.

1910. I. Some Technological Notes from the Pomeroon District, British Guiana, part 2 (Journal, Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 40, 1910). Russell, Frank.

1908. I. The Pima Indians (Twenty-sixth Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1908).

Sahagun, Bernardino de.

1880. I. Histoire Générale des Choses de la Nouvelle-Espagne. Translated by D. Jourdanet and Remi Simeon. Paris, 1880.

Sanchez, J.

1877. I. Estudio Acera de la Estatua Llamada Chac-Mool 6 Rey Tigre (Anales del Museo Nacional, vol. 1, pp. 270-278, Mexico, 1877).

Sapir, Edward.

1911. I. The History and Varieties of Human Speech (Popular Science Monthly, July, 1911).

1913. I. Wiyot and Yurok, Algonkin Languages of California (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 15, pp. 617-646, Lancaster, 1913).

1915 . I. The Na-dene Languages, a Preliminary Report (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 17, pp. 534-558, Lancaster, 1915).

1916. I. Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture, a Study in Method (Memoir 90, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, 1916). See also Boas, 191 6. II.

Saville, Marshall H.

1897. I. An Ancient Figure of Terra Cotta from the Valley of Mexico (Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 9, article , New York, 1897).

1907. I. The Antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador. Preliminary Report, vol 1. (Contributions to South American Archeology. The George G. Heye Expedition, New York, 1907).

1909. I. The Cruciform Structures of Mitla and Vicinity (Putnam Anniversary Volume, New York, 1909).

1910. I. The Antiquities of Manabi, Ecuador. Final Report. (Contributions to South American Archeology. The George G. Heye Expedition, New York, 1910).

Schmidt, Max.

1905. I. Indianerstudien in Zentral-Brasilien. Erlebnisse und Ethnologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in den Jahren 1900 bis 1901. Berlin, 1905.

Schrabisch, Max.

1909. I. Indian Rock-Shelters in Northern New Jersey and Southern New York (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 3, New York, 1909).

Schurtz, Heinrich.

1902. I. Altersklassen und Männerbunde, eine Darstellung der Grundformen der Gesellschaft. Berlin, 1902.

Seler, Eduard.

1904. I. Ancient Mexican Feather Ornaments (Bulletin 28, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1904).

Skinner, Alanson.

1909. I. Archæology of the New York Coastal Algonkin (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 3, New York, 1909).

1913. I. Social Life and Ceremonial Bundles of the Menomini Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 13, part 1, New York, 1913).

1915. I. Associations and Ceremonies of the Menomini Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 13, part 2, New York, 1915).

Smith, G. Elliot.

1915. I. Pre-Columbian Representations of the Elephant in America (Nature, vol. 96, pp. 340-341, 425, November, 1915).

1916. I. Pre-Columbian Representations of the Elephant in America (Nature, vol. 96, pp. 592-594, January, 1916).

Smith, Harlan I.

1899. I. Archæology of Lytton, British Columbia (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 2, part 3, New York, 1899).

1900. I. Archæology of the Thompson River Region (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 2, part 6, New York, 1900).

1903. I. Shell-heaps of the Lower Fraser River, British Columbia (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 4, part 4, New York, 1903).

1907. I. Archæology of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 4, part 6, New York, ).

1910. I. An Unknown Field in American Archæology (Bulletin, American Geographical Society, vol. 42, pp. 511-520, 1910).

1910. II. The Archæology of the Yakima Valley (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 6, part 1, New York, 1910).

19111. I. Prehistoric Ethnology of a Kentucky Site (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 6, part 2, New York, 191 1).

Solberg, O.

1907. I. Beitrage zur Vorgeschichte der Ost-Eskimo (Videnskabs-Selskabets Skrifter, II, Hist.-Filos. Klasse, Christiania, 1907).

Speck, Frank G.

1907. I. Some Comparative Traits of the Maskogian Languages (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 9, pp. 470-483, Lancaster, 1907).

1909. I. Ethnology of the Yuchi Indians (Anthropological Publications, University of Pennsylvania, vol. 1, no. 1, Philadelphia, 1909).

1914. I. The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonkian Art (Memoir 42, Geological Survey of Canada. Ottawa, 1914).

Spencer, Baldwin, and Gillen, F. J.

1899. I. The Native Tribes of Central Australia. London, 1899.

Spier, Leslie.

1916. I. New Data on the Trenton Argillite Culture (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 18, pp. 181–189, Lancaster, 1916).

Spinden, Herbert J.

1908. I. The Nez Percé Indians (Memoirs, American Anthropological Association, vol. 2, part 3, Lancaster, 1908).

1913. I. A Study of Maya Art. Its Subject Matter and Historical Development (Memoirs, Peabody Museum of American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 6, Cambridge, 1913).

1915. I. Notes on the Archæology of Salvador (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 17, pp. 446–487, Lancaster, 1915).

1917. I. Ancient Civilizations of Mexico and Central America (Handbook Series, American Museum of Natural History, New York, 1917).

Spinden, Herbert J., and Will, George F.

1906. I. The Mandans. A Study of their Culture, Archæology and Language (Papers, Peabody Museum of American Archæology and and Ethnology, vol. 3, no. 4, Cambridge, 1906).

Squier, E. G.

1853. I. Travels in Central America, Particularly in Nicaragua. With a Description of its Aboriginal Monuments, Scenery and People, their Languages, Institutions, Religion, etc. 2 vols. New York, 1853.

1877. I. Peru. Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas. New York, 1877.

Stefánsson, Vilhjálmur.

1914. I. The Stefánsson-Anderson Arctic Expedition of the American Museum: Preliminary Ethnological Report (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 14, part 1, New York, 1914).

Steffen, Max.

1883. I. Die Landwirtschaft bei den altamerikanischen Kulturvölker. Leipzig, 1883.

Steinbrueck, E. R. See Brower, J. V., 1904. I.

Sterns, Fred H.

1915. I. A Stratification of Cultures in Eastern Nebraska (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 17, pp. 121–127, Lancaster, 1915).

Stübel, A. See Uhle, Max, and Stübel, A.

Swanton, John R.

1905. I. The Social Organization of American Tribes (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 7, pp. 663–673, Lancaster, 1905).

1906. I. A Reconstruction of the Theory of Social Organization (Boas Anniversary Volume, pp. 166–178, New York, 1906).

1911. I. Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico (Bulletin 43, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1911).

1915. I. Linguistic Position of the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 17 pp. 17–40, Lancaster, 1915).
See also Dorsey, J. O., and Swanton, John R., 1912. I; Thomas, Cyrus, and Swanton, John R., 1911. I.

Teit, James.

1918. I. Traditions of the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia (Memoirs, American Folk-lore Society, vol. 6, 1898).

1900. I. The Thompson Indians of British Columbia (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 2, part 4, New York, 1900).

1906. I. The Lillooet Indians (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 4, part 5, New York, 1906).

1909. I. The Shuswap (Memoirs, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 4, part 7, Leiden and New York, 1909).

Thalbitzer, William. (Editor).

1914. I. The Ammassalik Eskimo. Part 1. Contributions to the Ethnology of the East Greenland Natives (Meddelelser om Grønland, vol. 39, Copenhagen, 1914).

Thomas, Cyrus.

1889. I. The Problem of the Ohio Mounds (Bulletin 8, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1889).

Thomas, Cyrus, and Swanton, John R.

1911. I. Indian Languages of Mexico and Central America and their Geographical Distribution (Bulletin 44, Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, 1911).

Thompson, Edward H.

1911. I. The Genesis of the Maya Arch (American Anthropologist, N. S., vol. 13, pp. 501–516, Lancaster, 1911).

Thomson, Arthur.

1899. I. On the Treatment and Utilization of Anthropological Data. III. Racial Proportions (Knowledge, vol. 22, pp. 125–128, London, 1899).

Tozzer, Alfred M.

1907. I. A Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones (Report of the Fellow in American Archæology, 1902–1905, Archæological Institute of America, New York, 1907).

Tylor, Edward B.

1889. I. Primitive Culture. Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Languages, Art and Custom. 2 vols. New York, 1889.

Tylor, Edward B.

1889. II. A Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions, etc. (Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vol. 18, pp. 245–269, 1889).

Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization. New York, no date.

Uhle, Max.

1903. I. Pachacamac. Report of the William Pepper, M.D., LL.D. Peruvian Expedition of 1896 (University of Pennsylvania, Department of Archæology, 1903).

1913. I. Die Muschelhügel von Ancon, Peru (Proceedings, International Congress of Americanists, London, 1913).

Uhle, Max, and Stübel, A.

1892. I. Die Ruinenstätte von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des Alten Peru. Breslau, 1892.

de la Vega, Garcilasso.

1688. I. The Royal Commentaries of Peru. Translated by Sir Paul Ricaut. London, 1688.

Volk, Ernest.

1911. I. The Archæology of the Delaware Valley (Papers, Peabody Museum of American Archæology and Ethnology, vol. 5, Cambridge, 1911).

Von den Steinen, Karl.

1897. I. Unter den Naturvölkern Zentral-Brasiliens. Berlin, 1897.

Waterman, T. T.

1914. I. The Explanatory Element in the Folk-tales of the North-American Indians (Journal of American Folk-Lore, vol. 27, pp. 1–54, Lancaster, 1914).

Webster, Hutton.

1908. I. Primitive Secret Societies. A Study in Early Politics and Religion. New York, 1908).

Whiffen, Thomas.

1915. I. The Northwest Amazons. Notes of Some Months spent among Cannibal Tribes. New York, 1915.

Will, George F. See Spinden, Herbert J., and Will, George F.

Willoughby, Charles C.

1905. I. Dress and Ornaments of the New England Indians (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 7, pp. 499–508, Lancaster, 1905).

1906. I. Houses and Gardens of the New England Indians (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 8, pp. 115–132, Lancaster, 1906).

Wilson, Gilbert L.

1917. I. Agriculture of the Hidatsa Indians, an Indian Interpretation (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1917).

Wilson, N. L., and Atkinson, Alfred.

1915. I. Corn in Montana. History, Characteristics, Adaptation (Montana Agricultural College Experiment Station, Bozeman, Montana, 1915).

Wilson, Thomas.

1896. I. The Swastika, the Earliest Known Symbol, and its Migrations; with Observations on the Migration of Certain Industries in Prehistoric Times (Report, United States National Museum for 1894, Washington, 1896).

Wintemberg, W. J.

1901. I. Indian Village Sites in the Counties of Oxford and Waterloo (Annual Archæological Report, 1900, Appendix, Report Minister of Education Ontario, Toronto, 1901).

Wissler, Clark.

1904. I. Decorative Art of the Sioux Indians (Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 18, part 3, New York, 1904).

1909. I. Notes Concerning New Collections (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 2, part 2, New York, 1909). Editor.

1910. I. Material Culture of the Blackfoot Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 5, part 1, New York, 1910).

1911. I. The Social Life of the Blackfoot Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 7, part 1, New York, 1911).

1912. I. North American Indians of the Plains (Handbook Series, American Museum of Natural History, no. 1, New York, 1912).

1912. II. Ceremonial Bundles of the Blackfoot Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 7, part 2, New York, 1912).

1912. III. Societies and Ceremonial Associations in the Oglala Division of the Teton-Dakota (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 11, part 1, New York, 1912).

1912. IV. The Psychological Aspects of the Culture-Environment Relation (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 14, pp. 217–225, Lancaster, 1912).

1914. I. The Influence of the Horse in the Development of Plains Culture (American Anthropologist, N. S. vol. 16, pp. 1–25, Lancaster, 1914).

1915. I. Riding Gear of the North American Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 17, part 1, New York, 1915).

1915. II. Costumes of the Plains Indians (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 17, part 2, New York, 1915).

1916. I. General Discussion of Shamanistic and Dancing Societies (Anthropological Papers, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 11, part 12, New York, 1916).

1916. II. Aboriginal Maize Culture as a Typical Culture-Complex (The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 21, no. 5, Chicago, 1916).

Wood, J. G.

1876. I. The Uncivilized Races of Men in All Countries of the World; being a Comprehensive Account of their Manners and Customs, and of their Physical, Social, Mental, Moral and Religious Characteristics. 2 vols. Hartford, 1876.

Zon, Raphael.

1916. I. South American Timber Resources and their Relation to the World's Timber Supply (The Geographical Review, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 256–266, October, 1916).