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Index:The American Indian.djvu

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The American Indian.djvu

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 i  ii  —  —  iii  iv  v  vi  vii  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  xiv 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435

CONTENTS

Page
Introduction 1
CHAPTER I
The Food Areas of the New World 7
 Hunting Areas 9
 The Salmon Area 14
 The Area of Wild Seeds 16
 The Agricultural Areas 17
 General Discussion 23
 Distribution of Narcotics 28
CHAPTER II
Domestication of Animals and Methods of Transportation 32
 Canoes and Navigation 41
CHAPTER III
The Textile Arts 45
 Spinning 46
 Netting 49
 Basketry 50
 Cloth 55
 Feather-work 61
 Clothing 61
CHAPTER IV
The Ceramic Arts 67
 Processes of Manufacture 69
 Pottery Forms 72
 Pottery Decoration 75
CHAPTER V
Decorative Designs 76
 Textile Designs 76
 Distribution of Designs 79
 Symbolism 95
CHAPTER VI
Architecture 100
CHAPTER VII
Work in Stone and Metals 115
 Types of Artifacts 118
 Mines and Quarries 123
 Metal Work 124
CHAPTER VIII
Special Inventions 127
CHAPTER IX
The Fine Arts 134
 Literature 137
 Music 145
CHAPTER X
Social Grouping 149
 The Local Group 153
 Clans and Gentes 154
 Dual Divisions 158
 Relationship Systems 159
 Taboos and Social Privileges 161
 Age Grades and Societies 162
 Totemic Features 163
CHAPTER XI
Social Regulation 166
 Conceptions of Property and Inheritance 173
 Marriage Regulations 175
 Education and General Discipline 177
CHAPTER XII
Ritualistic Observances 180
 Supernatural Guardians and Totemism 185
 Shamanism 187
 The Personal Relation in Ritualism 191
CHAPTER XIII
Mythology 194
 Mythology and Religious Conceptions 198
 Unity of New World Culture 202
CHAPTER XIV
The Classification of Social Groups according to their Cultures 204
 The Historic Tribes 206
 North American Culture Areas 206
  1. The Plains Area 206
  2. Plateau Area 209
  3. California Area 212
  4. North Pacific Coast Area 213
  5. Eskimo Area 215
  6. Mackenzie Area 217
  7. Eastern Woodland Area 219
  8. Southeastern Area 222
  9. Southwestern Area 224
 10. The Nahua Area 227
 South American Culture Areas 229
 11. The Chibcha Area 229
 12. The Inca Area 231
 13. The Guanaco Area 232
 14. Amazon Area 236
 15. The Antilles 242
 Culture Centers 242
CHAPTER XV
Archæological Classification 245
 North America 245
  1. The North Atlantic Area 245
  2. South Atlantic Area 249
  3. The Iroquoian Area 250
  4. The Mississippi-Ohio Area 252
  5. The Great Lake Area 253
  6. The Plains 254
  7. The Pueblo Area 256
  8. California 258
  9. The Columbia Basin 259
 10. North Pacific Coast Area 260
 11. The Arctic Area 260
 12. The Canadian Area 260
 13. Northern Mexico 260
 14. Central Mexico 261
 15. State of Oaxaca 261
 16. Yucatan 261
 17. Panama 261
 18. The Antilles 263
 South America 264
 19. Colombia 264
 20. Ecuador 265
 21. Peru 265
 22. Chile 266
 23. The Atlantic Highlands 267
 24. Patagonia 268
CHAPTER XVI
Chronology of Cultures 270
 Chronologies determined by Stratification 273
 Inapplicability of Old World Chronology 275
 Inferential Chronologies 276
CHAPTER XVII
Linguistic Classification 280
 Comparative Phonetics 286
 Comparative Morphology 289
 Distribution of Stocks 294
CHAPTER XVIII
Somatic Classification 298
 Breadth of Face 299
 Flattening of the Femur 300
 Head Form 301
 Orbits and Nasal Skeleton 307
 Bodily Proportions 309
 Summary of Somatic Characters 309
 Relations to Mankind in General 310
 Grouping by Somatic Characters 320
 Chronological Types 323
CHAPTER XIX
Correlation of Classifications 327
 Linguistics and Culture 331
 Somatic Correlations 333
 General Relations of Culture, Linguistics, and Somatology 334
 The Migration Factor 334
 The Influence of Environment 337
CHAPTER XX
Theories of Culture Origins 342
 Culture Trait Association 350
 The Historical Conception of Culture 352
CHAPTER XXI
New World Origins 355
APPENDIX
Linguistic Tables and Bibliography 367
 Linguistic Stocks of the United States and Canada 369
 Linguistic Stocks of Mexico and Central America 378
 Linguistic Stocks of South America 381
 Bibliography 387
Index 413


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Ruin known as the 'House of the Magician' Frontispiece
  1. Food Areas of the New World 8
  2. Cree Indians Driving Bison 11
  3. Patagonians Hunting the Guanaco 13
  4. Iroquois Woman Pounding Maize into Meal 19
  5. The Distribution of Maize and Manioc 24
  6. Pueblo Indian Planting Maize 26
  7. Cultivating Maize and Squashes 26
  8. Distribution of Coca and Tobacco 29
  9. Distribution of Animal Transport 33
 10. Eskimo Dog Sledge 36
 11. Indians of the Bison Area on the March 36
 12. Various Methods of Using the Tumpline 40
 13. Types of Canoes 42
 14. Ancient Mexican and Egyptian Spinners 48
 15. Navajo Woman Spinning 48
 16. Basketry Weaves 51
 17. Distribution of Types of Basketry 53
 18. Ojibway Weaving Frame 56
 19. A Navajo Weaver 56
 20. Distribution of Weaving 57
 21. Cape of Sagebrush Bark 59
 22. Peruvian Feather Poncho 61
 23. Types of Costume and their Distribution 62
 24. Forms of Footwear 64
 25. A Pueblo Indian Potter 67
 26. Distribution of Pottery 68
 27. Lower Mississippi Pottery 70
 28. South Atlantic Pottery 70
 29. North Atlantic Pottery 71
 30. Pottery from Southwestern United States 72
 31. Mexican Pottery 72
 32. Central American Pottery 73
 33. Peruvian Pottery 74
 34. Pottery from Eastern South America 74
 35. Types of Textile Design 78
 36. Types of Prehistoric Peruvian Textile Designs 79
 37. Decorative Design Areas 80
 38. Types of North American Basketry 81
 39. Beaded and Painted Designs 82
 40. The Decorative Art of the Plains Indians 85
 41. Design Elements 85
 42. Decorations on Birchbark 86
 43. Art of the North Pacific Coast Indians 89
 44. Prehistoric Textile Designs, Maya 90
 45. Mexican Textile Designs 91
 46. A Series of Peruvian Designs 92
 47. A Peruvian Poncho 94
 48. A Series of Designs and their Names 96
 49. True Symbols 98
 50. Cross-Section of the Temple of the Cross 100
 51. Groundplan of the House of the Nuns 102
 52. Elevations and Groundplans, Yucatan 103
 53. Section of the Hall of the Six Columns, Mexico 105
 54. Reconstruction of Pueblo Bonito 106
 55. Pebbles Showing the Process of Abrading 116
 56. Pieces of Worked Nephrite 117
 57. Common Types of Arrow-Head 119
 58. Knives of Copper from the Eskimo and Inca 121
 59. Methods of Drilling 128
 60. Wooden Slat Armor 132
 61. Two Figures from Palenque 135
 62. Statues of the Chacmool Type 136
 63. A Sculptured Turtle at Quirigua 136
 64. Life Size Pottery Figure 137
 65. Distribution of Sculpture 138
 66. Distribution of Clans and Gentes 156
 67. Culture Areas 205
 68. The Plains Indian Culture Area 207
 69. Plains Indian Life 208
 70. The Chilkat Indians 214
 71. Pueblo Indian Life 226
 72. A Patagonian Shelter Tent 233
 73. Scenes from Fuegian Life 234
 74. Distribution of Forests in South America 238
 75. A Caraja Village in Central Brazil 241
 76. Archæological Areas 246
 77. Types of Stone Implements, North Atlantic Area 247
 78. Section of Rock-Shelter 248
 79. Finch's Rock-Shelter 248
 80. Iroquois Archæological Types 251
 81. Problematic Forms 252
 82. Archæological Types of the Mississippi-Ohio Area 252
 83. The Fluted Ax and the Spud 255
 84. Ancient Maya Cities 262
 85. Linguistic Stocks in the United States and Canada 282
 86. Linguistic Stocks in Mexico and Central America 284
 87. Linguistic Stocks in South America 288
 88. Consolidation of California Stocks 293
 89. North American Types 298
 90. Brazilian Types 299
 91. Patagonian Types 299
 92. The Cephalic Index 302
 93. Skulls from North and South America 304
 94. Types from Central Brazil 309
 95. Diagrammatic Representation of Average Bodily Forms 310
 96. Bodily Forms from Various Races 311
 97. Lines of Dispersal for the Primates 315
 98. Living and Extinct Groups of Primates 315
 99. Dispersal of Mankind 318
100. Somatic Areas 324
101. Superposition of Culture Areas 330
102. Distribution of Men's Societies among the Plains Indians 349
103. North American Indian Tribes 435
104. South American Indian Tribes 435