An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions/Pinaceae

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Family 1.   PinàceaeLindl.Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, 313.   1836.
Pine Family.   Conifers.

Resinous trees or shrubs, mostly with evergreen narrow entire or scale-like leaves, the wood uniform in texture, without tracheae, the tracheids marked by large depressed disks, the pollen-sacs and ovules borne in separate spikes (aments). Perianth none. Stamens several together, subtended by a scale; filaments more or less united; pollen-sacs (anthers) 2-several-celled, variously dehiscent; pollengrains often provided with two lateral inflated sacs. Ovules with two integuments, orthotropous or amphitropous, borne solitary or several together on the surface of a scale, which is subtended by a bract in most genera. Fruit a cone with numerous, several or few, woody, papery or fleshy scales; sometimes berrylike. Seeds wingless or winged. Endosperm fleshy or starchy, copious. Embryo straight, slender. Cotyledons 2 or several.

About 25 genera and 240 species of wide distribution, most abundant in temperate regions.

Scales of the cone numerous (except in Larix); leaf-buds scaly.
Cone-scales woody; leaves needle-shaped, 2-5 in a sheath. 1. Pinus.
Cone-scales thin; leaves linear-filiform, scattered or fascicled, not in sheaths.
Leaves fascicled on very short branchlets, deciduous. 2. Larix.
Leaves scattered, persistent.
Cones pendulous; leaves jointed to short persistent sterigmata.
Leaves tetragonal, sessile. 3. Picea.
Leaves flat, short-petipled. 4. Tsuga.
Cones erect; sterigmata inconspicuous or none. 5. Abies.
Scales of the cone few (3-12); leaf-buds naked.
Cone-scales spiral, thick; leaves deciduous. 6. Taxodium.
Cone-scales opposite; leaves persistent.
Cone oblong, its scales not peltate. 7. Thuja.
Cone globose, its scales peltate. 8. Chamaecyparis.
Fruit fleshy, berry-like, a modified cone. 9. Juniperus.


1.   Pinus[Tourn.] L.Sp. Pl. 1000.   1753.

Evergreen trees with two kinds of leaves, the primary ones linear or scale-like, deciduous, the secondary ones forming the ordinary foliage, narrowly linear, arising from the axils of the former in fascicles of 2-5 (rarely solitary in some western species), subtended by the bud-scales, some of which are united to form a sheath. Staminate aments borne at the bases of shoots of the season, the clusters of stamens spirally arranged, each in the axil of a minute scale; filaments very short; anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent. Ovule-bearing aments solitary or clustered, borne on the twigs of the preceding season, composed of numerous imbricated minute bracts, each with an ovule-bearing scale in its axil, ripening into a large cone, which matures the following autumn, its scales elongating and becoming woody. Seeds 2 on the base of each scale, winged above, the testa crustaceous. [Name Celtic. The popular names of the species are much confused.]

About 100 species, natives of the northern hemisphere. In addition to the following, 25 others occur in southern and western North America. Type species: Pinus sylvestris L., of Europe. The group of which Pinus Strobus L. is the type is regarded by some authors as a distinct genus.

Leaves 5 in a sheath; cone-scales little thickened at the tip. 1. P. Strobus.
Leaves 2 or 3 in a sheath; cone-scales much thickened at the tip.
Cones terminal or subterminal.
Leaves 2 in a sheath; cones 1½'-2½' long, their scales pointless. 2. P. resinosa.
Leaves 3 in a sheath; cones 4'-10' long, their scales prickle-tipped.
Cones light, 6'-10' long; leaves 10'-16' long. 3. P. palustris.
Cones very heavy and woody, 3'-4½' long; leaves 3'-6' long. 4. P. scopulorum.
Cones lateral.
Cone-scales with neither spine nor prickle; leaves in 2's. 5. P. Banksiana.
Cone-scales tipped with a spine or prickle.
Leaves some or all of them in 2's.
Cones 1½'-2½' long, their scales tipped with prickles.
Leaves stout, 1½'-2½' long. 6. P. virginiana.
Leaves slender, 3'-5' long. 7. P. echinata.
Cones 3½'-5' long, their scales tipped with very stout short spines. 8. P. pungens.
Leaves in 3's (very rarely some in 2's or 4*s).
Cones oblong-conic; leaves 6'-10' long; old sheaths 6"-10" long. 9. P. Taeda.
Cones ovoid.
Leaves 3'-5' long; cone-scales with stiff prickles. 10. P. rigida.
Leaves 6'-10' long; cone-scales with small slender deciduous or obsolete prickles. 11. P. serotina.


BB-0131 Pinus strobus.png 1.  Pinus Stròbus  L.
White Pine.   Weymouth Pine.   Fig. 131.

Pinus Strobus L. Sp. PI. 1001.   1753.

A large forest tree, reaching a maximum height of over 225° and a trunk diameter of 101°, the bark nearly smooth except when old, the branches horizontal, verticillate. Leaves 5 in a sheath, very slender, pale green and glaucous, 3'-5' long, with a single fibro-vascular bundle, the dorsal side devoid of stomata; sheath loose, deciduous; ovule-bearing aments terminal, peduncled; cones subterminal, drooping, cylindric, often slightly curved, 4'-6' long, about 1' thick when the scales are closed, resinous; scales but slightly thickened at the apex, obtuse and rounded or nearly truncate, without a terminal spine or prickle.

In woods, often forming dense forests, Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Delaware, along the Alleghanies to Georgia and to Illinois and Iowa. Ascends to 4300 ft. in North Carolina and to 2500 ft. in the Adirondacks. Wood light brown or nearly white, soft, compact, one of the most valuable of timbers; weight per cubic foot, 24 lbs. June. Called also Soft, Deal, Northern or Spruce-pine.


2.  Pinus resinosaAit.
Canadian Pine.   Red Pine.   Fig. 132.
BB-0132 Pinus resinosa.png

Pinus resinosa Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 367. 1789.

A tall forest tree, reaching a maximum height of about 150° and a trunk diameter of 5°, the bark reddish, rather smooth, flaky when old. Leaves 2 in each sheath, slender, dark green, 4–6 long, with 2 fibro-vascular bundles; sheaths 6–12 long when young; staminate aments 6–9 long; cones subterminal spreading, oval-conic, –2½ long, usually less than 1' thick while the scales are closed; scales thickened at the apex, obtuse, rounded and devoid of spine or prickle.

In woods, Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Minnesota. Wood compact, not strong, light red; weight per cubic foot 30 lbs. May-June. Called also hard- and norway-pine.


BB-0133 Pinus palustris.png 3.  Pinus palustrisMill.
Long-leaved Pine.   Georgia Pine.   Fig. 133.

Pinus palustris Mill. Card. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 14. 1768.
Pinus australis Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Am. 1: 64. pl. 6. 1810.

A large tree, sometimes attaining a height of 120° and a trunk diameter of 5°, the bark nearly smooth. Leaves in 3's, slender, dark green, clustered at the ends of the branches, much elongated, 8–16 long, with 2 fibrovascular bundles; sheaths 1–1¼ long; buds long; staminate aments rose-purple, 2–3½ long, very conspicuous; cones terminal, spreading or erect, conic-cylindric, 6–10 long, 2–3 thick before the scales open; scales thickened at the apex, which is provided with a transverse ridge bearing a short central recurved prickle.

In sandy, mostly dry soil, often forming extensive forests, southern Virginia to Alabama, Florida and Texas, mostly near the coast. Wood hard, strong, compact, light red or orange; weight per cubic foot 44 lbs. This tree is the chief source of our turpentine, tar, rosin, and their derivatives. Also known as Southern, Yellow, Hard or Pitch Pine; Fat, Heart, Turpentine-pine; Virginia, Florida, Texas Yellow and Long-straw pine; Pine-broom and White Rosin-tree. March-April.


4.  Pinus scopulòrum  (Engelm.) Lemmon.
Rock Pine.   Fig. 134.
BB-0134 Pinus scopulorum.png

P. ponderosa scopulorum Engelm. in Brewer & Watson, Bot. Cal. 2: 126.  1880.

P. scopulorum Lemmon Gard. & For. 10: 183.  1897.

A large tree, attaining a maximum height of about 120° and a trunk diameter of 3½°. Branches widely spreading or somewhat drooping; bark nearly black, scaly; leaves in 3's (rarely some of them in 2's), rather stout, 3'-6' long; cones subterminal, very dense and heavy, ovoid-conic, 3'-4' long, 1½'-2½' thick; scales thickened at the apex, the transverse ridge prominent, with a short slender recurved prickle.

South Dakota to Nebraska, Texas, Utah and Arizona. Wood hard, strong, light brown ; weight per cubic foot 29 Ibs. United in first edition with Pinus ponderosa Dougl.  April-May.  Long-leaved, Red, Bull, Western pitch, and Gambier Parry's-pine.


BB-0135 Pinus banksiana.png 5.  Pinus BanksiànaLamb.
Labrador Pine.   Gray Pine.   Fig. 135.

Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 366. 1789.
Pinus Banksiana Lamb. Pinus, 1: 7. pl. 3. 1803.
Pinus divaricata Gordon, Pinetum, 163. 1858.

A slender tree, usually 40°-60° high, but sometimes reaching 100°, and a trunk diameter of 3°, the branches spreading, the bark becoming flaky. Leaves in 2's, stout, stiff, more or less curved, spreading or oblique, light green, crowded along the branches, seldom over 1' long; fibre-vascular bundles 2; cones commonly very numerous, lateral, oblong-conic, usually upwardly curved, 1'-2' long, 9"-15" thick when mature; scales thickened at the end, the transverse ridge a mere line with a minute central point in place of spine or prickle at maturity; young scales spiny-tipped.

In sandy soil, sometimes forming extensive forests, Nova Scotia to Hudson Bay and the Northwest Territory, south to Maine, northern New York, northern Illinois and Minnesota. Wood soft, weak, compact, light brown; weight per cubic foot 27 Ibs.  May-June.  Also called Hudson Bay Pine, Northern scrub-pine; Black, Bank's-, Shore-, Jack- and Rock-pine; Unlucky-tree.


6.  Pinus virginiànaMill.
Jersey Pine.   Scrub Pine.   Fig. 136.
BB-0136 Pinus virginiana.png

Pinus virginiana Mill. Card. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 9. 1768.
Pinus inops Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 367. 1789.

A slender tree, usually small, but sometimes attaining a height of 110° and a trunk diameter of 3°, the old bark dark colored, flaky, the branches spreading or drooping, the twigs glaucous.   Leaves in 2's, dark green, rather stout and stiff, 1½'-2½' long, with 2 fibro-vascular bundles; young sheaths rarely more than 2½" long; cones commonly few, lateral, recurved when young, spreading when old, oblong-conic, 1½'-2½' long, their scales somewhat thickened at the apex, the low transverse ridge with a short more or less recurved prickle.

In sandy soil, Long Island, New York to Georgia, Alabama and southern Indiana and Tennessee, sometimes forming forests. Ascends to 3300 ft. in Virginia. Wood soft, weak, brittle, light orange; weight per cubic foot 33 Ibs.  April-May.  Called also Short-shucks, Short-leaved or Short-shot Pine; Spruce, Cedar, Nigger and River-pine.


BB-0137 Pinus echinata.png 7.  Pinus echinàtaMill.
Yellow Pine.   Spruce Pine.   Fig. 137.

Pinus echinata Mill. Gard. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 12.  1768.

Pinus mitis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 204.  1803.

A forest tree, reaching a maximum height of about 120° and a trunk diameter of °, the branches spreading, the old bark rough in plates.  Leaves some in 2's, some in 3's, slender, not stiff, dark green, 3°–5° long, spreading when mature; fibro-vascular bundles 2; young sheaths 5–8 long; cones lateral, oblong-conic, about 2 long, usually less than 1 thick when the scales are closed; scales thickened at the apex, marked with a prominent transverse ridge and armed with a slender small nearly straight early deciduous prickle.

In sandy soil, southern New York to Florida, west to Illinois, Kansas and Texas. Wood heavy, strong, orange; one of the most valuable timbers; weight per cubic foot 38 lbs.  May-June.  Also called Short-leaved or Short-shot Pine, and Bull, Carolina, Pitch, and Slash-pine.


8.  Pinus púngensLambert.
Table-Mountain Pine.   Hickory Pine.   Fig. 138.
BB-0138 Pinus pungens.png

Pinus pungens Lambert; Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Am. 1: 61. pl. 5.  1810.

  Called also Prickly pine, Southern Mountain-pine.


BB-0139 Pinus taeda.png 9.  Pinus Taèda  L.
Loblolly Pine.   Old-field Pine.   Fig. 139.

Pinus Taeda L. Sp. Pl. 1000.  1753.


10.  Pinus rígida  Mill.
Pitch Pine.   Torch Pine.   Fig. 140.
BB-0140 Pinus rigida.png

Pinus rigida Mill. Card. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 10.  1768.


BB-0141 Pinus serotina.png 11.  Pinus serótina  Michx.
Pond Pine.   Fig. 141.

P. serotina Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 105. 1803.

A tree of ponds and swamps, reaching a maximum height of about 75° and a trunk diameter of 3°, its trunk usually short, the bark fissured into small plates. Leaves in 3's (rarely some in 4's), pale green, glaucous, 6'-10' long, with 2 fibro-vascular bundles; sheaths about ½' long; cones ovoid to globularovoid, about 2½' long, the scales bearing a slender, incurved, usually deciduous prickle.

Atlantic coastal plain, southern New Jersey; Virginia to Florida. Wood soft, brittle, coarsegrained; weight per cubic foot about 49 lbs.

Pinus sylvestris L., the Scotch Pine, of northern Europe, which resembles P. resinosa Ait. in having two needles to each sheath and unarmed cone-scales, is much planted for ornament and has become established on the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts.


2.   Larix[Tourn.] Adans.Fam. Pl. 480.   1763.

Tall trees with horizontal or ascending branches and small narrowly linear deciduous leaves, without sheaths, in fascicles on short lateral scaly bud-like branchlets. Aments short, lateral, monoecious, the staminate from leafless buds ; the ovule-bearing buds commonly leafy at the base, and the aments red. Anther-sacs 2-celled, the sacs transversely or obliquely dehiscent. Pollen-grains simple. Cones ovoid or cylindric, small, erect, their scales thin, spirally arranged, obtuse, persistent. Ovules 2 on the base of each scale, ripening into 2 reflexed somewhat winged seeds. [Name ancient, probably Celtic.]

About 9 species, natives of the north temperate and subarctic zones. Besides the following, 2 others occur in western North America. Type species: Larix Larix (L.) Karst., of Europe, much planted for ornament, and reported as established in Connecticut.

1.  Larix larícina  (Du Roi) Koch.
American Larch.   Tamarack.   Fig. 142.
BB-0142 Larix laricina.png

Pinus laricina Du Roi, Obs. Bot. 49.  1771.

Pinus pendula Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 369.  1789.

Larix americana Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2 : 203.  1803.

Larix laricina Koch, Dendrol. 2 : Part 2, 263.  1873.

A slender tree, attaining a maximum height of about 100° and a trunk diameter of 3°, the branches spreading, the bark close or at length slightly scaly.  Leaves pale green, numerous in the fascicles, 5–12 long, about ¼ wide, deciduous in late autumn; fascicles borne on short lateral branchlets about 2 long; cones short-peduncled at the ends of similar branchlets, ovoid, obtuse, 6–8 long, composed of about 12 suborbicular thin scales, their margins entire or slightly lacerate.

In swampy woods and about margins of lakes, Newfoundland to the Northwest Territory, south to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana and Minnesota. Wood hard, strong, very durable, resinous, light brown; weight per cubic ft. 39 lbs.  March-April.  Called also Hackmatack, Hackmak, Black or Red Larch, Juniper Cypress.


3.   PiceaLink,   Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin,   1827-1830.

Evergreen conical trees, with linear short 4-sided leaves spreading in all directions, jointed at the base to short persistent sterigmata, on which they are sessile, falling away in drying, the bare twigs appearing covered with low truncate projections. Leaf-buds scaly. Staminate aments axillary, nearly sessile ; anthers 2-celled, the sacs longitudinally dehiscent, the connective prolonged into an appendage; pollen-grains compound ; ovule-bearing aments, terminal, ovoid or oblong; ovules 2 on the base of each scale, reflexed, ripening into 2 more or less winged seeds. Cones ovoid to oblong, obtuse, pendulous, their scales numerous, spirally arranged, thin, obtuse, persistent. [Name ancient.]

About 18 species, of the north temperate and subarctic zones. Besides the following, 5 others occur in the northwestern parts of North America. Type species: Picea Abies (L.) Karst., of Europe, which is much planted for ornament and is reported as spontaneous in Connecticut.

Twigs and sterigmata glabrous, glaucous; cones oblong-cylindric. 1. P. canadensis.
Twigs pubescent, brown; cones ovoid or oval.
Leaves glaucous; cones persistent. 2. P. mariana.
Leaves not glaucous; cones deciduous. 3. P. rtibens.


4.   TsùgaCarr.,   Trait. Conif. 185.   1855.

Evergreen trees with slender horizontal or drooping branches, flat narrowly linear scattered short-petioled leaves, spreading and appearing 2-ranked, jointed to very short sterigmata and falling away in drying. Leaf-buds scaly. Staminate aments axillary, short or subglobose; anthers 2-celled, the sacs transversely dehiscent, the connective slightly produced beyond them; pollen-grains simple. Ovule-bearing aments terminal, the scales about as long as the bracts, each bearing 2 reflexed ovules on its base. Cones small, ovoid or oblong, pendulous, their scales scarcely woody, obtuse, persistent. Seeds somewhat winged. [Name Japanese.]

About 7 species; the following in North America, 2 in northwestern North America, 3 or 4 Asiatic. Type species: Tsuga Sieboldi Carr. (Abies Tsuga Sieb. & Zucc.) of Japan.

Cones 6–10 long, their scales remaining appressed. 1. T. canadensis.
Cones 1–1¼ long, their scales widely spreading at maturity. 2. T. caroliniana.


5.   Abies   [Tourn.] Hill,   Brit. Herb. 509.   1756.


6.   TaxodiumL. C. Rich.,   Ann. Mus. Paris, 16: 298.   1810.


7.   ThujaL.,   Sp. Pl., 1002.   1753.


8.   ChamaecýparisSpach,   Hist. Veg. 11: 329.   1842.


9.   JuníperusL.,   Sp. Pl., 1002.   1753.

Evergreen trees or shrubs with opposite or verticillate, subulate or scale-like, sessile leaves, commonly of 2 kinds, and dioecious or sometimes monoecious, small short axillary or terminal aments.  Leaf-buds naked.  Staminate aments oblong or ovoid; anthers 2-6-celled, each sac 2-valved.  Ovule-bearing aments of a few opposite somewhat fleshy scales, or these rarely verticillate in 3's, each bearing a single erect ovule or rarely 2.  Cones globose, berry-like by the coalescence of the fleshy scales, containing 1-6 wingless bony seeds.  [Name Celtic.]

About 40 species, mostly natives of the northern hemisphere.  Besides the following, 10 others occur in the western parts of North America.  Type species: Juniperus communis L.